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Twelfth Night

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Twelfth Night William Shakespeare Shakespearean Romantic Comedy: The main action is about love. The would-be lovers must overcome obstacles and misunderstandings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Twelfth Night


1
Twelfth Night
  • William Shakespeare

2
Setting in Illyria, an ancient city along the
Adriatic Coast of Italy
3
Shakespearean Romantic Comedy 
  • The main action is about love.
  • The would-be lovers must overcome obstacles and
    misunderstandings before being united in
    harmonious union. The ending often includes
    weddings and a festive mood or celebration.

4
Shakespearean Romantic Comedy 
  • Frequently, contains elements of the improbable
    unbelievable coincidences, improbable scenes of
    recognition/lack of recognition, disregard of the
    social order (nobles marrying commoners, beggars
    changed to lords).

5
Shakespearean Romantic Comedy 
  • The happy ending is brought about through
    supernatural or divine intervention or improbable
    turns of events.

6
Shakespearean Romantic Comedy 
  • Twelfth Night moves from a potentially tragic
    situation (shipwreck and loss) into the realm of
    romantic comedy (unions and reunions).  The
    movement from conflict, sterility and death (two
    women who mourn supposedly dead brothers) to
    fertility, harmony and life (three couples
    happily celebrate marriages that may lead to
    future births) is typical of Shakespeare's
    comedies.

7
Shakespearean Romantic Comedy
  • In the best comedies, there is a philosophical
    aspect involving weightier issues and themes
    personal identity the importance of love in
    human existence the disjunction between
    appearance and reality.

8
Twelfth Night Celebration
  • Twelfth Night was first written for the
    festivities of the feast of the Epiphany (the
    "twelfth night" of Christmas, 1/6)

9
Twelfth Night Celebration
In Shakespeare's time, the Advent season was
penitential, and the Christmas celebrating only
began on December 25th. "Twelfth Night" is
January 5-6, the twelfth night after Christmas.
It marked the end of the festive season with
the arrival of the wise men. It was a time for
partying and gift-giving.
10
T W E L F T H
N I G H T
11
Twelfth Night Celebration
  • Celebrated by breaking society's conventions
    masters waiting on servants, and people being
    allowed to play whatever roles they wanted ("what
    you will").
  • This "world upside-down" theme is reflected in
    the mismatched (potential) couples in the play
    and the themes of folly, madness and foolishness.

12
Twelfth Night Celebration
  • In the UK, people used to have parties on Twelfth
    Night and it was traditional to play practical
    jokes on your friends and neighbors.
  • These included tricks such as hiding live birds
    in an empty pie case, so that they flew away when
    your startled guests cut open the crusts.

13
Twelfth Night Celebration
The subtitle is "What You Will", perhaps an
invitation to invent your own title or even a
reminder of the theme that happiness can be your
own choice.
14
Jester/Fool
  • In the era of kings, the court jester had one
    special privilege to speak plainly to the king
    and tell him the blunt truth.
  • In "Twelfth Night", behind all the humor, both
    the jester and the play tell a truth that is
    happy and sad
  • Life is full of sadness. The best years of life
    are short. Events are cruel. And other people are
    cruel. In such a world, it is your DUTY to find
    and cherish whatever real happiness you can.

15
Jester/Fool
  • Feste is a fool who seems to know more than most
    of the people around him. He is
    multi-dimensional, sometimes portrayed as a bit
    of a seer. He is a slightly tragic, sad
    character.
  • Youths the stuff will not endure.
  • "The rain it raineth every day."

16
Puritanism The haunting fear that someone,
somewhere, may be happy.-- H.L. Mencken
  • In "Twelfth Night" Malvolio gets called a
    "Puritan"
  • Tied to the play's major theme -- the search for
    happiness.
  • In Shakespeare's time, England's Puritans were
    members of the English national church who
    emphasized the authority of the Bible.

17
Puritanism The haunting fear that someone,
somewhere, may be happy.-- H.L. Mencken
  • Bible readers who applied the guidelines of
    scripture to their private and public lives
  • Refrained from pleasures that others considered
    harmless
  • Burned colorful church furnishings and smashed
    stained-glass windows as political expressions

18
Puritanism The haunting fear that someone,
somewhere, may be happy.-- H.L. Mencken
  • Wore drab clothing, stayed cold-sober, made
    holidays solemn instead of festive, and refused
    to do anything fun on Sunday
  • People disliked the Puritans for their
    "holier-than-thou" mentality and their agenda to
    force their conservative lifestyle on everyone

19
Dramatic Literary Terms
20
Monologue
  • One person speaking on stage. There may be other
    characters on stage too.
  • the Prince of Verona commanding the Capulets and
    Montagues to cease feuding

PRINCE  81   Rebellious subjects, enemies to
peace,  82   Profaners of this neighbor-stained
steel  83   Will they not hear? What, ho! you
men, you beasts  84   That quench the fire of
your pernicious rage  85   With purple fountains
issuing from your veins,  86   On pain of
torture, from those bloody hands  87   Throw
your mistemper'd weapons to the ground,
 88   And hear the sentence of your moved
prince.  89   Three civil brawls, bred of an
airy word,  90   By thee, old Capulet, and
Montague,  91   Have thrice disturb'd the quiet
of our streets,  92   And made Verona's ancient
citizens  93   Cast by their grave beseeming
ornaments,  94   To wield old partisans, in
hands as old,  95   Canker'd with peace, to part
your canker'd hate  96   If ever you disturb
our streets again,  97   Your lives shall pay
the forfeit of the peace.  98   For this time,
all the rest depart away  99   You Capulet
shall go along with me 100   And, Montague,
come you this afternoon, 101   To know our
further pleasure in this case, 102   To old
Free-town, our common judgment-place. 103   Once
more, on pain of death, all men depart.
21
Soliloquy
  • A type of monologue in which a character directly
    addresses the audience or speaks thoughts aloud
    while alone on stage or while the other actors
    remain silent
  • In R J, Romeo gives a soliloquy after the
    servant has fled and Paris has died.

22
Aside
  • Words spoken, usually in an undertone not
    intended to be heard by all characters

23
Literary Terms
24
Allusion
  • An allusion is a reference to a well known work
    of art, music, literature, or history.
  • At lovers perjuries, they say Jove laughs.
    (Act II, Sc. 2)
  • Jove is another name for Jupiter, the Roman King
    of the Gods.

25
Pun
  • A form of wit (not necessarily funny) based on
    words with several meanings, or words that sound
    alike but have different meanings in plays this
    can help deliver dramatic irony because the
    audience gets the double meaning while the
    characters do not
  • Mercutio Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you
    dance.
  • Romeo Not I, believe me. You have dancing
    shoes / With nimble soles I have a soul of
    lead

26
Dramatic Irony
  • A contradiction between what a character thinks
    and what the reader/audience knows to be true
  • Lord Capulets servant invites Romeo to the
    party. He doesnt know that Romeo is a Montague,
    but we do.

27
Verbal Irony
  • Words used to suggest the opposite of what is
    meant
  • Juliet - Farewell, God knows when we shall meet
    again. (Act 4, scene 3)
  • Juliet says goodbye to her mother and nurse
    knowing that she will never see them again.

28
Situational Irony
An event occurs that directly contradicts the
expectations of the characters, the reader, or
the audience
In Shakespeare's play young lovers, the do end up
spending eternity together, but not in the way
the audience had hoped.
29
On to Act I
30
The End
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