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Nucleic Acids and protein synthesis

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Nucleic Acids and protein synthesis Higher Human Biology Lesson Aims To examine the structure of DNA To compare the structure of DNA and RNA To discuss the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nucleic Acids and protein synthesis


1
Nucleic Acids and protein synthesis
  • Higher Human Biology

2
Lesson Aims
  • To examine the structure of DNA
  • To compare the structure of DNA and RNA
  • To discuss the differences and similarities
    between mRNA and tRNA
  • To examine the role of the nucleus and nucleolus
    during RNA synthesis
  • To study the synthesis of proteins

3
  • It was Francis Crick and James Watson who
    unraveled the DNA molecule.

4
DNA Molecule
5
  • In 1966 the Genetic code was discovered.
  • Scientists are now able to predict
    characteristics by studying DNA. This leads to
    genetic engineering, genetic counseling.

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An international team of scientists began the
project to map the human genome.
8
1990 Gene therapy was used on patients for the
first time.
9
1994 The FDA approved the first genetically
engineered food -- FlavrSavr tomatoes engineered
for better flavour and shelf life.
10
1997 Dolly the Sheep - the first adult animal
clone.
11
Dolly the sheep, pictured here with her first
lamb Bonnie
12
2000 J. Craig Ventor, along with Francis Collins,
jointly announce the sequencing of the entire
human genome.
13
The Central Dogma
  • DNA codes for the production of DNA (replication)
    and of RNA (transcription).
  • RNA codes for the production of protein
    (translation).

14
The Central Dogma
  • Genetic information is stored in a linear message
    on nucleic acids. We use a shorthand notation to
    write a DNA sequence
  • 5'-AGTCAATGCAAGTTCCATGCAT....
  • A gene determine the sequence of amino acids in
    proteins. We use a shorthand notation to write a
    protein sequence
  • NH2-Met-Gln-Cys-Lys-Phe-Met-His.... (or a one
    letter code M Q C K F M H)

15
DNA Structure - Nucleotide
16
DNA Structure Double Helix
17
Comparison of DNA and RNA
DNA RNA
Found in nucleus Found in nucleus and cytoplasm
Double strands Single strand
Bases A, T, G, C Bases A, U, G, C
Deoxyribose sugar Ribose sugar
18
Transcription
  • Part of chain B sequence. Uncoiled DNA double
    helix which has split exposing bases
  • First stage of protein synthesis
  • Occurs in the nucleus
  • Double helix uncoils
  • Double strands split
  • DNA strand acts as template for formation of mRNA
    (messenger RNA)

19
Transcription
Single strand of DNA coding for Chain B
Strand of mRNA copied from DNA
  • Free RNA nucleotides in the nucleus base pair
    with DNA nucleotides A-T, T-U, G-C, C-G
  • Strong bonds form between phosphate group and
    ribose sugar of neighbouring RNA nucleotides
  • Catalysed by enzyme RNA polymerase
  • mRNA moves out of nucleus through nuclear pore

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Role of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Network of membranes
  • Found in cytoplasm
  • Has ribosomes on surface
  • Proteins produced during translation pass into ER

23
Translation
  • Second stage of protein synthesis
  • Occurs on ribosomes in cytoplasm
  • Code on mRNA is used to make protein chain

24
Translation
25
Comparison of mRNA and tRNA
  • tRNA
  • Transfer RNA
  • Found in cytoplasm
  • Involved in translation
  • Assembles amino acids into correct order for
    proteins
  • Anti-codons present
  • mRNA
  • Messenger RNA
  • Made in nucleus during transcription
  • Moves to cytoplasm
  • Codes for protein
  • Base triplets - codons

26
Overview
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Overview
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Role of Golgi Apparatus
  • Found in cytoplasm
  • Flattened sacs which are continually formed
  • Involved in processing and packaging proteins
  • Vesicles bud off with processed protein

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Secretion
  • Also called exocytosis
  • Vesicle which has pinched off Golgi apparatus
    moves towards cell membrane
  • Membrane of vesicle fuses with cell membrane
  • Insulin secreted from cell

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The Facts You Need To Know
  • page 1-2
  • from chromosomes which remain in .
  • to the sequence of bases in the DNA
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