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MENTAL HEALTH FIRST AID

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Title: MENTAL HEALTH FIRST AID


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Handling Mental Health Concerns in the
WorkplaceMental Health First Aid USA for
Library Staff
  • Presentation by
  • Bryan V. Gibb
  • Director of Public Education
  • The National Council for Community Behavioral
    Healthcare
  • Program content based upon Mental Health First
    Aid USA

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Overview
  • How common is mental illness?
  • Impact in the workplace
  • What is Mental Health First Aid?
  • Signs and symptoms of various mental illnesses
  • Importance of early intervention, treatment and
    support
  • How can you get someone help? How to respond
    safely

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U.S. Adults with a Mental Disorder in Any One Year
Type of Mental Disorder Adults
Anxiety disorder 18.1 .
Major depressive disorder 6.7 .
Substance use disorder 3.8 .
Bipolar disorder 2.6 .
Eating disorders 2.1 .
Schizophrenia 1.1 .
Any mental disorder 26.2 .
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Workplace Impact of Mental Illness
  • Major Depressive Disorder is the leading cause of
    disability in the U.S. for ages 15-44.
  • An estimated 26.2 percent of Americans ages 18
    and older about one in four adults suffer from
    a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year
  • Serious mental illnesses (SMIs), which afflict
    about 6 of American adults, cost society 193.2
    billion a year in lost earnings
  • Behavioral health issues cause 217 million missed
    workdays annually
  • Depression was identified as the most costly
    health condition among a group of 10 large
    employers when combining costs from medical,
    pharmacy, absenteeism, and presenteeism
  • (Source 2010 Disability Management Employer
    Coalition Report)

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What Is a Mental Disorder?
A mental disorder or mental illness is a
diagnosable illness that
  • Affects a persons thinking, emotional state, and
    behavior
  • Disrupts the persons ability to
  • Work
  • Carry out daily activities
  • Engage in satisfying relationships

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What Is Mental Health First Aid?
  • Mental Health First Aid is the help offered to a
    person developing a mental health problem or
    experiencing a mental health crisis. The first
    aid is given until appropriate treatment and
    support are received or until the crisis resolves.

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Mental Health First Aid by the Numbers
  • 2,400 Instructors
  • 49 states, DC Puerto Rico
  • 70,000 individuals trained

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Why Mental Health First Aid?
  • Mental health problems are common.
  • Stigma is associated with mental health problems.
  • Many people are not well informed about mental
    health problems.
  • Professional help is not always on hand.
  • People often do not know how to respond. 
  • People with mental health problems often do not
    seek help.

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Spectrum of Mental Health Interventions
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Mental Health First Aid in the News
  • National Public Radio, Morning Edition,
  • October 10, 2011
  • Mental First Aid How To Help In An Emotional
    Crisis
  • by KELLEY WEISS
  • National Public Radio, Talk of the Nation
  • October 18, 2011
  • Mental Health First Aid in the Workplace
  • by NEAL CONAN
  • NEW YORK TIMES, January 23, 2011
  • Positives With Roots In Tragedy On Campus
  • By MICHAEL WINERIP
  • ABC TV News For your Health segment,
  • October 18, 2011
  • THE WASHINGTON POST,
  • JAN 18, 2011

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The Mental Health First Aid Action Plan
  • Assess for risk of suicide or harm
  • Listen nonjudgmentally
  • Give reassurance and information
  • Encourage appropriate professional help
  • Encourage self-help and other support strategies

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Recovery from Mental Illness
  • Recovery is the process in which people are able
    to live, work, learn, and participate fully in
    their communities.
  • For some, this is the ability to live a
    fulfilling and productive life despite a
    disability. 
  • For others, recovery implies the reduction or
    complete remission of symptoms. 
  • Presidents New Freedom Commission on Mental
    Health, 2003

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What Is Depression?
  • Major depressive disorder lasts for at least 2
    weeks and affects a persons
  • Emotions, thinking, behavior, and physical
    well-being
  • Ability to work and have satisfying relationships

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Signs and Symptoms Depression
  • Emotions
  • Sadness, anxiety, guilt, anger, mood swings, lack
    of emotional responsiveness, feelings of
    helplessness, hopelessness, irritability
  • Thoughts
  • Frequent self-criticism, self-blame, pessimism,
    impaired memory and concentration, indecisiveness
    and confusion, tendency to believe others see one
    in a negative light, thoughts of death and
    suicide
  • Behaviors
  • Crying spells, withdrawal from others, neglect of
    responsibilities, loss of interest in personal
    appearance, loss of motivation, slow movement,
    use of drugs and alcohol
  • Physical
  • Fatigue, lack of energy, sleeping too much or too
    little, overeating or loss of appetite,
    constipation, weight loss or gain, headaches,
    irregular menstrual cycle, loss of sexual desire,
    unexplained aches and pains

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What Are Anxiety Disorders?
  • An anxiety disorder differs from normal stress
    and anxiety.
  • An anxiety disorder is more severe, lasts longer
    and interferes with work and relationships.

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Signs and Symptoms Anxiety
  • Physical
  • Cardiovascular pounding heart, chest pain, rapid
    heartbeat, blushing
  • Respiratory fast breathing, shortness of breath
  • Neurological dizziness, headache, sweating,
    tingling, numbness 
  • Gastrointestinal choking, dry mouth, stomach
    pains, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • Musculoskeletal muscle aches and pains
    (especially neck, shoulders and back),
    restlessness, tremors and shaking, inability to
    relax
  • Psychological
  • Unrealistic or excessive fear and worry (about
    past and future events), mind racing or going
    blank, decreased concentration and memory,
    indecisiveness, irritability, impatience, anger,
    confusion, restlessness or feeling on edge or
    nervous, fatigue, sleep disturbance, vivid dreams
  • Behavioral
  • Avoidance of situations, obsessive or compulsive
    behavior, distress in social situations, phobic
    behavior

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Symptoms of a Panic Attack
  • Palpitations, pounding heart, or rapid heart rate
  • Sweating
  • Trembling and shaking
  • Shortness of breath, sensations of choking or
    smothering
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Abdominal distress or nausea
  • Dizziness, light-headedness, feeling faint,
    unsteady
  • Feelings of unreality
  • Feelings of being detached from oneself
  • Fear of losing control or going crazy
  • Fear of dying
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Chills or hot flashes

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How to Help
  • Let the person know you are concerned and willing
    to help
  • Ask the person whether he or she knows what has
    happened
  • If you dont know it is a panic attack or other
    medical problem
  • Check for a medical alert bracelet and follow the
    instructions
  • Seek medical assistance
  • If the person believes it is a panic attack
  • Reassure the person that it is a panic attack
  • Ask the person if you can help

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How to Help
  • Remain calm and speak in a reassuring but firm
    manner.
  • Speak clearly and slowly, and use short
    sentences.
  • Be patient.
  • Avoid any negative reactions.
  • Acknowledge that the terror feels very real.
  • Remind the person that while a panic attack is
    frightening, it is not life threatening.
  • Reassure the person that he or she is safe and
    that the symptoms will pass.

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Signs and Symptoms Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder are mental
    disorders in which a person has lost some contact
    with reality.
  • The person may have severe disturbances in
    thinking, emotion, and behavior.
  • Psychosis usually occurs in episodes and is not a
    constant or static condition.
  • Difficulties with concentration or attention
  • Sense of alteration of self, others, or the
    outside world (e.g., feeling that self or others
    have changed or are acting different in some way)
  • Odd ideas
  • Unusual perceptual experiences (e.g., a reduction
    in or greater intensity of smell, sound, or
    color)
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Social isolation or withdrawal
  • Reduced ability to carry out work and social
    roles
  • Increased energy and over activity

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Signs and Symptoms Psychosis
  • Mania
  • Increased energy and over activity
  • Elated mood
  • Need less sleep than usual
  • Irritability
  • Rapid thinking and speech
  • Lack of inhibitions
  • Grandiose delusions
  • Lack of insight

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Mental Illness Without Early Intervention
  • Poorer long-term functioning
  • Increased risk of depression and suicide
  • Slower psychological maturation and slower uptake
    of adult responsibilities
  • Strain on relationships and subsequent loss of
    social supports
  • Disruption of education and employment
  • Increased use of alcohol and drugs
  • Loss of self-esteem and confidence
  • Greater chance of problems with the law

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How to Help The Mental Health First Aid Action
Plan
  • Assess for risk of suicide or harm
  • Listen non judgmentally
  • Give reassurance and information
  • Encourage appropriate professional help
  • Encourage self-help and other support strategies

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How to Help The Mental Health First Aid
Action Plan
  • Assess for Risk of Suicide or Harm
  • When helping a person going through a mental
    health crisis, it is important look for signs of
    suicidal thoughts and behaviors and/or
    non-suicidal self-injury.
  • Some Warning Signs of Suicide Include
  • Threatening to hurt or kill oneself
  • Seeking access to means to hurt or kill oneself
  • Talking or writing about death, dying or suicide
  • Feeling Hopeless
  • Acting Recklessly or engaging in risky
    activities
  • Increased use of alcohol or drugs
  • Withdrawing from family, friends, or society
  • Appearing agitated or angry
  • Having a dramatic change in mood
  • Always seek emergency medical help if the
    persons life is in immediate danger. If you
    have reason to believe someone may be actively
    suicidal, call the National Suicide Prevention
    Lifeline 1-800-273-TALK (8255).

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How to Help The Mental Health First Aid Action
Plan
  • Listening Non judgmentally
  • It may seem simple, but the ability to listen and
    have a meaningful conversation with an individual
    requires skill and patience
  • It is important to make an individual feel
    respected, accepted, and understood
  • Mental Health First Aid teaches individuals to
    use a set of verbal and nonverbal skills to
    engage in appropriate conversation such as open
    body posture, comfortable eye contact and other
    listening strategies

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How to Help The Mental Health First Aid Action
Plan
  • Give Reassurance and Information
  • Mental illnesses are real, treatable illnesses
    from which people can and do recover
  • When having a conversation with someone whom you
    believe may be experiencing symptoms of a mental
    illness, it is important to approach the
    conversation with respect and dignity for that
    individual and to not blame the individual for
    his or her symptoms.
  • Mental Health First Aid teaches you helpful
    information and resources you can offer to
    someone to provide consistent emotional support
    and practical help

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How to Help The Mental Health First Aid Action
Plan
  • Encourage Appropriate Professional Help
  • There are a variety of mental health and
    substance use professionals who can offer help
    when someone is in crisis or may be experiencing
    the signs of symptoms of a mental illness.
  • Types of Professionals
  • Doctors (primary care physicians or
    psychiatrists)
  • Social workers, counselors, and other mental
    healthprofessionals
  • Certified peer specialists
  • Types of Professional Help
  • Talk therapies
  • Medication
  • Other professional supports
  • The Mental Health First Aid course will provide
    you with a variety of local and national
    resources to connect individuals to care, if
    needed.

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How to Help The Mental Health First Aid Action
Plan
  • Encourage Self-Help and Other Support Strategies
  • There are many ways individuals who may be
    experiencing symptoms of a mental illness can
    contribute to their own recovery and wellness.
  • These strategies may include
  • Exercise
  • Relaxation and Meditation
  • Participating in peer support groups
  • Self-help books based on Cognitive Behavioral
    Therapy (CBT)
  • Engaging with family, friends, faith, and other
    social networks

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Mental Illness Violence
  • Is there a connection between mental illness and
    violence?
  • Can we predict if and when a mentally ill person
    may become violent?
  • Read Dr. Reinhards Op-Ed in January 20, 2011
    issue of the Richmond Times Dispatch for more
  • No Quick Fixes for Complex Issues
  • http//www2.timesdispatch.com/news/oped/2011/jan/2
    0/TDOPIN02-no-quick-fixes-for-complex-issues-ar-78
    5373/

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Mental Health First Aid in your Community
  • Custom Training Solutions for organizations
    available
  • Visit www.MentalHealthFirstAid.org for further
    information on the course and to find an
    instructor near you.
  • Become a fan of Mental Health First Aid USA on
    Facebook get updates and information on a
    variety of mental health topics.
  • For any further questions, contact Bryan Gibb at
    bryang_at_thenationalcouncil.org.

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Questions?
  • ?

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