Topic:-Framing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Topic:-Framing

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Framing Frames Are The Small data Units Created By Data Link Layer And The Process Of Creating Frames By The Data Link Layer Is Known As Framing. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic:-Framing


1
Presentation On Computers Network
  • Topic-Framing its methods

Group members- Anuj Panday Chander kishore
2
Framing
  • Frames Are The Small data Units Created By Data
    Link Layer And The Process Of Creating Frames By
    The Data Link Layer Is Known As Framing.

3
Framing Method Implemented By Data Link Layer
Are-
  • Character Count.
  • Starting Ending Characters With Character
    Stuffing.
  • Starting ending Flags With Bit Stuffing.
  • Physical Layer Coding Violation.

4
Character Count.
  • This Method Specifies The Number Of Characters
    That Are Present In particular Frame.
  • This Information Is specified By using a Special
    Field In the Header Frame.

5
Character count
3
0
4
1
1
5
7
7
0
2
4
1
2
6
1
2
Frame 4
Frame 1
Frame 2
Frame 3
Character Count Method
6
Starting Ending Characters With Character
Stuffing.
  • In this Method Frame Starts End With a special
    Character That Mark The Beginning End Of Frame.
  • Each character Begins With the ASCII Character
    Sequence DLE STX (data link Escape Start Of Text
    ) And End With ASCII Character Sequence DLE ETX
    (data link escape End Of text)

7
Starting Ending Characters With Character
Stuffing.
A
B
D
C
Data From Network Layer
DLE
A
STX
B
D
C
ETX
DLE
Start Of Frame
Data
End Of Frame
Starting Ending Characters Added By Link Layer
8
Character Stuffing.
data on Sender side
A
B
D
C
DLE
DLE
A
STX
B
D
C
ETX
DLE
DLE
DLE
Start Of Frame
Data
End Of Frame
data on Reciever side
A
B
D
C
DLE
9
Starting ending Flags With Bit Stuffing.
  • In this Method , Each Begins Ends With a
    Special Bit pattern 01111110 Called Flags.
  • There for Each frame starts With 01111110 also
    Ends with 01111110.
  • The Main Problem arises in this Method When The
    Flag byte 01111110 Appear as data.
  • This Problem Is Handled By technique called Bit
    stuffing That Is similar To character stuffing.

10
Starting ending Flags With Bit Stuffing.
Stuffing Performed By Data Link layer
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
01111110
01111110
Ending Flag BIT
Shifted Bit
Starting flag Bit
Data received by Network layer On reciever side
After Performing Destuffing By data link Layer
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
BIT stuffing
11
Physical Layer Coding Violation.
  • This Framing Method Is Used only In those network
    In which Encoding On The Physical Medium Contain
    some Redundancy.
  • Some LANs Encode Each Bit Of Data By using two
    Physical Bit i.e. Menchester
    coding is Used.
  • In this method Bit 1 Is encoded into high-low(10)
    Pair And Bit 0 Is Encoded Into low-high(01)pair
    shown in figure.

12
Physical Layer Coding Violation.
0
1
1
0
0
1
Menchester Encoding
13
  • Thank you
  • House Is open for Queries.
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