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Human

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Chapter 39 Human Endocrine System We know that ecstasy affects serotonin levels in the brain. How can this affect the rest of the body? The Endocrine System is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human


1
Chapter 39
  • Human
  • Endocrine System

2
Do Now 4/1
  • We know that ecstasy affects serotonin levels in
    the brain.
  • How can this affect the rest of the body?

3
(No Transcript)
4
The Endocrine System
  • is responsible for chemical regulation.
  • Stimuli may cause certain glands to secrete
    chemical messengers known as hormones.
  • These hormones cause other parts of the body to
    respond. Target Cell

5
Endocrine System
  • Hormones- chemical messengers that are secreted
    by glands and diffuse directly into the
    bloodstream
  • hormones regulate a wide range of activities in
    humans

6
Human Endocrine System
  • Includes the endocrine glands and their hormones.
  • The glands are Ductless.
  • Ductless glands release (targeting) hormones
    directly into the bloodstream. The plasma of the
    blood transports each hormone throughout the
    body.
  • Each hormone acts on a certain tissue called a
    Target Tissue.

7
Pituitary
Hypothalamus
Parathyroid
Pineal
Thyroid
thymus
Adrenal
Pancreas, Islets of Langerhans
Ovaries
Testes
8
The Brain and Its Endocrine Glands


9
The Endocrine Matching Game
http//www.last.fm/music/RedHotChiliPeppers/_/G
iveItAway
Gland Hormone Secreted Hormone Function Target Cell
Anterior Pituitary
Stimulates thyroid
Thyroxin
Increases blood glucose
Heart, lungs, blood vessels, eyes
10
The Endocrine Matching Game
Gland Hormone Secreted Hormone Function Target Cell
Anterior Pituitary GH Elongate bones Bones
Anterior Pituitary TSH Stimulates thyroid Thyroid
Thyroid Thyroxin Controls metabolism Body cells
Pancreas Glucagon Increases blood glucose Liver and muscle cells
Adrenal Adrenaline Prepare for fight or flight Heart, lungs, blood vessels, eyes
11
(1) Hypothalamus
12
(1) Hypothalamus
  • Small region of the brain
  • It controls the release of hormones by the
    pituitary gland (the master gland)
  • Considered to be a major link between the nervous
    system and the endocrine system
  • Re the autonomic N.S. controls heart rate,
    blood vessel, bladder, bronchi, kidney, stomach,
    GI tract functions

13
(1) Hypothalamus
14
(2) Pituitary Gland
  • Located at the base of the brain
  • Called the master gland because it controls the
    activities of other glands
  • Secretes three major hormones
  • GH, TSH, and FSH

15
(2) Pituitary Gland
16
(2) Pituitary Gland
TSH-RH
TSH
17
The Over Secretion of Growth Hormone
74, 500lbs
18
Do Now 4/2
Which endocrine gland is the most important and
why?
19
Dwarfism
Herve Villechaize
20
Hypothyroidism Dwarfism
21
Growth Hormone (GH)
  • This hormone controls the growth of the body by
    stimulating the elongation of bones

22
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce its
    hormone thyroxin

23
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Stimulates the activities of the ovaries and
    testes

24
(3) Thyroid Gland
  • Located in the neck below the larynx and in front
    of the trachea
  • This gland secretes thyroxin which contains iodine

25
(3) Thyroid Gland
26
Do Now
  • Using your HW identify the hormones numbered 12.
  • What is the reason for the and - symbols.

1. _____
2. _____________
27
Do Now ANSWERS
  • 1 Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
  • 2. Thyroxine
  • positive feedback
  • Stimulates
  • - negative feedback
  • (shuts off)

TSH
28
Thyroxin
  • Regulates the rate of metabolism in the body and
    is essential for normal physical and mental
    development
  • Secretion of thyroxin is regulated by TSH, which
    is secreted by the pituitary gland
  • Lack of iodine in the diet will lead to lack of
    thyroxin secretion. This produces enlargement of
    the thyroid gland and is called Goiter
  • Goiter- is the result of iodine deficiency in the
    diet

29
Iodine Needed for Thyroxin
  • Goiter- is the result of iodine deficiency in the
    diet

30
Iodine Needed for Thyroxin
Goiter
31
(4) Parathyroid Gland
  • Are tiny oval glands embedded in the walls of the
    thyroid gland
  • Secretes parathormone
  • Parathormone controls calcium metabolism
  • Calcium is necessary for proper growth of teeth
    and bones, blood clotting, and nerve function

32
(5) Adrenal Gland
  • Located on the top of each kidney
  • Each gland consists of two layers
  • Adrenal cortex
  • Adrenal medulla

33
Adrenal Cortex
  • Secrete steroid hormones that
  • a) regulate water balance and blood pressure by
    controlling the reabsorption of sodium salt into
    the blood from the kidneys
  • b) stimulate the conversion of fat into glucose

34
Adrenal Medulla
  • Secretes adrenalin
  • Adrenalin increases the blood sugar level and
    accelerates the heart and breathing rate

35
Adrenalin
36
PancreasIslets of Langerhans
  • Both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland
  • (The exocrine portion secretes digestive juices
    into the small intestine)
  • The endocrine portion consists of small clusters
    or islands of hormone-secreting cells called
    the Islets of Langerhans
  • The Islet of Langerhans secrete insulin and
    glucagon..video

37
PancreasIslets of Langerhans
  • Both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland
  • (The exocrine portion secretes digestive juices
    into the small intestine)
  • The endocrine portion consists of small clusters
    or islands of hormone-secreting cells called
    the Islets of Langerhans
  • The Islet of Langerhans secrete insulin and
    glucagon..video

38
Insulin
  • Facilitates the entrance of glucose into body
    cells
  • lowers blood sugar levels by promoting the
    movement of sugar out of the blood and into the
    liver where it is stored as glycogen

39
Glucagon
  • Stimulates the release of sugar from the liver
    and into the blood
  • Therefore
  • insulin ? lowers sugar level in blood
  • glucagon ? raises sugar level in blood

40
Diabetes
  • When the Islets of Langerhans fail to produce
    enough insulin
  • As a result, glucose that enters the cell
    decreases, and glucose levels in the blood
    increases
  • Type 1, link
  • Type2

http//diabetes.healthcentersonline.com/animations
/show_animations.cfm?cmbtopics214
http//www.healthscout.com/animation/1/34/main.htm
l
41
(6) Gonads
  • Sex organs
  • Males- testes that secrete testosterone which
    influences the development of the male secondary
    sex characteristics
  • Females- ovaries that secrete estrogen which
    influences the development of secondary sex
    characteristics

42
Do Now 4/3
Explain the events that happen when a teacher
calls home? Feedback???
43
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44
(No Transcript)
45
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
  • Stimulates the activities of the ovaries and
    testes

46
Negative Feedback
  • Is a type of self-regulation associated with
    endocrine regulation
  • It operates on the principle that the level of
    one hormone in the blood stimulates or inhibits
    the production of another hormone
  • Ex TSH regulates the secretion of thyroxin
    by the thyroid gland

47
TRF H
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
TSH
Thyroxine
48
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49
Goiter formation
50
Normal cells Goiter cells
51
Goiter cells
Normal thyroid Thyroid cancer
52
Goiter Normal Thyroid formation
______
______
_____
53
Goiter Normal Thyroid formation
54
39-3 The Reproductive System
  • Reproduction is the formation of new individuals.
  • It Occurs
  • Sexually fusing sperm egg nuclei
  • Asexually production of clones

55
What is the objective of the reproductive systems?
  • Males
  • Develop gonads (testes) which produce
  • gametes (aka sperm)
  • Sex hormones, Testosterone which influences male
    muscle development and deepens voice.
  • Females
  • Develop gonads (Ovaries) which produce
  • Eggs (aka Ovum)
  • Sex hormones
  • Estrogen Secondary sex characteristics
  • Progesterone the pregnancy hormone

56
Puberty
  • Puberty is a period of rapid growth and sexual
    maturation during which the reproductive system
    becomes fully functional.
  • Most organisms in nature can Reproduce after they
    are Sexually mature .
  • An eagle can reproduce after 4-5 years.
  • http//www.baldeagleinfo.com/eagle/eagle8.html

57
Effect of testosterone
Section 39-3
58
The Male Reproductive System
59
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60
(A) Testes
  • Are the male gonads
  • Produce sperm
  • Sperm is produced in the seminiferous tubules and
    stored in the epididymis
  • Sperm then leaves the epididymis through the vas
    deferens and into the urethra (which is a tube
    inside the penis)

61
  • 4. The penis is a structural adaptation for
    internal fertilization
  • 5. Glands secrete a liquid into the urethra which
    combines with the sperm cells. This liquid
    serves as a transport medium for the sperm cells
    and is called semen
  • 6. Testes also produce the male sex hormone
    called testosterone

62
  • 7. Testosterone regulates the maturation of sperm
    and the development of secondary sex
    characteristics such as beard development and
    voice pitch
  • 8. Scrotum- sac in which the testes are located
  • a) outside the body
  • b) keeps the temperature 1-2 degrees
    Celsius cooler than normal body temperature
  • c) this provides an optimum temperature for
    sperm production

63
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64
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65
HEAD with NUCLEUS ACROSPORE
Shaft (middle region)
TAIL (MOTILITY)
66
Figure 392 The Endocrine Glands
Section 39-1
Pineal gland The pineal gland releases melatonin,
which is involved in rhythmic activities, such as
daily sleep-wake cycles.
Hypothalamus The hypothalamus makes hormones that
control the pituitary gland. In addition, it
makes hormones that are stored in the pituitary
gland.
Thyroid The thyroid produces thyroxine, which
regulates metabolism.
Pituitary gland The pituitary gland produces
hormones that regulate many of the other
endocrine glands.
Pancreas The pancreas produces insulin and
glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in
the blood.
Parathyroid glands These four glands release
parathyroid hormone, which regulate the level of
calcium in the blood.
Ovary The ovaries produce estrogen and
progesterone. Estrogen is required for the
development of secondary sex characteristics and
for the development of eggs. Progesterone
prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg.
Thymus During childhood, the thymus releases
thymosin, which stimulates Tcell development.
Testis The testes produce testosterone, which is
responsible for sperm production and the
development of male secondary sex characteristics
Adrenal glands The adrenal glands release
epinephrine and nonepinephrine, which help the
body deal with stress.
67
Figure 392 The Endocrine Glands
Section 39-1
Pineal gland The pineal gland releases melatonin,
which is involved in rhythmic activities, such as
daily sleep-wake cycles.
Hypothalamus The hypothalamus makes hormones that
control the pituitary gland. In addition, it
makes hormones that are stored in the pituitary
gland.
Thyroid The thyroid produces thyroxine, which
regulates metabolism.
Pituitary gland The pituitary gland produces
hormones that regulate many of the other
endocrine glands.
Pancreas The pancreas produces insulin and
glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in
the blood.
Parathyroid glands These four glands release
parathyroid hormone, which regulate the level of
calcium in the blood.
Ovary The ovaries produce estrogen and
progesterone. Estrogen is required for the
development of secondary sex characteristics and
for the development of eggs. Progesterone
prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg.
Thymus During childhood, the thymus releases
thymosin, which stimulates Tcell development.
Testis The testes produce testosterone, which is
responsible for sperm production and the
development of male secondary sex characteristics
Adrenal glands The adrenal glands release
epinephrine and nonepinephrine, which help the
body deal with stress.
68
Figure 3914 The Female Reproductive System
69
The Arethra
  • Oops, wrong one

70
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71
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72
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73
Ovary
74
Female Reproductive Structures, (side VW)
Vertebrae
Bladder
Rectum
Sperms path
75
The Effects of Estrogen
Section 39-3
76
(II) Menstrual Cycle
  • Mature egg develops and is released
  • Begins at puberty and ends at menopause
  • Hormones involved
  • FSH estrogen
  • LH progesterone
  • Stages involved in order
  • follicle stage ? ovulation ? corpus luteum ?
    menstruation

77
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78
The Menstrual Cycle
Section 39-3
79
The Menstrual Cycle
Section 39-3
80
Do Now 4/26
  1. Describe the menstrual cycle. (remember there are
    4 stage!!!!)
  2. What is a Feedback Mechanism?

81
Do Now
82
Do Now Answers
83
(II) Menstrual Cycle
84
(II) Menstrual Cycle
85
1. Follicle Stage
  • 10-14 days
  • FSH is secreted by the pituitary gland which
    stimulates maturation of egg in the follicle
  • As the follicle develops, it releases estrogen
    which stimulates the uterine lining to thicken
    with blood

86
2. Ovulation
  • Secretion of LH (lutenizing hormone) from the
    pituitary causes a mature egg to be released from
    the follicle and into the fallopian tubules
    (oviduct)

87
3. Corpus Luteum Stage
  • 10-12 days
  • The burst follicle fills with cells forming the
    corpus luteum, which produces progesterone
  • Progesterone stimulates further thickening of the
    uterine lining

88
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89
Do Now
  1. Describe the menstrual cycle. (remember there are
    4 stage!!!!)
  2. What is a Feedback Mechanism?
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