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The influence of parental involvement practices on student self-regulation

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Title: The influence of parental involvement practices on student self-regulation


1
The influence of parental involvement practices
on student self-regulation
  • Joan M. T. Walker
  • Long Island University
  • and
  • Christa L. Green, Kathleen V. Hoover-Dempsey
    Howard M. Sandler
  • Vanderbilt University

This research was supported by OERI Grant
R305T010673, The Social Context of Parental
Involvement A Path to Enhanced Achievement
2
Parental involvement ? Student learning and
development
  • Across cultures, parenting practices are vehicles
    for child socialization
  • Families have similar goals (Cole, 1996 Maccoby,
    1992 Rogoff, 1990)
  • Providing shelter, food, a safe environment
  • Teaching skills, attitudes, values needed for
    productive adult life.
  • Within context of education, parenting practices
    are important resources for childrens school
    success (Grolnick Ryan, 1989 Hoover-Dempsey et
    al., 2001)

3
Parental involvement in homework
  • Provides a useful context in which to observe
    parental influence on child learning
  • Common valued activity generalizable across U.S.
    families
  • Narrow-band activity accessible to empirical
    examination

4
How are parents involved in homework?
  • Simultaneous efforts to help the child arrange
    the environment, manage time monitoring of
    attention, motivation, and emotional responses to
    homework (Xu Corno, 1998)
  • Two categories of involvement practices
    (Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2001)
  • General efforts to create a supportive context
  • Establishing structures, providing oversight
    reinforcing and encouraging
  • Cognitive involvement in homework tasks
  • Explicit teaching, creating a fit between
    homework tasks and student skill level helping
    child understand how skills relate to achievement
  • 4 major mechanisms (Martinez-Pons, 1996)
  • Modeling, Encouragement, Facilitation, and
    Rewarding

5
What child outcomes do parent involvement
practices influence?
  • Autonomy support (encouragement of independent
    problem-solving)
  • Structure (clear, consistent guidelines and
    expectations).
  • Mother-child relationship quality and involvement
    routines
  • Emotional and cognitive support
  • Self-regulation, school grades and achievement
    (Grolnick Ryan, 1989).
  • Childrens beliefs that they were responsible for
    their success or failure (Grolnick Ryan, 1989).
  • Self-regulation (e.g., planning before acting,
    working toward goals Brody, Flor Gibson, 1999)
  • Persistence at difficult learning tasks Fewer
    ability attributions (Hokoda Fincham, 1995)
  • Self-monitoring and metacognitive talk (Stright
    et al., 2001)

6
How does the relation between parent involvement
and child self-regulation operate?
  • Social Learning (Bandura, 1986) Internalization
    of external activity
  • Children bring an external product (parent
    behavior) into the internal plane (child
    behavior)
  • Sociocultural (Rogoff, 1990) Appropriation from
    shared activity
  • Shared activities are transformed and used by
    individuals according to their understanding and
    involvement
  • Interaction with skilled adults assists children
    in internalizing important skills and
    understandings
  • Adaptation to new situations, structuring of
    problem-solving efforts, and assumption of
    responsibility for problem-solving.

7
Hoover-Dempsey Sandler (1995, 2005) Model of
Parental Influence on Student Outcomes
Modeling
Reinforcement
Modeling
Reinforcement
Instruction
Instruction
Encouragement
Encouragement
Parental Involvement Mechanisms
8
Our research questions
  • Across 2 studies we asked
  • Are parental involvement mechanisms perceived
    differently by parents and children?
  • Examined parents self-reported practices and
    childrens perceptions of those practices
  • Do involvement mechanisms appear to influence
    child self-regulation directly or indirectly?
  • Tested for mediation of parent involvement
    influence via childs perceptions of the parents
    practices

9
Expectations
  • Are parental involvement mechanisms perceived
    differently by parents and children?
  • Mechanisms will be perceived by parents and
    children as independent but inter-related
    constructs
  • Parent self-reports and student perceptions will
    be positively related at modest levels
  • Do involvement mechanisms appear to influence
    child self-regulation directly or indirectly?
  • Influence of mechanisms will be mediated by child
    perceptions of the parents practices

10
Conditions for mediation
Student perceptions of involvement mechanism
Parental Involvement Mechanisms
Parental Involvement Mechanism
Student self-regulation
11
Study 1 Participants and Procedures
  • 6 elementary and 2 middle schools in public
    Metropolitan school system in mid-South of U.S.
  • 421 dyads one parent for each 4th-6th grade
    student (response rate 33)
  • 50 of students and 76 of parents were female
  • Majority of parents had some college, worked
    full-time average income 30K/year
  • 38 African-American, 37 White, 15 Hispanic, 6
    Asian
  • 89 completed questionnaires in English 11
    completed parallel Spanish questionnaires.

12
Parent Mechanisms
  • Questionnaire assessing use of involvement
    mechanisms (based on Martinez-Pons, 1996 28
    items rated on a 6-point scale (1 not at all
    true, 6 completely true a .93)
  • Modeling, 5 items (a .80)
  • We show this child that we like to learn new
    things.
  • Encouragement, 5 items (a .83)
  • We encourage this child to keep trying when
    things get difficult.
  • Reinforcement, 5 items (a .89)
  • We show this child we like it when s/he
    explains what s/he thinks to the teacher.
  • Instruction, 13 items (a .87)
  • We teach this child how to check his or her
    work.

13
Student perceptions
  • Questionnaire assessing student perceptions of
    the parents use of involvement mechanisms 47
    items rated on a 4-point scale (1 not at all
    true for me, 4 very true for me a .92)
  • Preceded by stem, The person in my family who
    usually helps me with my homework
  • Modeling, 14 items (a .70)
  • likes to learn new things.
  • Encouragement, 5 items (a .69)
  • encourages me to keep trying when I dont feel
    like doing my schoolwork.
  • Reinforcement, 13 items (a .87)
  • shows me s/he likes it when I explain what I
    think to the teacher.
  • Instruction, 15 items (a .81)
  • teaches me how to check my homework as I go
    along.

14
Student self-regulation
  • Self-report questionnaire 19 items rated on a
    4-point scale (1 not at all true for me, 4
    very true for me a .84)
  • Intrinsic motivation to learn (4 items, a .67
    Stipek Gralinski, 1996)
  • I want to learn new things.
  • Strategy use (7 items, a .64 Stipek
    Gralinski, 1996)
  • I go back over things I dont understand.
  • Academic self-efficacy (4 items, a .65 Roeser
    et al., 1996)
  • I can do even the hardest homework if I try.
  • Social self-efficacy for relating to teachers (4
    items, a .65 Ryan Patrick, 2001)
  • I find it easy to go and talk with my teachers.

15
Results
  • Are parental involvement mechanisms perceived
    differently by parents and children?
  • Factor analyses with promax rotation
  • Parents 4 clear factors emerged
  • some overlap between instruction and
    reinforcement
  • Children No clear factors
  • Correlations between parent reports and
    childrens perceptions of the parents behavior
  • Modeling, r .14, p lt .01
  • Encouragement, r .16, p lt .01
  • Reinforcement, r .16, p lt .01
  • Instruction, r .16, p lt .01

16
Correlations among mechanisms
Parent self-reported use of mechanisms
Child perceptions of parent mechanisms
17
Do involvement mechanisms influence
self-regulation directly or indirectly?
Student perceptions of involvement mechanisms
  • .59 t 14.99, p lt .000

b .20 t 4.23, p lt .000
b .58, t 14.56, p lt .000
Parental Involvement Mechanisms
  • .21 t 4.48, p lt .000

b .08 t 1.98, p lt .05
18
Study 1 Conclusions
  • Parents and children appear to experience the
    parents involvement as a complex, co-occurring
    set of mechanisms
  • Parent and child reports are not interchangeable
  • Influence of parent involvement mechanisms
    appears to be mediated by childrens perceptions
    of the parents practices

19
Study 2 Participants and Procedures
  • 5 elementary and 4 middle schools in public
    Metropolitan school system in mid-South of U.S.
  • 358 dyads one parent for each 4th-6th grade
    student (response rate 22)
  • Females 48 of students and 83 of parents
  • Majority of parents had some college, 21 had a
    bachelors degree 37 worked full-time, 43
    worked part-time average income 30-40K/year
  • 28 African-American, 57 White, 7 Hispanic, 4
    Asian
  • 89 completed questionnaires in English 11
    completed parallel Spanish questionnaires.

20
Study 2 Measures
  • Scales modified based on Study 1 results
  • Balanced number of items per subscale made items
    more parallel
  • Parent use of involvement mechanisms (a .97)
  • Student perceptions of mechanisms (a .95)
  • Student self-regulation (a .86)

21
Study 2 Scale Reliabilities Study 2 Scale Reliabilities
Parent reported use of involvement mechanisms (51 items) .97
Encouragement (13 items) .92
Modeling (10 items) .94
Reinforcement (13 items) .96
Instruction (15 items) .92
Student perceptions of involvement mechanisms (50 items) .95
Encouragement (12 items) .87
Modeling (10 items) .75
Reinforcement (13 items) .87
Instruction (15 items) .86
Student self-regulation (17 items) .86
Academic self-efficacy (3 items) .71
Intrinsic motivation to learn (3 items) .66
Strategy use (6 items) .61
Social self-efficacy for relating to teachers (5 items) .72
22
Study 2 Results
  • Are involvement mechanisms perceived differently
    by parents and children?
  • Factor analyses with promax rotation
  • Parents 4 clear factors emerged
  • Children no discernable patterns emerged
  • Correlations between parent reports and
    childrens perceptions of the parents behavior
  • Modeling, r .22, p lt .01
  • Reinforcement, r .16, p lt .01
  • Instruction, r .17, p lt .01
  • Encouragement, r .14, p lt .01

23
Correlations among mechanisms
Encouragement
Modeling
Reinforcement
 
--
.54
Modeling
Modeling .47 --  
Reinforcement .68 .52 --
Instruction .72 .56 .75
--
.57
.59
Reinforcement
.55
.44
.50
Instruction
Parent self-reported use of mechanisms
Child perceptions of parent mechanisms
Parent self-reported use of mechanisms
Child perceptions of parent mechanisms
24
Study 2 Mediation
Student perceptions of involvement mechanisms
b .69, t 17.84, p lt .000
b .12, t 2.26, p lt .05
b .69, t 17.54, p lt .000
Parental Involvement Mechanisms
b .19, t 3.65, p lt .05
b -.01, t .30, p .76
25
Conclusions and implications
  • Parent and child perceptions of involvement
    mechanisms are substantially different.
  • Investigations of parental influence on child
    development and learning should include child
    perceptions of parents practices (Steinberg et
    al., 1989).
  • Parental involvement appears to be influential
    via childrens attention, perceptions and
    processes.
  • Suggests that child self-regulation develops
    through a process of co-construction
  • Child invitations to involvement
  • More investigations of childrens experiences
    during parental involvement activities (e.g., Xu,
    2006)

26
Next steps
  • Developmental trends in childrens ability to
    attend to, perceive, or process the parents
    actions
  • Child and family characteristics as moderators?
  • Triangulation of methods
  • Parent and child interviews
  • Naturalistic observation of parent-child
    interactions
  • Structured observation plus prompted recall
  • Multiple indicators of child performance
  • Teacher ratings, child achievement data

27
Purpose of the study
  • Address complexity of parental involvement
    practices
  • Focused on 4 mechanisms of parental influence as
    manifested in homework involvement
  • Modeling, Encouragement, Reinforcement,
    Instruction
  • Test theoretical perspectives explaining how
    these mechanisms may influence student
    self-regulation.

28
Study 1 Scale Reliabilities Study 1 Scale Reliabilities
Parent reported use of involvement mechanisms (28 items) .93
Encouragement (5 items) .83
Modeling (5 items) .80
Reinforcement (5 items) .89
Instruction (13 items) .87
Student perceptions of involvement mechanisms (47 items) .92
Encouragement (5 items) .69
Modeling (14 items) .70
Reinforcement (13 items) .87
Instruction (15 items) .81
Student self-regulation (19 items) .84
Academic self-efficacy (4 items) .65
Intrinsic motivation to learn (4 items) .67
Self-regulatory strategy use (7 items) .64
Social self-efficacy for relating to teachers (4 items) .65
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