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Protists and Fungi Kingdoms


Protists and Fungi Kingdoms Chapter 9 What is a protist? A single or many-celled organism that lives in moist or wet surroundings. What are properties of the protist ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Protists and Fungi Kingdoms

Protists and Fungi Kingdoms
  • Chapter 9

What is a protist?
  • A single or many-celled organism that lives in
    moist or wet surroundings.

What are properties of the protist kingdom?
  • Eukaryotic
  • One or many-celled
  • Some move
  • Some make their own food
  • Some obtain it from others

It is believed that protists evolved from
bacteria. Scientists believe this because
protists are more complex than bacteria.
Scientists also believe that protists are the
ancestors of fungi, plants and animals. Protists
that make their own food are thought to be the
ancestors of plants, which makes sense because
plants make their own food as well. It is hard
to figure out the evolution of protists because
they have such soft bodies meaning that many did
not fossilize. There are plant-like protists
and animal-like protists.
Plant-like protistsProtists that are plant-like
are called algae. They can be one-called or many
celled. All make their own food because they
contain the pigment chlorophyll.
Euglena are characterized as both plant and
animal. They have chlorophyll so they make their
own food. Unlike plants, Euglena do not have cell
walls. They move by using flagella. They also
have an eyespot that is sensitive to light.
Having the eyespot and the flagella make them
animal like.
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Diatoms make their own food, are one-celled and
store their food in the form of an oil. They
look golden brown but they still have
chlorophyll, it is just masked by the brown
color. When they die, they leave behind a shell,
collect in large numbers on the bottom of bodies
of water. These shells are used for insulation,
filters and road paints. They are what makes
road lines sparkle and make your toothpaste have
a crunch when you brush your teeth.
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Dinoflagellates, also known as fire algae, is
one-celled. It is called fire algae because it
has a red pigment along with its chlorophyll.
Dinoflagellate means spinning flagellates. It
spins similar to a top. They store their food in
the form of starch and oil. They live in salt
water mostly.
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Green algae have chlorophyll and go through
photosynthesis to make starch. They can live in
water and live in moist areas on land. They also
can be one-celled or many-celled.
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Red algae are found in things that you eat and
use. Pudding and toothpaste is made with red
algae. The carrageenan that is in red algae give
these two things their smooth texture. Most of
them are many-celled. There is not a lot of
light where they live so their pigment helps them
to catch the light that does get down that deep
underwater. They need this limited light to make
their food.
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Brown algae is many-celled. It is a food source
to a lot of fish and invertebrates in the water.
Fish and other animals live in the leaves of
this alga. Brown algae is eaten by some
cultures. The carbohydrate that it makes is used
in food such as ice cream and marshmallows. It
is also used for fertilizer.
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Animal-like protistsThey are known as protozoa.
They live in water, soil, and in both living and
dead organisms. Many are parasites. There are
four kinds of protozoans. They are sarodines,
flagellates, ciliates, and sporozoans.
An amoeba is an example of a rhizopoda. They get
their food and move using pseudopods. Pseudopods
are a temporary extension of the cytoplasm. They
are called false feet. They trap food by
extending their pseudopods (by cytoplasmic
streaming) around the food particle. They close
around the food particle trapping it in. A
vacuole then forms around the food particle.
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Flagellates protists that use flagella to move
around. They have one or more flagella that whip
through water. Most live in fresh water and some
are parasites. An example would be the parasite
that causes African sleeping sickness. Another
example would be the flagellates that lives in
the digestive tract of termites. If these were
not there then termites would not be able to
digest their food, which is wood.
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Ciliates These are the most complex of the
protists. They move by using cilia. Cilia are
short, thread-like structures that extend from
the cell membrane. Use in movement and grabbing
food. Most common of the ciliates is the
paramecium. Food gets swept into the oral
groove. The food then goes into a food vacuole.
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Fungus-like protistsSome fungus-like protists
have characteristics of both protists and fungi.
One example would be slime molds. They usually
are very brightly colored. The cells of these
protists work like amoebas. They have
pseudopods. They produce spores for reproduction
like fungi do. They are mostly found on decaying
logs or dead leaves in moist, cool, shady areas.
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Other examples would be water molds, downy mildew
and white rusts. They live in water or moist
places. Water molds are fuzzy things on stuff
that is decaying. One kind of fungus-like
protist caused the potato famine in Ireland.
They have a cell wall like fungi but they have
simple cells like those of protozoa. Water mold
causes diseases in many plants.
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Where can you find fungi in your kitchen?You
can find mushrooms, mold, yeast and many more
that you might not even see!!
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What is the importance of fungi? They break
down and decompose organic materials. Remember
that organic materials are anything that has
carbon in it. These would be be food matter,
dead animals or plants and clothing. They help
return the material to the soil. They are the
natural recyclers
What are the characteristics of fungi? Fungi are
Eukaryotic, one or many-celled, DONT move and DO
NOT make their own foodthey obtain it from other
organisms. Their body is made up of tiny,
thread-like tubes called hyphae.
What are spores? Reproductive cells the form new
organisms without fertilization. How spores are
produced decide what group a fungi belongs
to.What are they used for?They are used so
that fungi can reproduce.
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What is an example of zygote fungi?Fuzzy black
mold that you see on breads and fruit and other
food in your fridge.
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What are sporangia? The round cases that Zygote
fungi keep their spores. When it splits open,
millions of spores are released into the air. If
the spore lands in a moist place, then more mold
will grow where the spore lands.
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What are some examples of sac fungi?Yeast,
mold, morels and truffles
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What is an ascus?The sac that spores of sac
fungi are found! Spores are released when the
sac breaks open.
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Why are sac fungi harmful?They destroy crops,
and causes diseases on plants. It can also be
helpful. We use yeast to make bread, a lot of
people eat truffles and morels. They are are
very expensive.
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What is budding?When a new organism grows off
the side of the parent. This is a form of
asexual reproduction. Some fungi reproduce
through budding over reproducing with spores.
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Where are spores produced in club fungi?They
are produced in a basidium. This is a club
looking structure. The spores lay on what look
like gills on the fungi.
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How are club fungi economically important?They
can cause crop damage (rusts and smuts). Humans
also eat some kinds of mushroom. FYInever eat a
wild mushroom unless you know that it is not
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What is an important example of imperfect
fungi?Penicilliumthe fungi used to make
penicillinOther examples would be the imperfect
fungi that causes athletes foot and ringworm.
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What is a lichen?An organism that is made of
fungi and either a green alga or a cyanobacteria.
These two have a relationship with each other
where both benefit. The alga get a moist area to
live in, that is protected and the fungus gets
its food from the alga.
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What is the importance of lichen?They are food
to many animals. They help with erosion (they
give off an acid that breaks down rocks and cause
them to erode away. They also help in monitoring
pollution. Lichens die when there is an increase
in pollution.
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