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POETRY Poetry and Prose. Sound Patterning. Prosody. Rhymes. Stanza Forms Poetry and Verse Poetry is one of the subcategories of literature along with drama and fiction. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Poetry and Prose. Sound Patterning. Prosody.
    Rhymes. Stanza Forms

Poetry and Verse
  • Poetry is one of the subcategories of literature
  • with drama and fiction. In this sense by poetry
  • poetry is meant.
  • Metrical poetry, i.e. verse, differs from prose
  • that the former is rhythmically organized speech
  • down to the level of syllables, whereas the
    latter is
  • either orderless or follows ordering patterns
  • than syllabic principles.

  • Prose rhythm may use repetitions, parallels of
  • words, syntactical units, grammar structures,
  • sentence length, semantic structures.
  • Prose rhythm does not follow any preset
  • pattern.

Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice (1813) from
Chapter 1
  • It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a
    single man in
  • possession of a good fortune must be in want of a
  • However little known the feelings or views of
    such a man may
  • be on his first entering a neighbourhood, this
    truth is so well
  • fixed in the minds of the surrounding families,
    that he is
  • considered as the rightful property of some one
    or other of
  • their daughters.
  • My dear Mr. Bennet,'' said his lady to him one
    day, have you
  • heard that Netherfield Park is let at last?''

Austen cont.
  • Mr. Bennet replied that he had not.
  • But it is,'' returned she for Mrs. Long has
    just been here,
  • and she told me all about it.''
  • Mr. Bennet made no answer.
  • Do not you want to know who has taken it?'
    cried his wife
  • impatiently.
  • You want to tell me, and I have no objection to
    hearing it.''
  • This was invitation enough.

Austen cont.
  • Why, my dear, you must know, Mrs. Long says
  • Netherfield is taken by a young man of large
    fortune from the
  • north of England that he came down on Monday in
    a chaise
  • and four to see the place, and was so much
    delighted with it
  • that he agreed with Mr. Morris immediately that
    he is to take
  • Possession before Michaelmas, and some of his
    servants are to
  • be in the house by the end of next week.''
  • What is his name?''
  • Bingley.''
  • Is he married or single?''
  • Oh! single, my dear, to be sure! A single man
    of large fortune
  • four or five thousand a year. What a fine thing
    for our girls!''

  • Michaelmas, the feast of Saint Michael the
    Archangel (also the Feast of Saints Michael,
    Gabriel, Uriel and Raphael, the Feast of the
    Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All
    Angels) is a day in the Western Christian
    calendar which occurs on 29 September.

Genesis King James Bible
  • 1 In the beginning God created the heaven and
    the earth.
  • 2 And the earth was without form, and void and
    darkness was
  • upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God
    moved upon
  • the face of the waters.
  • 3 And God said, Let there be light and there
    was light.
  • 4 And God saw the light, that it was good and
    God divided the
  • light from the darkness.
  • 5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness
    he called
  • Night. And the evening and the morning were the
    first day.

Genesis cont.
  • 6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the
    midst of the
  • waters, and let it divide the waters from the
  • 7 And God made the firmament, and divided the
    waters which
  • were under the firmament from the waters which
    were above
  • the firmament and it was so.
  • 8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the
    evening and
  • the morning were the second day.
  • 9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven
    be gathered
  • together unto one place, and let the dry land
    appear and it
  • was so.

Genesis cont.
  • 10 And God called the dry land Earth and the
  • together of the waters called he Seas and God
    saw that it was
  • good.
  • 11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth
    grass, the herb
  • yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit
  • his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the
    earth and it was so.
  • 12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb
    yielding seed
  • after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit,
    whose seed was in
  • itself, after his kind and God saw that it was

Verse Rhythm
  • Verse is a patterned succession of syllables
  • some are strongly emphasized, some are not.
  • Rhythms of poetry, compared with prose
  • rhythms, are stylized and artificial, they fall
  • patterns that are more repetitive and
  • predictable.
  • Poetic rhythms call attention to themselves.

Poetic Rhythm
  • Literature coded text
  • Poetic rhythm concentration and intensity
  • Primordial functions of poetry
  • naming
  • possession
  • healing
  • Incantatory rhythms, verse spells, healing charms
  • (an incantation or enchantment is a charm or
  • created using words)

An Old English medical verse-spell against poison
  • This herb is called Stime it grew on a stone,
  • It resists poison, it fights pain.
  • It is called harsh, it fights against poison.
  • This is the herb that strove against the snake
  • This has strength against poison, this has
  • against infection,
  • This has strength against the foe who fares
  • the land.
  • (Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Sel. and trans. by R. K.
    Gordon, rev. ed., London J. M. Dent and Sons,
    1954, 93)

Verse Rhythm
  • Rhythm is based on orderly repetition.
  • Poetic rhythm is based on the regular
  • alternation of certain syllabic features of the
  • text.

  • A syllable commonly consists of a vocalic peak,
    which may be accompanied by a consonantal onset
    or coda. In some languages, every syllabic peak
    is indeed a vowel. But other sounds can also form
    the nucleus of a syllable. In English, this
    generally happens where a word ends in an
    unstressed syllable containing a nasal or lateral
  • CV / CVC / VC /CCV / CCVC / etc.
  • Diphtongs, triphtongs vowel sequences in which
    two or three components can be heard but which
    none the less count as a single vowel
  • BUT
  • one syllable hire, lyre, flour, cowered
  • two syllables higher, liar, flower, coward

Prosody (from Wikipedia)
  • In poetry, meter (metre in British English) is
    the basic
  • rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.
  • traditional verse forms prescribe a specific
    verse meter, or
  • a certain set of meters alternating in a
    particular order.
  • The study of meters and forms of versification is
    known as
  • prosody. (Within linguistics, "prosody" is used
    in a more
  • general sense that includes not only poetical
    meter but also
  • the rhythmic aspects of prose, whether formal or
  • which vary from language to language, and
  • between poetic traditions.)

  • Prosodic features of speech
  • tone
  • stress / beat /accent
  • intonation
  • Chief phonetic correlates
  • pitch
  • duration
  • loudness

  • is widely regarded in English as the most
  • salient determinant of prominence.
  • When a syllable or a word is perceived as
  • stressed or emphasized, it is pitch height or
  • change of pitch, more than length or loudness,
  • that is likely to be mainly responsible.

  • The duration of syllables depends on both
  • segment type and the surrounding phonetic
  • context.
  • Duration is also constrained by biomechanical
  • factors part of the reason why the vowel in
  • English bat, for example, tends to be relatively
  • long is that the jaw has to move further than in
  • words like bit or bet.

Stress / Beat / Accent
  • Stress commonly is a conventional label for the
  • overall prominence of certain syllables relative
  • to others within a linguistic system.
  • In this sense, stress does not correlate simply
  • with loudness, but represents the total effect
  • of factors such as pitch, loudness and duration.

Stress in English
  • English, sometimes described as a stress
  • timed language, makes a relatively large
  • difference between stressed and
  • unstressed syllables, in such a way that
  • stressed syllables are generally much longer
  • than unstressed.

  • The term ACCENT is sometimes used loosely to
  • mean stress, referring to prominence in a
  • general way or more specifically to the
  • emphasis placed on certain syllables.
  • The term accent is also used to refer to
  • relative prominence within longer utterances.

Stress / Accent
  • The terms STRESS and ACCENT in particular are
  • notoriously ambiguous, and it would be
  • misleading to suggest that there are standard
  • definitions.

  • Beat denote stress with metrical relevance, i.e.
  • stressed syllables which count in metrical lines
  • are called beats.

English Versification
  • English poetic rhythm is based on the regular
    alternation of
  • stressed and unstressed syllables. (Duration and
    pitch are no
  • metre creating features.)
  • Stresses are that of words stresses and marked in
  • by as in synecdoche /s?n?kd?k?/.
  • Scansion is the act of determining and
    graphically representing
  • the metrical character of a line of verse.
  • Stressed syllables are marked by the symbols / or
  • Unstressed syllables /slacks are marked by the
    symbol X.

  • When I consider how my light is spent
  • X / X / X / X / X
  • (Milton)
  • Whose woods these are I think I know
  • X / X / X / X /
  • (Frost)
  • When my mother died I was very young
  • X X / X / X X / X
  • (Blake)

  • Down by the salley gardens my love and I did
  • X / X / X / X X /
    X / X /
  • (Yeats)
  • is a division marker or bar between repeated
    units of a line broken into sections by a caesura

Rhythm and Metre
  • Rhythm
  • The rhythmic structure of a poem is formed by
    repeating a
  • basic rhythmical unit of stressed and unstressed
  • Metre
  • Metre grows out of the linguistic rhythms of the
    words, it is the
  • design formed by the rhythms, it is an abstract
  • The general metre and the actual rhythm of a
    specific line are
  • not always identical.

Metrical Systems in English 1 Accentual/Stressed
  • In accentual/stressed metre the number of
  • accents/stressed syllables is fixed in a line.
  • However the number of unstressed syllables
  • is variable. In order to define the actual form
  • you have to count the number of accents per
  • line.

Metrical Systems in English 1 Accentual/Stressed
  • Old English (Anglo-Saxon) Alliterative
  • The basic metrical feature of the line is four
    strong stresses
  • / / / /
  • The spaces before and between the stress can be
    occupied by
  • zero, one, two or three syllables, e.g.
  • X / X X / X X X / /, or X X / X / / X X / X, etc.
  • Each full line is divided into two half-lines
    (hemistichs) by a
  • caesura
  • X X / X X / X X / X X /

Anglo-Saxon Alliterative Versification cont.
  • The distinctive feature of this metrical form is
    its alliteration.
  • Alliteration is a figure speech, meaning the
    repetition of
  • consonant or vowel sounds at the beginning of
    words or
  • stressed syllables.
  • It is a very old device which often help create
  • effects, i.e. effects imitating sounds.
  • Alliteration is a key organizing principle in
    Anglo-Saxon verse.

  • Alliteration is the principal binding agent of
  • English poetry.
  • Two syllables alliterate when they begin with
  • the same sound all vowels alliterate together,
  • but the consonant clusters st-, sp- and sc- are
  • treated as separate sounds (so st- does not
  • alliterate with s- or sp-).

Anglo-Saxon Alliterative Versification cont.
  • Formal requirements
  • A long-line is divided into two half-lines.
    Half-lines are also known as verses or hemistichs
  • A heavy pause, or cæsura, separates the two
  • Each half-line has two strongly stressed
  • The first lift in the second half-line (i.e. the
    third stress) is always alliterated with either
    or both stressed syllables in the first
  • The second stress in the second half-line, i.e.
    the fourth stress does not alliterate.

Anglo-Saxon Alliterative Versification cont.
  • Thus there are the following variants
  • (A marks an alliterating syllable, X marks a
  • syllable)
  • A A A X
  • A X A X
  • X A A X

Beowulf Manuscript
  • Beowulf is the conventional title of an Old
  • heroic epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative
  • lines.
  • Its composition by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet
  • dated between the 8th and the early 11th century.
  • The poem appears in what is today called the
  • manuscript or Nowell Codex (British Library MS
  • Cotton Vitellius A.xv), along with other works.

The poem is known only from this single
Beowulf Manuscript
Examples from Beowulf (translated by Michael
  • 1. It is a sorrow in spirit for me to say to any
  • A A
    A X
  • 2. Then spoke Beowulf, son of Edgeheow
  • A X
    A X
  • 3. A boat with a ringed neck rode in the haven
  • X A
    A X

Further examples
  • Alliterative stress within polisyllabic word
  • It was not remarked then if a man looked
  • X A
    A X
  • Vowel alliteration
  • To encompass evil, an enemy from hell
  • X A A
  • The ample eaves adorned with gold
  • A A A

A twentieth century example - Ezra Pound Canto
I (A free translation of the opening of Odyssey
  • We set up mast and sail on that swart ship,
  • A A
    A X
  • Bore sheep aboard her, and our bodies also
  • A A
    A X
  • Heavy with weeping, so winds from sternward
  • X A
    A X
  • Bore us out onward with bellying canvas,
  • A X
    A X
  • Circe's this craft, the trim-coifed goddess.
  • A (?) A
    A X

Ezra Pound (1885-1972)
Significance of Sound Patterning
  • Cohesive and mnemonic function
  • Primordial and bardic poetry was transmitted
  • orally, repetitive formal components bound words
  • together and thus enhanced memorability.
  • The metrical frame creates a musical body for the
  • poem it may also contribute to a level of sound
  • symbolism, onomatopoeia, onomatopoeic words.

Stress-Verse Native Metre / Folk Metre
  • Sing a song of sixpence,
  • A pocket full of rye
  • Four and twenty blackbirds
  • Baked in a pie.
  • When the pie was opened,
  • They all began to sing.
  • Now, wasn't that a dainty dish
  • To set before the King?

Sixpence cont.
  • Sing a song of sixpence,
  • / /
  • A pocket full of rye
  • / /
  • Four and twenty blackbirds
  • / /
  • Baked in a pie.
  • / /
  • Or

Sixpence cont.
  • Sing a song of sixpence,
  • / / /
  • A pocket full of rye
  • / / (p)
  • Four and twenty blackbirds
  • / / /
  • Baked in a pie.
  • / / (p)
  • (p) pause

Stress-Verse Ballad Metre
  • Ballad metre is a form of poetry that
  • alternates lines of four and three beats, often
  • quatrains, rhymed abab.
  • The anonymous poem Sir Patrick Spens
  • demonstrates this well.
  • The alternating sequence of four and three
  • stresses is called common measure when used
  • for hymns.

Sir Patrick Spens
  • The king sits in Dumfermline town.
  • / / /
  • Drinking the blude-red wine
  • / / /
  • 'O whare will I get a skeely skipper,
  • / / / /
  • To sail this new ship of mine?'
  • / / /

Dunfermline Palace Ruin Dunfermline was
Scotlands capital in the 11th century
Foot-Verse Syllable-Stress Verse /
Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • After the Norman Conquest, from the 12th century
  • accentual-syllabic versification started to
  • It went hand in hand with strophic construction
  • rhyming line endings.
  • Out of stressed and unstressed syllables metrical
  • were created after the pattern of ancient Greek
  • Latin poetry.
  • In accentual syllabic foot-verse both the number
  • stressed and unstressed syllables are fixed, and
  • their respective positions in the poetic line.

Foot Verse Stressed / Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Ancient Greek and Latin prosody is quantitative,
  • the regular alternation of syllables is based on
  • duration. Quantitative versification makes
  • between long and short syllables.
  • A syllable is long if the vowel sound in it is
    long or if it
  • Is short but followed by more two or more
  • A syllable is short if the vowel sound in it is
    short and
  • Is followed by zero or one consonant sound.

Accentual-Syllabic Metre / Quantitative
  • English accentual-syllabic foot-verse is
  • called quantitative. It is, however, is
  • But quantitative versification is based on the
  • quantity, i.e. the duration of a syllable.
  • Apart from a few technical experiments, duration
  • syllables is not a metre constitutive principle
    in English
  • verse.
  • Quantitative versification makes metrical feet
  • short and long syllables.

Quantitative Versification Metrical Feet
  • The foot is the basic metrical unit that
    generates a line
  • of verse in quantitative versification.
  • The foot is a purely metrical unit there is no
  • relation to a word or phrase as a unit of meaning
  • syntax.
  • A foot is composed of syllables, the number of
  • is limited.
  • The feet are classified first by the number of
  • in the foot (disyllabic feet have two,
    trisyllabic three,
  • And tetrasyllabic four syllables), and by the
    pattern of
  • vowel lengths.

Qualitative vs. quantitative metre (from the
Wikipedia entry on Prosody)
  • The meter of much poetry of the Western world and
  • elsewhere is based on particular patterns of
    syllables of
  • particular types. The familiar type of meter in
  • language poetry is called qualitative meter, with
  • syllables coming at regular intervals (e.g. in
  • pentameter, typically every even-numbered
    syllable). Many
  • Romance languages use a scheme that is somewhat
  • similar but where the position of only one
  • stressed syllable (e.g. the last) needs to be
    fixed. The
  • meter of the old Germanic poetry of languages
    such as Old
  • Norse and Old English was radically different,
    but still was
  • based on stress patterns.

Qualitative vs. quantitative metre (from the
Wikipedia entry on Prosody)
  • Many classical languages, however, use a
  • scheme known as quantitative metre, where
    patterns are
  • based on syllable weight rather than stress. In
  • hexameter of Classical Latin and Classical Greek,
  • example, each of the six feet making up the line
    was either
  • a dactyl (long-short-short) or spondee
    (long-long), where a
  • long syllable was literally one that took longer
    to pronounce
  • than a short syllable specifically, a syllable
    consisting of a
  • long vowel or diphthong or followed by two
  • The stress pattern of the words made no
    difference to the
  • meter. A number of other ancient languages also
  • quantitative meter, such as Sanskrit and
    Classical Arabic
  • (but not Biblical Hebrew).

Quantitative Versification Most common feet
  • (symbols long syllable, ? short syllable)
  • iamb or iambic foot ?
  • trochee or trochaic foot ?
  • anapaest or anapaestic foot ? ?
  • dactyl of dactylic foot ? ?
  • spondee or spondaic foot
  • pyrrhic or pyrrhic foot ? ?
  • tribrach ? ? ?
  • molossus
  • minor ionic ? ?
  • choriamb ??

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • English prosody is based on the regular
  • alternation of stressed and unstressed
  • syllables.
  • Consequently classical Greek and Latin
  • quantitative metrical feet are translated into
  • syllable stresses 'long' becomes 'stressed' (or
  • 'accented'), and 'short' becomes 'unstressed
  • (or 'unaccented').

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • For example, an iamb, which is short-long in
  • meter, becomes unstressed-stressed, as in the
  • word today a trochee is constituted of a
  • and unstressed syllable, as in never a dactyl
  • constituted of a stressed syllable followed by
  • unstressed ones, as in yesterday while an
  • is constituted of two unstressed syllables
    followed by
  • a stressed one, as in interrupt. A spondee is
    made of
  • two successive stressed syllables, as in
  • a pyrrhic is made of two successive unstressed
  • syllables and the phrase of the.

English metrical feet
  • iamb or iambic foot X /
  • trochee or trochaic foot / X
  • anapaest or anapaestic foot X X /
  • dactyl of dactylic foot / X X
  • spondee or spondaic foot / /
  • pyrrhic or pyrrhic foot X X
  • tribrach X X X
  • molossus / / /
  • minor ionic X X / /
  • choriamb / X X /

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • For the scansion of an English poem the standard
  • Symbols are used (the symbol marks foot
  • Down by the salley gardens my love and I did meet
  • X / X / X / X X /
    X / X /
  • Whose woods these are I think I know.
  • X / X / X / X

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Metrical feet add up to poetic lines, which
    consequently are
  • defined in terms of the number and type of poetic
    feet they
  • contain
  • Monometer one foot
  • Dimeter two feet
  • Trimeter three feet
  • Tetrameter four feet
  • Pentameter five feet
  • Hexameter six feet

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Thus we can discern
  • Iambic monometers (i.e. one-stress iambic lines)
  • Thus I
  • Pass by
  • And die
  • As one
  • Unknown
  • And gone
  • (Robert Herrick Upon His Departure Hence, 1648)

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Or anapaestic tetrameters (four-stress anapestic
  • There's little Tom Dacre, who cried when his
    head, X / X X / X X /
    X X /
  • That curled like a lamb's back, was shaved so I
  • X / X X / X
    X / X X /
  • "Hush, Tom! never mind it, for when your head's
  • X / X X / X X
    / X X /
  • You know that the soot cannot spoil your white
  • X / X X / X X
    / X X /
  • (William Blake The Chimney Sweeper)

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Or iambic pentameters (five-stress iambic lines)
  • THERE was a roaring in the wind all night
  • X / X / X / X / X
  • The rain came heavily and fell in floods
  • But now the sun is rising calm and bright
  • The birds are singing in the distant woods
  • Over his own sweet voice the Stock-dove broods
  • The Jay makes answer as the Magpie chatters
  • And all the air is filled with pleasant noise of
  • (from William Wordsworth Resolution and

William Wordsworth (1770-1850) (from the National
Portrait Gallery)
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • Iambic pentameter has a distinguished role in the
    history of
  • English poetry.
  • If unrhymed, it is called blank verse (e.g.
    Shakespeares plays)
  • Now is the winter of our discontent
  • Made glorious summer by this sun of York
  • And all the clouds that lour'd upon our house
  • In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.
  • (Shakespeare Richard III)

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • If pair-rhymed, it is called heroic couplet (e.g.
    Alexander Popes
  • Essay on Criticism)
  • Of all the Causes which conspire to blind
  • Man's erring Judgment, and misguide the Mind,
  • What the weak Head with strongest Byass rules,
  • Is Pride, the never-failing Vice of Fools.
  • (from Alexander Pope Essay on Criticism)

English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • It is important to notice that the alternation of
    stressed and
  • unstressed syllable in accentual-syllabic metre
    is not entirely
  • rigid.
  • In iambic forms, e.g. a poet may use substitute
    feet. The
  • two syllabic spondee and pyrrhic are proper
    substitute feet for
  • iambs.
  • Sometimes poets add an extra unstressed syllable,
  • substituting an anapest for an iamb.

  • A sudden blow the great wings beating still
  • X / X / X / /
    / X /
  • Above the staggering girl, her thighs caressed
  • X / X / X X / X /
    X /
  • By the dark webs, her nape caught in his bill,
  • X X / / X / /
    X X /
  • He holds her helpless breast upon his breast.
  • How can those terrified vague fingers push
  • The feathered glory from her loosening thighs?
  • X / X / X X X /
    X X /
  • And how can body, laid in that white rush,
  • But feel the strange heart beating where it lies?

Substitution cont.
  • A shudder in the loins engenders there
  • The broken wall, the burning roof and tower
  • And Agamemnon dead.
  • Being so caught up,
  • So mastered by the brute blood of the air,
  • Did she put on his knowledge with his power
  • Before the indifferent beak could let her drop?
  • (William Butler Yeats Leda and the Swan)

Leda and the Swan 16th century copy after lost
painting by Michelangelo
English Accentual-Syllabic Metre
  • A metrical line has three rhythmic levels
  • Oh, to vex me, contraryes meet in one (Donne)
  • (iambic pentameter)
  • 1. Abstract metrical pattern
  • X / X / X / X / X /
  • 2. Actual rhythm of the particular line
  • X X / X / X X / X /
  • 3. Speech rhythm
  • X X / X / X X \ X \
  • (where \ marks secondary stress)

Rough and Smooth Rhythms
  • If the three levels fall apart, as in the above
    excerpt of Donnes
  • poem, the rhythm is rough. If they tend to
    coalesce, as in this
  • line by Donnes contemporary, Edmund Spenser, the
    rhythm is
  • smooth
  • One day I wrote her name upon the strand
  • (Edmund Spenser Amoretti, Sonnet 75)

Edmund Spenser John
Donne (1552-1599)
  • English accentual-syllabic poems may rhyme. Rhyme
    is the
  • identity of sound between words. Rhyme is not
  • based on identity of spelling. Pronunciation is
    the essence.
  • great rhymes with mate
  • whereas
  • bough does not rhyme with though
  • great and meat look alike, but pronounced
    differently, they are called eyes-rhymes

Sound Parallelism
  • Rhyme is only one aspect of sound-parallelism.
    Based on the
  • concept of the linguistic formula of a syllable,
    i.e. a cluster of
  • up to three consonants followed by a vowel
    nucleus followed
  • by a cluster of up to four consonants
    (C?³VC?4), Geoffrey
  • Leech set up the following chart of sound

Sound Parallelism
  • from Geoffrey N. Leech A Linguistic Guide to
    English Poetry.
  • London Longman, 1969, 89

a CVC great/grow send/sit alliteration
b CVC great/fail send/bell assonance
c CVC great/meat send/hand consonance
d CVC great/grazed send/sell reverse rhyme
e CVC great/groat send/sound pararhyme
f CVC great/bait send/end rhyme
  • Consonance is often called half-rhyme
  • I have met them at close of day
  • Coming with vivid faces
  • From counter or desk among grey
  • Eighteenth-century houses.
  • (from W. B. Yeats Easter 1916)

Easter Rising, Dublin 1916
Internal Rhymes
  • By rhymes generally terminal rhymes are meant.
  • poets use internal rhymes within a line, usually
    followed by a
  • break (caesura)
  • And through the drifts the snowy clifts
  • Did send a dismal sheen
  • Nor shapes of men nor beasts we ken
  • The ice was all between.
  • (from S. T. Coleridge The Rime of the Ancient

Poetic Forms
  • The disposition of lines into groups falls into
    two categories
  • Stichic poetry, in which verse line follows verse
    line, as in
  • Miltons Paradise Lost. Stichic poetry is often
    segmented into
  • verse paragraphs, i.e. passages of irregular
    length divided by a
  • space-line.
  • Strophic poetry, in which groups of lines
    (stanza) are formed,
  • as in Keatss Ode on a Grecian Urn.

Rhyme Schemes and Poetic Forms
  • Strophic or stanzaic forms are often bound
    together by rhymes.
  • Stanza forms are determined by numbers of lines
  • Couplet two-line stanza
  • Tercet three line stanza
  • Quatrain four-line stanza

Stanza (Italian station, stopping place)
  • A structural unit in verse composition, a
    sequence of lines
  • arranged in a definite pattern of meter and rhyme
  • which is repeated throughout the whole work.
    Stanzas range
  • from such simple patterns as the couplet or the
    quatrain to
  • such complex stanza forms as the Spenserian or
    those used by
  • Keats in his odes.
  • (Alex Preminger, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of
    Poetry and Poetics. Enlarged edition.
  • London Macmillan, 1975)
  • Stanzas may consist of metrically identical or
    different lines.

Rhyme Scheme
  • Patterns of rhyme within larger units of poetry
  • marked by letters
  • A or a first line and every following line
  • with it
  • B or b next new rhyme and every following line
  • rhyming with it

Rhyme Schemes Couplets
  • Couplet aa bb cc, etc.
  • Had we but world enough, and time,
  • This coyness, lady, were no crime.
  • We would sit down and think which way
  • To walk, and pass our long love's day.
  • (from Andrew Marvell To his Coy Mistress)

Rhymes Schemes Alternate Rhymes
  • Alternating / alternate / cross rhymes abab
    cdcd, etc.
  • The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
  • The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,
  • The ploughman homeward plods his weary way,
  • And leaves the world to darkness and to me.
  • (from Thomas Gray Elegy Written in a Country

Rhyme Schemes Envelope Rhymes
  • Envelope / enclosed abba cddc, etc.
  • The world is too much with us late and soon,
  • Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers
  • Little we see in nature that is ours
  • We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!
  • (William Wordsworth The world is too much with
  • late and soon)

Rhyme Schemes Terza Rima
  • Terca rima aba bcb cdc, etc. (It is a type
    interlocking rhyme
  • patterns word unrhymed in 1st stanza is linked
    with words
  • rhymed in 2nd stanza.)
  • O wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn's being,
  • Thou, from whose unseen presence the leaves dead
  • Are driven, like ghosts from an enchanter
  • Yellow, and black, and pale, and hectic red,
  • Pestilence-stricken multitudes O thou,
  • Who chariotest to their dark wintry bed

Rhyme Schemes Terza Rima cont.
  • The winged seeds, where they lie cold and low,
  • Each like a corpse within its grave, until
  • Thine azure sister of the Spring shall blow
  • Her clarion o'er the dreaming earth, and fill
  • (Driving sweet buds like flocks to feed in air)
  • With living hues and odors plain and hill
  • (from P. B. Shelley Ode to the West Wind)

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822) by Alfred Clint
Rhyme Schemes Ottava Rima
  • of Italian origin
  • rhyme scheme ABABABCC
  • Three alternate rhymes plus a closing couplet
  • consists of iambic lines, usually pentameters
  • Byrons Don Juan is a well known example

Ottava Rima
  • That is no country for old men. The young
  • In one another's arms, birds in the trees
  • - Those dying generations - at their song,
  • The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,
  • Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long
  • Whatever is begotten, born, and dies.
  • Caught in that sensual music all neglect
  • Monuments of unageing intellect.
  • (from W. B. Yeats Sailing to Byzantium)

Rhymes Schemes Rhyme Royal
  • rhyme scheme ABABBCC
  • usually iambic pentameter
  • Geoffrey Chaucers Troilus and Criseyde is a
    well-know example

Rhyme Royal
  • Here at right of the entrance this bronze head,
  • Human, superhuman, a bird's round eye,
  • Everything else withered and mummy-dead.
  • What great tomb-haunter sweeps the distant sky
  • (Something may linger there though all else die)
  • And finds there nothing to make its tetror less
  • Hysterica passio of its own emptiness?
  • (from W. B. Yeats A Bronze Head)

Rhyme Schemes Spenserian Stanza
  • Rhyme scheme ABABBCBCC
  • The Spenserian stanza was invented by Edmund
    Spenser and
  • used it for his epic poem The Faerie Queene.
  • Each stanza contains nine lines in total eight
    lines in iambic
  • pentameter followed by an iambic hexameter

Spenserian Stanza
  • The wicked witch now seeing all this while
  • The doubtfull ballaunce equally to sway,
  • What not by right, she cast to win by guile,
  • And by her hellish science raisd streightway
  • A foggy mist, that overcast the day,
  • And a dull blast, that breathing on her face,
  • Dimmed her former beauties shining ray,
  • And with foule ugly forme did her disgrace
  • Then was she faire alone, when none was faire in
  • (from Edmund Spenser Faerie Queene)

Edmund Spenser The Faerie Queene
The Sonnet
  • Consists of fourteen lines divided into stanzas.
  • Iambic pentameters (or iambic hexameters, also
  • called alexandrines, sometimes iambic
  • The rhyme schemes is fixed.
  • There are three main types.

The Petrarchan / Italian Sonnets John Donne Holy
Sonnet 19
  • Oh, to vex me, contraryes meet in one A
  • Inconstancy unnaturally hath begott B
  • A constant habit that when I would not B
  • I change in vowes, and in devotione. A
  • As humorous is my contritione A
  • As my prophane Love, and as soone forgott B
  • As ridlingly distemper'd, cold and hott, B
  • As praying, as mute as infinite, as none. A
  • I durst not view heaven yesterday and to day C
  • In prayers, and flattering speaches I court God
  • To morrow I quake with true feare of his rod. D
  • So my devout fitts come and go away C
  • Like a fantistique Ague save that here E
  • Those are my best dayes, when I shake with feare.

According to the stanzaic pattern, you can print
like thie (actually many sonnets are printed this
  • Oh, to vex me, contraryes meet in one A 1st
  • Inconstancy unnaturally hath begott B
  • A constant habit that when I would not B
  • I change in vowes, and in devotione. A
  • As humorous is my contritione A 2nd quatrain
  • As my prophane Love, and as soone forgott B
  • As ridlingly distemper'd, cold and hott, B
  • As praying, as mute as infinite, as none. A
  • I durst not view heaven yesterday and to day
    C 1st tercet
  • In prayers, and flattering speaches I court God
  • To morrow I quake with true feare of his rod. D
  • So my devout fitts come and go away C 2nd
  • Like a fantistique Ague save that here E
  • Those are my best dayes, when I shake with feare.

The Petrarchan Sonnet 4 4 3 3 8 6
  • A
  • B
  • B
  • A 1st quatrain
  • A octave
  • B
  • B
  • A 2nd quatrain
  • turn
  • C
  • D
  • C 1st tercet
  • D sestet
  • C
  • D 2nd tercet

The English Sonnet William Shakespeare Sonnet 75
  • So are you to my thoughts as food to life, A
  • Or as sweet-seasoned showers are to the
    ground B
  • And for the peace of you I hold such strife A
  • As 'twixt a miser and his wealth is found. B
  • Now proud as an enjoyer, and anon C
  • Doubting the filching age will steal his
    treasure, D
  • Now counting best to be with you alone, C
  • Then bettered that the world may see my
    pleasure, D
  • Sometime all full with feasting on your sight, E
  • And by and by clean starved for a look, F
  • Possessing or pursuing no delight E
  • Save what is had, or must from you be took. F
  • Thus do I pine and surfeit day by day, G
  • Or gluttoning on all, or all away. G

The English Sonnet 4 4 4 2 8 4 2 12
  • A
  • B
  • A
  • B 1st quatrain
  • C
  • D
  • C
  • D 2nd quatrain
  • turn
  • E
  • F
  • E
  • F 3rd quatrain
  • G
  • G closing couplet

The Spenserian Sonnet Edmund Spenser Amoretti 75
  • One day I wrote her name upon the strand, A
  • But came the waves and washed it away B
  • Again I wrote it with a second hand, A
  • But came the tide, and made my pains his prey.
  • Vain man, said she, that doest in vain assay B
  • A mortal thing so to immortalize, C
  • For I myself shall like to this decay, B
  • And eek my name be wiped out likewise. C
  • Not so (quoth I), let baser things devise C
  • To die in dust, but you shall live by fame D
  • My verse your virtues rare shall eternize, C
  • And in the heavens write your glorious name. D
  • Where whenas Death shall all the world subdue,
  • Out love shall live, and later life renew. E

The Sonnet Petrarchan / Italian
  • Rhyme scheme
  • a b b a a b b a c d c d c d
  • a b b a c d d c e f g e f g / e e f g g
  • quatrains - envelope rhymes repeated
  • turn after line 8 (turn markers but, though,
    yet, etc.)
  • tercets
  • quatrains versus tercets
  • based on opposition, thesis antithesis, static

The Sonnet English / Shakespearean
  • Rhyme scheme
  • a b a b c d c d e f e f g g
  • alternate rhymes
  • two turns the first one after line 8
  • the second one after line 12
  • quatrains versus closing couplet (summary,
  • dramatic quality, tripartite structure
  • thesis antithesis synthesis

The Sonnet Spenserian
  • Rhyme scheme
  • a b a b b c b c c d c d e e
  • A mixture of the two, the overlapping rhymes
    create a similar
  • acoustic effect to that of the Italian sonnet,
    yet displays two
  • turn, thus represents a more dramatic quality.
    However, the
  • overlapping rhymes blur the tripartite division.

Semi-strict forms, loosely metrical poems
  • Poets often use loosely metrical patterns.
  • It either means the employment of metrical
    substitutions or
  • variations, as in S. T. Coleridges Rime of the
    Ancient Mariner,
  • with subtle irregularities in the ballad measure,
  • With throats unslaked, with black lips baked,
  • We could nor laugh nor wail
  • Through utter drought all dumb we stood!
  • I bit my arm, I sucked the blood,
  • And cried, A sail! a sail!

Semi-strict forms, loosely metrical poems
  • or the use of metrical
  • lines of irregular length, as
  • T. S. Eliots Preludes,
  • Or it may take other, more
  • radical forms of only hinting
  • at the vague memory of strict
  • metrical patterns.

T. S. Eliot (1888-1965) Preludes I
  • The winter evening settles down
  • With smell of steaks in passageways.
  • Six o'clock.
  • The burnt-out ends of smoky days.
  • And now a gusty shower wraps
  • The grimy scraps
  • Of withered leaves about your feet
  • And newspapers from vacant lots
  • The showers beat
  • On broken blinds and chimneypots,
  • And at the corner of the street
  • A lonely cab-horse steams and stamps.
  • And then the lighting of the lamps.

Preludes II
  • The morning comes to consciousness
  • Of faint stale smells of beer
  • From the sawdust-trampled street
  • With all its muddy feet that press
  • To early coffee-stands.
  • With the other masquerades
  • That times resumes,
  • One thinks of all the hands
  • That are raising dingy shades
  • In a thousand furnished rooms.

Preludes III
  • You tossed a blanket from the bed
  • You lay upon your back, and waited
  • You dozed, and watched the night revealing
  • The thousand sordid images
  • Of which your soul was constituted
  • They flickered against the ceiling.
  • And when all the world came back
  • And the light crept up between the shutters
  • And you heard the sparrows in the gutters,
  • You had such a vision of the street
  • As the street hardly understands

Preludes III cont.
  • Sitting along the bed's edge, where
  • You curled the papers from your hair,
  • Or clasped the yellow soles of feet
  • In the palms of both soiled hands.

Preludes IV
  • His soul stretched tight across the skies
  • That fade behind a city block,
  • Or trampled by insistent feet
  • At four and five and six o'clock
  • And short square fingers stuffing pipes,
  • And evening newspapers, and eyes
  • Assured of certain certainties,
  • The conscience of a blackened street
  • Impatient to assume the world.

Preludes IV cont.
  • I am moved by fancies that are curled
  • Around these images, and cling
  • The notion of some infinitely gentle
  • Infinitely suffering thing.
  • Wipe your hand across your mouth, and laugh
  • The worlds revolve like ancient women
  • Gathering fuel in vacant lots.

  • Attridge, Derek Poetic Rhythm. An Introduction.
    Cambridge Cambridge
  • University Press, 1995
  • Brooks, Cleanth and Warren, Robert Penn
    Understanding Poetry. 4th
  • edition. New York Holt, Rinehart and Winston,
  • Fry, Stephen The Ode Less Travelled. Unlocking
    the Poet Within. London
  • Hutchinson, 2005
  • Hobsbaum, Philip Metre, Rhythm and Verse Form.
    London Routledge, 1996
  • Leech, Geoffrey N. A Linguistic Guide to English
    Poetry. London Longman,
  • 1969
  • Scannel, Vernon How to Enjoy Poetry. London
    Piatkus, 1983
  • Preminger, Alex, ed. Princeton Encyclopedia of
    Poetry and Poetics. Enlarged
  • edition. London Macmillan, 1975
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