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Canadian Geography 1202

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Title: Canadian Geography 1202


1
Canadian Geography 1202
  • Chapter 3 Landforms

2
General Information
  • 1.Canada has the largest coastline of any
    country in the world.
  • 2. Canada has four basic types of landforms
  • A. Canadian Shield
  • B. Interior Plains
  • C. Lowlands
  • D. Mountain Rim

3
3. Canadian Shield
  • Shield is outlined in Red !!

4
Canadian Shield
  • - is the foundation of the Canadian land mass and
    is made of hard granite rock (bedrock) which
    contains some of the oldest rock in the world.

5
  • - The four eras of our geological past are
  • A. Cenozoic
  • B. Mesozoic
  • C. Palaeozoic
  • D. Precambrian

6
Geologic Timeline
7
4.a. Rock Cycle
  • Rock Cycle is a group of changes . Igneous rock
    can change into sedimentary rock or into
    metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock into
    metamorphic or into igneous . Metamorphic into
    igneous or sedimentary rock.
  • A. Igneous Rock is very hard , impervious rock
    formed from hot molten magma beneath the earths
    surface.

8
  • B. Sedimentary Rock is rock composed of
    sediment , usually formed in layers.
  • C. Metamorphic Rock is rock that has been
    transformed by heat or pressure beneath the
    earths surface.
  • - Most of the Canadian Shield is formed from hard
    igneous rock ( common type is granite .) Granite
    is an impervious rock meaning that water cannot
    pass through it.

9
4.b. Composition of the Rock Cycle
  • Rock
  • A. Rocks are created from hot , melted magma that
    rises from beneath the earths crust.
  • B. Molten rock cools, hardens and forms igneous
    rock.
  • C. Igneous rock that is exposed to erosion and
    weathering is broken down into sediment.

10
  • D. Under great pressure this sediment sticks
    together and becomes sedimentary rock.
  • E. If sedimentary rock is exposed to heat and
    pressure it is transformed into metamorphic rock.
    This type of rock often contains many valuable
    mineral resources.

11
Rock Cycle
12
Rock Cycle
13
5. Topographic maps reading the landscape
  • A. Topographic map is a map that uses grids and
    symbols to provide detailed information about
    human and physical features.

14
Topographic Map of St. Johns
15
  • B. Area symbols are colored paterns that
    represent physical features . Ex. Lakes and woods.

16
  • C. Line symbols represent linear features like
    roads and railways.

17
  • D. Point symbols represent specific features
    like bridges and buildings.

18
  • E. Easting is a reference on a map , drawn
    vertically from north to south , identified by
    the numbers displayed from west to east across
    the map.
  • Eastings on the bottom (ex 47 and 48 )

19
  • F. Northing is a series of reference lines on a
    map running east- west and identified by numbers
    increasing from south to north
  • Northing is on the side (ex. 98 and 99)

20
  • G. Grid Reference is the co-ordinates of the
    easting and the northing that identify a specific
    point. The easting is always given first. (ex.
    4798)

21
  • H. Four figure grid reference useful for
    identifying a large feature or a grid square. Ex.
    School 7332

22
  • I. Six figure grid reference useful for
    identifying a specific point.
  • Ex. 829 543 for the red square.

23
6. Forces of Erosion
  • - The elevation ( height above sea level ) of the
    Canadian Shield was once greater than it is
    today. It was once over 6000m high.
  • - Today the elevation of the shield is between
    300 500m. The Shield was subjected to erosion
    and was worn away until it became a stable
    landmass.

24
  • Erosion is the gradual wearing down of land or
    rock by a variety of natural forces.
  • Forces of Erosion
  • A. Temperature rocks expand with hot
    temperatures and contracts with cold
    temperatures. Constant change in temperature
    eventually weaken the rock , causing parts to
    break away into small pieces. (ex. Beach rocks in
    a beach fire )

25
  • B. Running Water rainfall , running water and
    wave action eventually wear down the surface of
    the rock . As it weakens it begins to break away.

26
  • C. Ice when water freezes in the cracks of
    rocks it expands , causing small pieces to break
    off. Glacial movement also wears away rock
    surfaces.

27
  • D. Wind - wind action carries away small
    particles of the rock surface . Small rock
    particles carried in the wind also cause other
    rock to brake away on impact.

28
  • E. Vegetation when vegetation takes root in
    small cracks , rocks are weakened . Small pieces
    of rock gradually break away.

29
7. The ICE Age
  • - a period in our geological history that started
    about 1 million years ago and lasted up until
    10,000 years ago.
  • - during this period, massive ice sheets , some
    up to 3km thick , covered most of Canada
  • and the northern part of the United States.
  • - the force of the moving ice eroded parts of
    the landscape.

30
Terms
  • A. Glacier is a massive ice sheet formed during
    the ice age.

31
  • B. Drumlin is an oval shaped hummock or hill
    left behind by a melting sheet of ice.

32
  • C. Esker is a long ridge of material deposited
    by a melt water stream, it can extend for
    hundreds of kilometers.

33
  • D. Moraine is a hill formed along the edge of a
    glacier . These would look similar to eskers but
    are actually formed in margins between glacial
    sheets.

34
8. The Interior Plains
  • - As erosion wore away the Canadian Shield , the
    rock particles were carried westward and
    deposited in the Interior Plains causing the
    build-up of sedimentary rock.
  • - the rock layers of the Interior Plains contain
    valuable mineral resources as well as fossils.

35
Interior Plains
36
9. Relief
  • A. Relief is the shape , slope and altitude of
    the earths surface in relation to sea level.

37
  • B. Contour Lines are lines on a topographic map
    that connect areas of the same elevation.

38
  • C. Contour lines reveal the shape of the
    landscape
  • - if lines are close together the land is steep
  • - if lines are far apart there is a gentle slope

39
  • D. Contour Interval is the difference between
    one contour line and another. The contour
    interval is always constant on a map.

40
Contour Interval
  • What is the contour interval ?

41
  • E. Bench Mark is the specific point locations
    on the earth for which the altitude above sea
    level has been determined . These are measuring
    points from which surveyors map the land.

42
10. Scales on Topographic Maps
  • A. Scale is represented by a ratio scale.
  • Ratio Scale- is a ratio that indicates that the
    distance on the ground is a number of times
    greater than the same distance on a map.
  • Ex. 150,000 is the same as 1cm on the map
    equaling 50,000 cm on the ground.

43
B. Large Scale Maps
  • - shows small areas
  • - they tend to show more detail
  • - 110,000 to 1 1,000,000 is the range for the
    scale of large maps
  • - road maps are large scale maps

44
Large Scale Map
45
C. Small Scale Maps
  • - show larger areas
  • - show less detail
  • - 1 1,000,000 to 1 10,000,000 is the range for
    the scale of small scale maps
  • - a map of a country or a continent is a small
    scale map.

46
Small Scale Map
47
11. The Lowlands
  • There are three Lowland Regions in Canada
  • A. The Great Lakes St. Lawerence
  • - is the smallest of the three regions
    (physically)
  • - often considered Canadas heartland
  • - most densely populated region of Canada

48
  • - during the last Ice Age , sediments from the
    Canadian Shield were deposited in this region.
    Layers of limestone , sandstone and shale lie
    beneath the surface
  • - the movement of ice sheets carved out the areas
    that are now the Great Lakes
  • (originally they were much larger)
  • - millions of tons of till or glacial sediment
    were deposited in this region. This provided
    excellent conditions for farming.

49
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50
  • B. The Hudson Bay
  • found south of Hudson Bay
  • flat layers of sedimentary rock rest on the
    Canadian Shield
  • many valuable mineral are found here.

51
  • C. The Arctic
  • - scattered among islands of the far north
  • - consists of sedimentary rock on top of the
    Canadian Shield
  • - many valuable mineral resources are found here
  • - ground remains frozen for much of the year.

52
12. The Mountain Rim
  • Formation of the Mountain Rim
  • - Approximately 2900 m below the surface of the
    earth is a hot form of semi-liquid rock that
    circulates in a process called convection.
  • - Over time, a pressure is created through this
    process of convection and the surface of the
    earth cracks and creates plates. These plates are
    free to slowly move in specific directions.

53
  • - If the plates move apart , magma or liquid
    rock moves to the surface , cools and forms new
    igneous rock.
  • - If the plates move toward each other they will
    scrape or push on top of each other. The lighter
    plate is usually forced up over the heavier one
    . This movement often results in the folding of
    the lighter plate. This creates Fold Mountains.
    They are easy to identify because of the huge
    (folds ) or ripples in the rock structure.

54
Fold Mountains
55
  • - When two plates come together and one plate
    that is pushed beneath the other, the lower plate
    will melt into the earths interior. The plate
    will be transformed into new metamorphic rock
    when it eventually rises and cools on the earths
    surface. This process is called subduction.

56
Subduction
57
13. Landform Regions of the Mountain Rim
  • A. Western Cordillera
  • - Young fold mountains that were created about
    65 million years ago.
  • - They were formed as a result of the collision
    of the American and Pacific Plates ( Refer to
    diagram pg.44. )
  • - many valuable minerals are found in these
    mountains

58
  • - They consist of three ranges of mountains ,
    the Coastal Mountains , the Columbia Mountains,
    and the Rocky Mountains. They are located on the
    west coast of Canada in British Columbia and
    Alberta.

59
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60
B. The Appalachians
  • - they contain one of the oldest mountain
    systems in Canada
  • - they were created when the American and
    European Plates collided about 300 million years
    ago
  • - because the mountains are so old , erosion has
    worn then down and today they are rarely higher
    than 500m above sea level

61
  • - Much of the landscape consists of smooth
    rolling hills and glacial valleys, some of which
    are excellent for farming
  • - In some places, the glaciers have cut deep
    into the valleys, creating fiords as the land
    plunges into the sea.
  • - The Appalachian Region is on the east coast of
    Canada.

62
C. The Innuitians
  • - They are the least known mountains in Canada.
  • - They were created through the folding and
    faulting of the earths crust between 225 and 70
    million years ago.
  • - They are located in the far north of Canada.
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