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Second-language Acquisition and models of instruction

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Title: Second-language Acquisition and models of instruction


1
Second-language Acquisition and models of
instruction
  • 0951075 ???

2
Abstract
  • The chapter attempts to define the relevant terms
    relating to the CALL based on the hypothesis of
    how second language are learned they are as
    following
  • Second-language Acquisition
  • Comprehensible input and output
  • Behaviorism Programmed instruction
  • Mastery
    learning
  • Constructivism

3
Index of Chapter5
  • 5.1 Concepts in SLA, Behaviorism and
    Constructivism
  • 5.2 Comprehensible input and output
  • 5.3 Criticism of comprehensible input and
    output theory
  • 5.5 Behaviorist models in instruction
  • 5.5.1 Programmed instruction
  • 5.5.2 Mastery learning
  • 5.5.3 Summarizing behaviorism
  • 5.6 Constructivism models in instruction
  • 5.6.1 Schema theory
  • 5.6.2 How Constructivism differs from
    Behaviorism
  • 5.6.3 Contribution of Vygotsky
  • 5.7 The role of collaboration and negotiation of
    meaning in the two models

4
Concepts in SLA, Behaviorism and Constructivism
  • The definition of SLA
  • Negotiation of meanings
  • Pica on negotiation of meaning/on theory in SLA
  • SLA theory is in its infancy

5
Comprehensible input and output
  • Ellis on comprehensible input
  • --Access to comprehensible input
  • --Interaction
  • Different researchers argue differently
  • Swain called out the importance of comprehensible
    output
  • its not enough to see and hear language in
    use, but learners need the chance to use target
    language.

6
Characteristics of optimal input CALL Problem
  • Characteristics
  • --1. comprehensible
  • --2. interesting/authentic
  • --3. not grammatically sequenced
  • --4. in sufficient quantity
  • CALL Problem
  • -to ensure the input is too easy or hard for
    learners
  • CAT (computer-adaptive testing)
  • http//edres.org/scripts/cat/startcat.htm

7
Criticism of comprehensible input and output
theory
  • 1. Comprehensible input and output theory focus
    on fluency at expense of accuracy
  • 2. Intuitive aspects are not quantitatively
    measured
  • 3. Impossible challenge for computer to make
    decision on what to be tolerated and what to be
    corrected.

8
Behaviorist models in instruction
  • Programmed instruction--presenting new subject to
    students in a graded sequence of controlled
    steps.
  • http//www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/p
    rogrammed_instruction.html
  • http//academic.uofs.edu/department/psych/PI/frame
    s.html
  • Mastery learning(????)-- idea of teaching should
    organize learning through ordered steps and
    engages learners in multiple instructional
    methods, learning levels and multiple cognitive
    thinking types.

9
Summarizing behaviorism
  • Features
  • 1. Subject should be broken into to
    instructional steps and rules
  • 2. Simple to complex with frequent review
  • 3. Repetition on failure until one master it.
  • Criticism
  • 1. Doesnt fit with highly complex activity of
    SLA
  • 2. Repetitive drills are boring, not true
    picture of learners mind

10
Constructivism models in instruction
  • The main idea of constructivism suggests learning
    is a process by which learners construct concepts
    by making use of ones own experiences
  • Schema theory
  • --Discourse is interpreted according to ones
    background knowledge
  • Mind map software
  • http//www.inspiration.com
  • http//www.learn4good.com/games/
  • http//www.magickeys.com/books/farm/page1.html

11
How Constructivism differs from Behaviorism
  • Behaviorism assumes that learners mind is a
    blank slate, waiting to be written on.
    Constructivism assumes that learners comes to the
    classroom with background knowledge and encourage
    learners to go beyond the simple collection and
    memorization.
  • Collaboration and negotiation of meaning are two
    major ideas of Constructivism.

12
Contribution of Vygotsky
  • ZPD (zone of proximal development)?????
  • The distance between a learner's current or
    actual ability and potential skills aimed by
    teacher guideline or peer collaboration.
  • CALL implication
  • Interaction between social level and
    individual level.

13
Conclusion
  • The chapter provides theoretical background of
    behaviorism and constructivism with application
    of CALL and resulting methods, including
    programmed instruction and mastery learning.
    Also, constructivism makes use of schema theory
    to facilitate collaboration and negotiation
    meaning.
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