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Animals and Animal Diversity

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Title: Animals and Animal Diversity


1
Animals and Animal Diversity
  • The Nitty-gritty!

2
Note
  • There is no red on this powerpoint, all
    non-essentials were deleted from the notes.
  • Just imagine that everything is in red!

3
Basic Characteristics
Ch 32?
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Mobile
  • Eukaryotic
  • Lack cell walls
  • Bodies are held together by structural proteins
    like collagen
  • Nervous and muscular tissue unique to animal
    kingdom

4
Reproduction and Development
  • Most reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage
    usually dominating the life cycle
  • After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote
    undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage
  • Cleavage leads to formation of a blastula
  • The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming a
    gastrula with different layers of embryonic
    tissues

Video Sea Urchin Embryonic Development
5
Fig. 32-2-3
Blastocoel
Endoderm
Cleavage
Cleavage
Blastula
Ectoderm
Archenteron
Zygote
Eight-cell stage
Gastrulation
Gastrula
Blastocoel
Blastopore
Cross section of blastula
6
  • Many animals have at least one larval stage
    (sexually immature morphology that is different
    from the adult), which eventually undergoes
    metamorphosis
  • All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes
    that regulate the development of body form

7
Paleozoic Era (542251 Million Years Ago) The
rise of the animal kingdom
  • The Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 million years
    ago) marks the earliest fossil appearance of many
    major groups of living animals
  • There are several hypotheses regarding the cause
    of the Cambrian explosion
  • New predator-prey relationships
  • A rise in atmospheric oxygen
  • The evolution of the Hox gene complex

8
Concept 32.3 Animals can be characterized by
body plans
  • Zoologists sometimes categorize animals according
    to a body plan, a set of morphological and
    developmental traits

9
Symmetry
Radial
  • Animals can be categorized according to the
    symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it
  • Some animals have radial symmetry, while others
    show bilateral symmetry.

Bilateral
10
  • Two-sided symmetry is called bilateral symmetry
  • Bilaterally symmetrical animals have
  • A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side
  • A right and left side
  • Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends
  • Cephalization, the development of a head

11
Tissues
  • Animal body plans also vary according to the
    organization of the animals tissues
  • Tissues are collections of specialized cells
    isolated from other tissues by membranous layers
  • During development, three germ layers give rise
    to the tissues and organs of the animal embryo

12
  • Ectoderm is the germ layer covering the embryos
    surface
  • Endoderm is the innermost germ layer and lines
    the developing digestive tube, called the
    archenteron
  • Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm
  • Triploblastic animals also have an intervening
    mesoderm layer these include all bilaterians

13
Body Cavities
  • Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity
  • A true body cavity is called a coelom and is
    derived from mesoderm
  • Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom

14
Fig. 32-8a
Coelom
Body covering (from ectoderm)
Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal
organs (from mesoderm)
Digestive tract (from endoderm)
(a) Coelomate
15
  • A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the
    mesoderm and endoderm
  • Triploblastic animals that possess a pseudocoelom
    are called pseudocoelomates

16
Fig. 32-8b
Body covering (from ectoderm)
Pseudocoelom
Muscle layer (from mesoderm)
Digestive tract (from endoderm)
(b) Pseudocoelomate
17
  • Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity are
    called acoelomates

18
Fig. 32-8c
Body covering (from ectoderm)
Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm)
Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm)
(c) Acoelomate
19
Protostome and Deuterostome Development
  • Based on early development, many animals can be
    categorized as having protostome development or
    deuterostome development

20
Cleavage
  • In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and
    determinate
  • In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial
    and indeterminate
  • With indeterminate cleavage, each cell in the
    early stages of cleavage retains the capacity to
    develop into a complete embryo
  • Indeterminate cleavage makes possible identical
    twins, and embryonic stem cells

21
Fig. 32-9
Protostome development (examples
molluscs, annelids)
Deuterostome development (examples
echinoderm, chordates)
(a) Cleavage
Eight-cell stage
Eight-cell stage
Spiral and determinate
Radial and indeterminate
(b) Coelom formation
Key
Coelom
Ectoderm
Mesoderm
Archenteron
Endoderm
Coelom
Mesoderm
Blastopore
Mesoderm
Blastopore
Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom.
Folds of archenteron form coelom.
(c) Fate of the blastopore
Anus
Mouth
Digestive tube
Mouth
Anus
Mouth develops from blastopore.
Anus develops from blastopore.
22
Fig. 32-9a
Deuterostome development (examples
echinoderms, chordates)
Protostome development (examples
molluscs, annelids)
(a) Cleavage
Eight-cell stage
Eight-cell stage
Spiral and determinate
Radial and indeterminate
23
Coelom Formation
  • In protostome development, the splitting of solid
    masses of mesoderm forms the coelom
  • In deuterostome development, the mesoderm buds
    from the wall of the archenteron to form the
    coelom

24
Fig. 32-9b
Protostome development (examples
molluscs, annelids)
Deuterostome development (examples
echinoderms, chordates)
(b) Coelom formation
Coelom
Key
Ectoderm
Archenteron
Mesoderm
Endoderm
Coelom
Mesoderm
Blastopore
Blastopore
Mesoderm
Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom.
Folds of archenteron form coelom.
25
Fate of the Blastopore
  • The blastopore forms during gastrulation and
    connects the archenteron to the exterior of the
    gastrula
  • In protostome development, the blastopore becomes
    the mouth
  • In deuterostome development, the blastopore
    becomes the anus

26
Fig. 32-9c
Protostome development (examples
molluscs, annelids)
Deuterostome development (examples
echinoderms, chordates)
(c) Fate of the blastopore
Anus
Mouth
Key
Ectoderm
Digestive tube
Mesoderm
Endoderm
Anus
Mouth
Mouth develops from blastopore.
Anus develops from blastopore.
27
Modeling Time
  • Lets go back to the lab.
  • Take a sheet of paper with you
  • Pick up a direction sheet
  • Get 2 colors of dough

28
Invertebrates
  • Those without backbones make up about 95 of
    animals

29
Fig. 33-2
Calcarea and Silicea
ANCESTRAL PROTIST
Cnidaria
Lophotrochozoa
Common ancestor of all animals
Eumetazoa
Ecdysozoa
Bilateria
Deuterostomia
30
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31
Sponges
  • Lack true tissues and organs
  • Live in water (both fresh and salt)
  • suspension feeders, capturing food particles
    suspended in the water that pass through their
    body
  • Most sponges are hermaphrodites Each individual
    functions as both male and female

32
Fig. 33-4
Food particles in mucus
Flagellum
Choanocyte
Collar
Choanocyte
Osculum
Azure vase sponge (Callyspongia plicifera)
Spongocoel
Phagocytosis of food particles
Amoebocyte
Pore
Spicules
Epidermis
Water flow
Amoebocytes
Mesohyl
33
Cnidarians
  • include jellies, corals, and hydras
  • exhibit a relatively simple diploblastic, radial
    body plan
  • body plan is a sac with a central digestive
    compartment, the gastrovascular cavity
  • A single opening functions as mouth and anus
  • There are two variations on the body plan the
    sessile polyp and motile medusa
  • Carnivores that use tentacles to capture prey
  • Armed with enidocytes cells that fxn in defense
    and capturing prey
  • Nematocysts organelles that eject a stinging
    thread

34
Fig. 33-5
Mouth/anus
Tentacle
Polyp
Medusa
Gastrovascular cavity
Gastrodermis
Mesoglea
Body stalk
Epidermis
Tentacle
Mouth/anus
35
Fig. 33-6
Tentacle
Cuticle of prey
Thread
Nematocyst
Trigger
Thread discharges
Thread (coiled)
Cnidocyte
36
Flatworms
  • live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial
    habitats
  • acoelomates
  • They are flattened dorsoventrally and have a
    gastrovascular cavity
  • Gas exchange takes place across the surface

37
Fig. 33-10
Pharynx
Gastrovascular cavity
Mouth
Eyespots
Ganglia
Ventral nerve cords
38
Tapeworms
  • Tapeworms are parasites of vertebrates and lack a
    digestive system
  • Tapeworms absorb nutrients from the hosts
    intestine
  • Fertilized eggs, produced by sexual reproduction,
    leave the hosts body in feces

39
Rotifers
  • Rotifers are tiny animals that inhabit fresh
    water, the ocean, and damp soil
  • Rotifers have an alimentary canal, a digestive
    tube with a separate mouth and anus that lies
    within a fluid-filled pseudocoelom
  • Rotifers reproduce by parthenogenesis, in which
    females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs
  • Some species are unusual in that they lack males
    entirely

40
Mollusca
  • Phylum Mollusca includes snails and slugs,
    oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids
  • Most molluscs are marine
  • Molluscs are soft-bodied animals, but most are
    protected by a hard shell
  • All molluscs have a similar body plan with three
    main parts
  • Muscular foot
  • Visceral mass
  • Mantle
  • Many molluscs also have a water-filled mantle
    cavity, and feed using a rasplike radula

41
Fig. 33-15
Nephridium
Visceral mass
Heart
Coelom
Intestine
Gonads
Mantle
Stomach
Mantle cavity
Mouth
Shell
Radula
Anus
Gill
Radula
Mouth
Nerve cords
Esophagus
Foot
42
Gastropods
  • Most gastropods are marine,
  • Most have a single, spiraled shell
  • Slugs lack a shell or have a reduced shell
  • The most distinctive characteristic of gastropods
    is torsion, which causes the animals anus and
    mantle to end up above its head

43
Fig. 33-17
(a) A land snail
(b) A sea slug
44
Fig. 33-18
Intestine
Mantle cavity
Stomach
Anus
Mouth
45
Bivalves
  • Molluscs of class Bivalvia include many species
    of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops
  • They have a shell divided into two halves
  • The mantle cavity of a bivalve contains gills
    that are used for feeding as well as gas exchange

46
Fig. 33-19
47
Fig. 33-20
Coelom
Hinge area
Mantle
Gut
Heart
Adductor muscle
Digestive gland
Anus
Mouth
Excurrent siphon
Shell
Water flow
Palp
Foot
Incurrent siphon
Mantle cavity
Gonad
Gill
48
Cephalopods
Octopus
  • Class Cephalopoda includes squids and octopuses,
    carnivores with beak-like jaws surrounded by
    tentacles of their modified foot
  • Cephalopods have a closed circulatory system,
    well-developed sense organs, and a complex brain

Squid
Chambered nautilus
49
Annelids
  • Annelids have bodies composed of a series of
    fused rings

50
Concept 33.4 Ecdysozoans are the most
species-rich animal group
  • Ecdysozoans are covered by a tough coat called a
    cuticle
  • The cuticle is shed or molted through a process
    called ecdysis
  • The two largest phyla are nematodes and arthropods

51
Nematodes
  • Nematodes, or roundworms, are found in most
    aquatic habitats, in the soil, in moist tissues
    of plants, and in body fluids and tissues of
    animals
  • They have an alimentary canal, but lack a
    circulatory system
  • Reproduction in nematodes is usually sexual, by
    internal fertilization
  • Some are parasitic

52
Arthropods
  • The arthropod body plan consists of a segmented
    body, hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages,

53
Fig. 33-29
Cephalothorax
Abdomen
Antennae (sensory reception)
Thorax
Head
Swimming appendages (one pair located under
each abdominal segment)
Walking legs
Pincer (defense)
Mouthparts (feeding)
54
  • The body of an arthropod is completely covered by
    the cuticle, an exoskeleton made of layers of
    protein and the polysaccharide chitin
  • When an arthropod grows, it molts its exoskeleton
  • Arthropods have an open circulatory system in
    which fluid called hemolymph is circulated into
    the spaces surrounding the tissues and organs

55
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56
Echinoderms
  • Sea stars and most other echinoderms are
    slow-moving or sessile marine animals
  • A thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of hard
    calcareous plates
  • Echinoderms have a unique water vascular system,
    a network of hydraulic canals branching into tube
    feet that function in locomotion, feeding, and
    gas exchange
  • Males and females are usually separate, and
    sexual reproduction is external

57
Fig. 33-39
Stomach
Anus
Spine
Gills
Central disk
Digestive glands
Madreporite
Radial nerve
Gonads
Ring canal
Ampulla
Podium
Tube feet
Radial canal
58
Fig. 33-40
(a) A sea star (class Asteroidea)
(b) A brittle star (class Ophiuroidea)
(c) A sea urchin (class Echinoidea)
(d) A feather star (class Crinoidea)
(e) A sea cucumber (class Holothuroidea)
(f) A sea daisy (class Concentricycloidea)
59
Vertebrates
  • The ones with backbones

60
Chordata
  • Four key characters of chordates
  • Notochord
  • Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
  • Pharyngeal slits or clefts
  • Muscular, post-anal tail

61
Fig. 34-3
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Muscle segments
Notochord
Mouth
Anus
Pharyngeal slits or clefts
Muscular, post-anal tail
62
  • The notochord is a longitudinal, flexible rod
    between the digestive tube and nerve cord
  • It provides skeletal support throughout most of
    the length of a chordate
  • In most vertebrates, a more complex, jointed
    skeleton develops, and the adult retains only
    remnants of the embryonic notochord
  • The nerve cord of a chordate embryo develops from
    a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal
    to the notochord
  • The nerve cord develops into the central nervous
    system the brain and the spinal cord

63
  • In most chordates, grooves in the pharynx called
    pharyngeal clefts develop into slits that open to
    the outside of the body
  • Functions of pharyngeal slits
  • Suspension-feeding structures in many
    invertebrate chordates
  • Gas exchange in vertebrates (except vertebrates
    with limbs, the tetrapods)
  • Develop into parts of the ear, head, and neck in
    tetrapods

64
  • Chordates have a tail posterior to the anus
  • In many species, the tail is greatly reduced
    during embryonic development
  • The tail contains skeletal elements and muscles
  • It provides propelling force in many aquatic
    species

65
Early Chordate Evolution
  • Ancestral chordates may have resembled lancelets
  • Gene expression in lancelets holds clues to the
    evolution of the vertebrate form

66
Fig. 34-6
BF1
Otx
Hox3
Nerve cord of lancelet embryo
BF1
Hox3
Otx
Brain of vertebrate embryo (shown straightened)
Hindbrain
Forebrain
Midbrain
67
Concept 34.2 Craniates are chordates that have a
head
  • The origin of a head opened up a completely new
    way of feeding for chordates active predation
  • Craniates share some characteristics a skull,
    brain, eyes, and other sensory organs

68
Derived Characters of Craniates
  • Craniates have two clusters of Hox genes
    lancelets and tunicates have only one cluster
  • One feature unique to craniates is the neural
    crest, a collection of cells near the dorsal
    margins of the closing neural tube in an embryo
  • Neural crest cells give rise to a variety of
    structures, including some of the bones and
    cartilage of the skull

69
Fig. 34-7
Dorsal edges of neural plate
Neural crest
Neural tube
Migrating neural crest cells
Notochord
70
Derived Characters of Vertebrates
  • Vertebrates have the following derived
    characters
  • Vertebrae enclosing a spinal cord
  • An elaborate skull
  • Fin rays, in the aquatic forms

71
Lampreys
  • Lampreys (Petromyzontida) represent the oldest
    living lineage of vertebrates
  • They are jawless vertebrates inhabiting various
    marine and freshwater habitats
  • They have cartilaginous segments surrounding the
    notochord and arching partly over the nerve cord

72
Chondrichthyans (Sharks, Rays, and Their
Relatives)
  • Chondrichthyans (Chondrichthyes) have a skeleton
    composed primarily of cartilage
  • The cartilaginous skeleton evolved secondarily
    from an ancestral mineralized skeleton
  • Includes the sharks, rays, and skates

73
Pelvic fins
74
Fig. 34-16
Ray-Finned Fishes and Lobe-Fins
Swim bladder
Adipose fin (characteristic of trout)
Dorsal fin
Caudal fin
Spinal cord
Brain
Nostril
Anal fin
Cut edge of operculum
Lateral line
Liver
Gills
Anus
Gonad
Heart
Stomach
Urinary bladder
Pelvic fin
Kidney
Intestine
Fishes control their buoyancy with an air sac
known as a swim bladder
75
Fig. 34-17
(a) Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)
(b) Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris)
(c) Sea horse (Hippocampus       ramulosus)
(d) Fine-spotted moray eel (Gymnothorax
dovii)
76
Tetrapods
  • Tetrapods have some specific adaptations
  • Four limbs, and feet with digits
  • Ears for detecting airborne sounds

77
Fig. 34-19
Bones supporting gills
Tetrapod limb skeleton
78
Amphibians
  • Amphibian means both ways of life, referring to
    the metamorphosis of an aquatic larva into a
    terrestrial adult
  • Most amphibians have moist skin that complements
    the lungs in gas exchange
  • Fertilization is external in most species, and
    the eggs require a moist environment

79
Fig. 34-22
(a) Tadpole
(b) During metamorphosis
(c) Mating adults
80
Concept 34.6 Amniotes are tetrapods that have a
terrestrially adapted egg
  • Amniotes are a group of tetrapods whose living
    members are the reptiles, including birds, and
    mammals
  • Have an amniotic egg, which contains membranes
    that protect the embryo
  • Other terrestrial adaptations include relatively
    impermeable skin and the ability to use the rib
    cage to ventilate the lungs

81
Fig. 34-25
Chorion
Allantois
Yolk sac
Amnion
Embryo
Amniotic cavity with amniotic fluid
Yolk (nutrients)
Albumen
Shell
82
Reptiles
  • Reptiles have scales that create a waterproof
    barrier
  • They lay shelled eggs on land
  • Most reptiles are ectothermic, absorbing external
    heat as the main source of body heat
  • Birds are endothermic, capable of keeping the
    body warm through metabolism

83
Fig. 34-26
84
Birds
  • Many characters of birds are adaptations that
    facilitate flight
  • The major adaptation is wings with keratin
    feathers
  • Other adaptations include lack of a urinary
    bladder, females with only one ovary, small
    gonads, and loss of teeth

85
Fig. 34-28
Finger 1
(b) Bone structure
Palm
(a) Wing
Finger 2
Finger 3
Forearm
Wrist
Shaft
Shaft
Barb
Vane
Barbule
Hook
(c) Feather structure
86
Fig. 34-29
Toothed beak
Wing claw
Airfoil wing with contour feathers
Long tail with many vertebrae
87
Mammals
  • Mammals have
  • Mammary glands, which produce milk
  • Hair
  • A larger brain than other vertebrates of
    equivalent size
  • Differentiated teeth

88
three living lineages of mammals emerged
monotremes, marsupials, and eutherians
  • Monotremes are a small group of egg-laying
    mammals consisting of echidnas and the platypus
  • Marsupials when the embryo develops within a
    placenta in the mothers uterus
  • A marsupial is born very early in its development
  • It completes its embryonic development while
    nursing in a maternal pouch called a marsupium
  • eutherians have a longer period of pregnancy
  • Young eutherians complete their embryonic
    development within a uterus, joined to the mother
    by the placenta

89
Fig. 34-32
90
Fig. 34-33
(a) A young brushtail possum
(b) Long-nosed bandicoot
91
Fig. 34-34
Marsupial mammals
Eutherian mammals
Marsupial mammals
Eutherian mammals
Plantigale
Deer mouse
Wombat
Woodchuck
Marsupial mole
Mole
Wolverine
Tasmanian devil
Sugar glider
Flying squirrel
Patagonian cavy
Kangaroo
92
Primates
  • Most primates have hands and feet adapted for
    grasping
  • Other derived characters of primates
  • A large brain and short jaws
  • Forward-looking eyes close together on the face,
    providing depth perception
  • Complex social behavior and parental care
  • A fully opposable thumb (in monkeys and apes)

93
Fig. 34-36
94
Fig. 34-38
(a) New World monkey
(b) Old World monkey
95
Humans
  • A number of characters distinguish humans from
    other apes
  • Upright posture and bipedal locomotion
  • Larger brains
  • Language capabilities and symbolic thought
  • The manufacture and use of complex tools
  • Shortened jaw
  • Shorter digestive tract

96
Fig. 34-40
Paranthropus robustus
Homo sapiens
Homo neanderthalensis
0
?
Homo ergaster
Paranthropus boisei
0.5
1.0
Australopithecus africanus
1.5
2.0
Kenyanthropus platyops
2.5
Australopithecus garhi
Australo- pithecus anamensis
Homo erectus
3.0
Millions of years ago
3.5
Homo habilis
Homo rudolfensis
4.0
4.5
Australopithecus afarensis
Ardipithecus ramidus
5.0
5.5
Orrorin tugenensis
6.0
6.5
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
7.0
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