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Foundation Training in Laboratory Safety

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Title: Foundation Training in Laboratory Safety


1
Foundation Training in Laboratory Safety
  • Faculty Safety Managers
  • Stefan Hoyle, Jan de Abela-Borg

2
Module 3Gases and cryogenics
3

Objectives
  • Reinforce basics of risk assessment
  • Explain how gases and cryogenics can cause harm
  • Identify and understand control measures to
    minimise
  • exposure
  • Identify other potential hazards within the
    laboratory setting

4
Common gases - physical properties and hazards
CARBON DIOXIDE (GASEOUS) Description Colourless, odourless gas. Pungent odour at high concs. Relative density (Air 1) 1.52 Flammable? No Workplace Exposure Limits 1.5 (short term), 0.5 (long term) Hazards Intoxicating at high concentrations (5)
5
Common gases - physical properties and hazards
CARBON DIOXIDE (SOLID) Description Translucent white solid Pellets or flakes. Relative density (Air 1) 1.52 Flammable? No Workplace Exposure Limits 1.5 (short term), 0.5 (long term) Hazards Cold burns / frostbite Sublimes to form gaseous CO2 asphyxiation risk
6
Common gases - physical properties and hazards
Dont play games with dry ice!
7
Common gases - physical properties and hazards
NITROGEN (GASEOUS) Description Colourless, odourless gas. Present in air 78 Relative density (Air 1) 0.97 Flammable? No Workplace Exposure Limits None Hazards Asphyxiation by reduction in O2 content of air
8
Common gases - physical properties and hazards
NITROGEN (LIQUID) Description Colourless, odourless liquid (-196oC) Relative density (Air 1) Cold gas / vapour heavier than air Expansion factor of x700 Flammable? No Workplace Exposure Limits None Hazards Asphyxiation evolved gas will displace air Cryogenic burns Frostbite and hypothermia in certain circumstances
9
Common gases - physical properties and hazards
HYDROGEN Description Colourless, odourless gas Relative density (Air 1) 0.07 Flammable? Extremely Workplace Exposure Limits None Hazards Fire and explosion
10
Hazard information
MSDS and Hazard Labels
11
Foreseeable risks
Uncontrolled release of gas due to
  • Regulator failure
  • Failure of pipe work or tubing connecting
    cylinder to other equipment
  • Over pressurisation
  • Damage caused by impact e.g. falling cylinder or
    vessel
  • Damage caused by fire

12
The control hierarchy
13
Control measures
  • Ensure that regulators, pressure vessels etc. are
    subject to maintenance and inspection regimes
  • Ensure cylinders are secure and away from sources
    of heat
  • Training ensure that users are familiar with
    the equipment and the properties of the
    substances they are handling

14
Control measures
  • Wear appropriate Personal Protective Equipment
    (PPE)
  • Ventilation ensure that it is adequate
  • Ensure the physical environment is suitable for
    liquid nitrogen dispensing e.g. floor surfaces,
    adequate space for manoeuvre
  • Consider fixed point gas detection monitors /
    alarms
  • Ensure emergency procedures have been considered

15
Some Dos
  • Always
  • Store bulk quantities of cylinders upright in
    purpose-designed storage areas
  • Segregate full and empty cylinders
  • Segregate flammable and non-flammable gases
  • Keep cylinder valves clean
  • Ensure the correct regulators are fitted
  • Ensure the regulator is designed to take the
    cylinder pressure
  • Observe for faults and leaks at each time of use

16
and some Donts
  • Never
  • Tamper with cylinders in any way
  • Dispose of cylinders in any way other than
    returning them to the suppliers
  • Oil or grease cylinder fittings
  • Use PTFE tape to achieve a seal
  • Use non-standard cylinder keys
  • Snift hydrogen or toxic gases

17
Manual handling cylinders and vessels
  • Make use of the BOC point-to-point service on
    sites where this is in force
  • Plan your route in advance
  • Avoid moving cylinders through populated work
    areas
  • Report problems with paths and roadways to
    Estates
  • Be aware of your physical capabilities some
    jobs need to be carried out by two people
  • Use purpose designed trolleys
  • Never roll a cylinder
  • Dont attempt to catch a cylinder if it falls
  • Never transport a cylinder off site without
    consulting BOC / College Safety Department
  • Never travel in a lift with liquid nitrogen
    vessels

18
Removing specimens from liquid nitrogen vessels
There is a risk that vials may explode as liquid
nitrogen warms and converts from liquid form to
gaseous PRECAUTIONS
  • Store the samples in the vapour phase
  • Place the vial into secondary containment
    immediately after removal
  • Wear appropriate PPE e.g. full face visor

19
Carrying out and recording the risk assessment
STEP 1 Identify the hazards STEP 2
Identify who may be at risk STEP 3 Establish
control measures STEP 4 Record the
assessment STEP 5 Review the assessment
20
Accidents do happen
  • CO2 cylinder safety valve vented
  • Cylinders left unsupported
  • Cylinders obstructing fire escape route
  • Leaks from reducing valve
  • Cylinders dropped / fell in transit
  • Liquid nitrogen vessel toppled in transit
  • Burst silicone tubing carrying gas
  • Connector tubing became detached
  • Failure of trolley wheels on liquid nitrogen
    vessel
  • Structural failure in neck of liquid nitrogen
    vessel

21
Lasers, radiation, and an assortment of other
potential hazards in the laboratory
22
Radiation
  • All persons working with ionising radiations must
    be registered.
  • All work with ionising radiations must be
    registered.
  • Before starting work with ionising radiation you
    must
  • 1. Register as a Radiation Worker with the Safety
    Dept.
  • 2. Attend Safety Department Principles of
    Radiation Protection Course.
  • 3. Attend Local Induction Training Course (RPS
    will arrange).
  • 4. Ensure your work is registered with the Safety
    Dept.
  • http//www3.imperial.ac.uk/safety/g
    uidanceandadvice

23
Lasers
  • All work with lasers in college must be
    registered
  • All people working with lasers must be registered
  • All college Departments where lasers are used
  • must have a Departmental Laser Safety Officer
    (DLSO)
  • Anyone wishing to work with lasers must see the
    DLSO before they start work
  • they will then be informed of the Departmental
    procedure for registering
  • and risk assessing the work.
  • All work with class 3B class 4 lasers must be
    registered with the Safety Department.
  • Before starting work you must attend the College
    Laser Course.
  • You will receive further training locally as
    required.
  • 95 of laser accidents are caused by
  • Unanticipated eye exposure during alignment
  • Misaligned optics and upwardly directed beams
  • Available laser eye protection not used
  • Suitable and sufficient training is vital to
    ensure competency!

24
Magnetic fields
  • Safety issues
  • Nitrogen and Helium
  • Risk assessment / code of practice
  • Training
  • Limited access
  • No metal tools, swipe cards, mobile phones
  • Gauss lines

25
High / low pressure / vacuum
  • Safety issues
  • Implosion / Explosion
  • Risk assessment
  • Training

26
High Voltage / Electricity
  • Safety issues
  • Risk of electrocution / burns / death
  • Overload of systems
  • Fire
  • Competent design
  • PAT and electrical testing
  • Segregation from liquids
  • Risk assessment
  • Training
  • Lone working issues
  • Interlocks

27
Centrifuges
  • Main causes of rotor failure
  • Incorrect Loading
  • Overloading
  • Corrosion/Stress Corrosion
  • Fatigue / Old Age

Rotor Care What it means in practice
Before each run Is my rotor corrosion-free? Is
the anodising intact? Is the rotor within its
service life? Are the O rings in place and not
degraded? Are samples balanced and loaded? Is the
rotor secure? Is the lid in place?
After every run Keep it clean Keep it dry Remove
rubber cushions Store upside down in a warm
place Polish regularly
28
Machine tools
  • Safety issues
  • Machines
  • Risk of injury
  • Guarding
  • Emergency stops
  • Training / competency
  • Lock off key
  • Soldering
  • Respiratory problems e.g. due to colophony
  • Burns / fire
  • COSHH
  • LEV (dispersal or extraction)

29
What next for you ?
Local lab inductions including emergency
procedures and waste routes
Training needs analysis Speak to supervisor and
discuss training needs for now and future using
Dept training needs analysis form (book and
attend identified courses)
  • Risk Assessments
  • Go through risk assessments associated with your
    work with your
  • supervisor and review as required, write new
    where necessary.
  • Local training
  • Will be ongoing as you progress.
  • Further information available on Dept and Safety
    Dept websites.

30
Lab safety training
CL2 / CL3 / GM training
Fieldwork courses
Laser training
Radiation training
Lab foundation training All those requiring
training start here
Gas and cryogenics training
Centrifuge and other equipment training
RAFT
Fire safety training
CBS training
31
Objectives MCQs
  • Short MCQ test to help us ensure
  • that the learning objectives for the
  • course have been met.......

32
What is the correct definition of a hazard?
  1. Something with the potential to cause harm
  2. A physical object that can cause significant
    injury
  3. A process which always results in harm
  4. Something that will cause significant injury

33
What is the correct definition of risk?
  1. The likelihood that harm will occur to one or
    more people
  2. A description of the severity of harm from
    anything
  3. How harm occurs to the environment, people or
    equipment
  4. The likelihood and severity of harm occurring

34
A biological agent in hazard group 2 cannot be
used at containment level
  1. 2
  2. 1
  3. 2, 3 or 4
  4. 2 or 4
  5. 3

35
A Class I microbiological safety cabinet
provides
  1. Protection to the user and others in the lab only
  2. 100 Protection to the user and samples in the
    cabinet
  3. A negative pressure to protect the samples
  4. Airflows that ensure a sterile environment is
    maintained in the cabinet
  5. Protection to the user and a sterile environment
    for any samples

36
A Class II Microbiological safety cabinet
cannotbe used when
  1. Changing the media on cells infected with a
    airborne human pathogen
  2. Creating aerosols when homogenizing human
    tissues
  3. Performing reactions using chemicals with a
    inhalation risk

37
Which of the following is unlikely to affect the
containment in a fume hood?
  1. A person rushing passed the front of the hood
  2. Positioning a double fridge beside the fume hood
  3. Positioning a storage cupboard at right angles to
    the fume hood
  4. Slowly lowering the sash while an experiment is
    in progress
  5. Opening a window in the lab

38
The 5 steps of Risk Assessment are?
  • A) Identify the hazards /establish control
    measures / test control measures / inform and
    instruct staff / record the assessment
  • B) Identify the hazards / identify who may be
    harmed and how / establish control measures /
    record the assessment / review the assessment
  • C) Identify the hazards /establish control
    measures / test control measures / record the
    assessment / inform and instruct staff

39
Which of the following would you not do if your
fume hood breaks down during a hazardous
procedure?
  • A) Make the experiment safe
  • B) Turn off ignition sources
  • C) Cool the equipment by spraying with tap water
  • D) Close reagent containers
  • E) Inform your demonstrator/supervisor immediately

40
Working in a fume hood would mitigate against
which of these routes of exposure to chemicals?
  • A) Ingestion
  • B) Inhalation
  • C) Skin contact

41
Which of the following is not a correct
statement?
  • When liquid nitrogen becomes gaseous it expands
    approximately 700 times
  • Nitrogen replaces the oxygen in the air and can
    lead to asphyxiation
  • Gas cylinders should always be stored flat on the
    floor or on a bench
  • Changing gas regulators requires specific
    training
  • Manual handling training is advisable for anyone
    moving gas cylinders

42
To use a high power Class 4 laser which of these
action chains should you follow?
  1. Turn laser on / Look for the beam to check if it
    is working / Avoid looking directly down the beam
    / Wear a pair of safety goggles
  2. Register with the Departmental Laser Safety
    Officer / Attend laser user Training / Wear a
    pair of Laser safety goggles / Turn laser on
  3. Register with the Departmental Laser Safety
    Officer / Attend laser user Training / Await
    supervision and training for use of the specific
    laser / Wear appropriate Laser Safety Goggles if
    required.

43
You are untrained in the use of mechanical
workshop equipment and you need a hole drilled in
a piece of metal as part of your research, which
of these action chains should you follow?
  1. Ask a mate to instruct you how to drill a hole /
    Find the nearest power drill / Find some Safety
    Glasses / Then drill the hole
  2. Buy a power drill / Buy some Safety Glasses / Ask
    a mate to instruct you how to use the drill /
    Then drill hole
  3. Find some Safety Glasses / Find the nearest Lab
    Technician / Ask if you can borrow their power
    drill / Then drill the hole
  4. Go to the nearest mechanical workshop / Ask for a
    Mechanical Technician / Ask them to drill the
    hole for you
  5. Go into the nearest mechanical workshop / Find
    some Safety Glasses / Find the nearest Mechanical
    Technician / Ask to use their pedestal drill

44
Reminder course learning objectives
  • Module 1
  • Be able to define Hazard and risk
  • Describe basics of risk assessment
  • Explain relationship between Bio Hazard Groups
    and Lab Containment levels
  • List the routes of exposure
  • Describe the mode of operation of Microbiological
    safety cabinets
  • Module 2
  • Explain how chemicals can cause harm
  • Identify and understand control measures to
    minimise chemical exposure
  • Describe how fume cupboards work and how to use
    them
  • Module 3
  • Explain how gases and cryogenics can cause
    harm
  • Identify other potential hazards within the
    laboratory setting

45
Did the course meet its learning objectives?
  1. Yes
  2. No
  3. Partially
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