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Fish

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Figure 8.14b Fish Anatomy Fins Fish Respiration Water flows over Gills as fish opens mouth and swims. Water flows opposite direction of blood flow. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fish


1
Fish
2
What are Fish?
  • Fish are aquatic vertebrates (animals with
    backbones) with fins for appendages.   They
    "breathe" by means of gills.
  • Fish make up the largest of the vertebrate groups
    with well over 20,000 species.  Most taxonomists
    recognize 45 orders and 435 families of bony
    fishes.  They can be found in a great variety of
    habitats in lakes, streams, oceans and estuaries.

3
Classification
  • Kingdom- Animalia
  • Phylum- Chordata
  • Sub Phylum- Vertebrata
  • Classes- Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes

4
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
  • A notochord that has developed into a spinal cord
    protected by vertebrae and a head with a brain
    characterize organisms in this subphylum.
  • Vertebrates consist of the most complex, large,
    fast, and conspicuous organisms. They include us,
    the organism that has had the most effect on the
    global biosphere.
  • Significance of Class Agnatha
  • This is the class of the jawless fish.
  • Species include lampreys and hagfish.
  • Organisms in this class are significant because
    they may represent the ancestor of bony
    fish/sharks.
  • Scientists theorize that during the Cambrian
    period the first of three gill arches on a
    jawless fish evolved into the first jaws.
  • Having jaws allowed vertebrates to become very
    successful predators.
  • Having jaws put organisms in class Chondrichthyes
    (sharks and rays) and class Osteichthyes (bony
    fish) near the top of marine food webs.

5
16.1
6
16.2
7
Classification of Fish
  • Fish are classified according to the material
    which makes up their skeletons.
  • Sharks, skates and rays belong to a group called
    cartilaginous fish because their skeletons are
    composed entirely of cartilage.  
  • Tropical fish are called bony fish (scientific
    name Osteichthyes) because they have skeletons
    made of bone. 

8
Agnatha
  • Jawless fish Lampreys, Hagfish

9
Types of Agnathans
  • Hagfish- Ocean scavengers, not much is known
    about them.
  • Lamprey- fresh and salt water, they are parasitic
    and prey on other fish.
  • Both have cartilagenous skeletons and
    sucker-like mouths.

10
16.2
11
Chondricthyes
  • Cartilagenous Fish Shark, Ray

12
Chondrichthyes
  • Sharks are adapted for a predatory lifestyle.
  • Cartilage skeletons, stiff pectoral fins (speed).
  • No operculum, must keep moving to breathe.
  • Have live births.
  • Special scales feel like sandpaper.
  • Manta, and Sting Rays- live in shallow water,
    have mouths located on the underside, are fairly
    docile, wide flat bodies and wing-like fins that
    are flexible.

13
Types of Chondrichthyes
  • Sharks and Rays- have no operculum and must keep
    moving to breathe.
  • Have different kinds of scales that feel and look
    more like sandpaper.
  • Have skeletons made of cartilage not bones.

14
Characteristics of Sharks and Rays
  • Class Chondrichthyes includes sharks, rays and
    their close relatives.
  • Sharks and rays dont look similar on the
    outside, but share a basic anatomy that
    classifies them together.
  • Sharks and rays are jawed fish, that lack a swim
    bladder, and have cartilaginous skeletons.
  • Special Attributes of Sharks and Rays
  • Sharks and rays are successful predators
  • Subclass Elasmobranchii have cartilaginous
    skeletons.
  • This characteristic saves energy. Saving energy
    is one of the things that have made them
    successful predators.
  • Sharks have a sense of smell that detect
    incredibly diluted substances.
  • Sharks have a conveyor belt of multiple rows of
    teeth.
  • They swing into place as old teeth wear out and
    fall away.

15
Special Attributes of Sharks and Rays (continued)
  • Sharks and rays have other interesting
    characteristics
  • Both have lateral lines lines of sensory hair
    along the length of the body that detect water
    motion and vibrations.
  • Unique to elasmobranchs is electroreception the
    ability to sense minute electricity created by
    muscles and nerves.
  • Sharks and rays have organs called ampullae of
    Lorenzini which you can see as visible pits near
    their snouts used to detect the electrical
    current.

16
Special Attributes of Sharks and Rays (continued)
  • Elasmobranchs differ in their reproductive
    strategy.
  • Sharks and rays produce fewer, but more mature
    offspring.
  • Most fertilize their eggs internally.
  • The male deposits sperm in the female via a pair
    of copulatory organs called claspers found at the
    base of the pelvic fins.
  • The female lays an egg case in which the
    juveniles develop for up to six months at which
    time one or more sharks or rays emerge.
  • A few shark species are ovoviviparous the eggs
    hatch within the mothers body.
  • They give birth to live young rather than egg
    cases.
  • The largest fish in the ocean.
  • Shark size ranges from hand-sized to the whale
    shark the largest fish in the ocean.
  • Whale sharks can reach 14 meters (46 feet).
  • Basking sharks can reach 10 meters (33 feet).
  • Megamouth sharks can reach 6 meters (20 feet).
  • All three are filter feeders that consume
    plankton.

17
Special Attributes of Rays
  • Superorder Batidoidimorpha of subclass
    Elasmobranchii consists of the rays, which
    includes skates and guitarfish.
  • Ray anatomy is well suited to life on sandy
    bottoms or midwater.
  • Specially adapted to life in midwater are the
    eagle ray and manta ray.
  • Pectoral fins have become wings that stretch
    forward over the gills and are fused to the
    sides of the head.
  • Shoulder girdles are flattened and many bones
    are fused together for rigidity.
  • No longer need a tail for swimming, the tail has
    become a defensive whip in some species.
  • Rays literally fly through the water.
  • The largest rays are mantas with wingspans
    exceeding 8 meters (26 feet).
  • Like the largest shark, the mantas feed on
    plankton.

18
Figure 8.14a
19
Figure 8.12a
20
Figure 8.04
21
Figure 8.05b
22
Figure 8.06b
23
Figure 8.07
24
Figure 8.08a
25
16.2
26
Fish Characteristics
  • Gills
  • Backbone (vertebrae)
  • Paired Fins
  • Single Loop Circulation
  • Two chambered heart

27
Types of Osteichthyes (Bony Fish)
  • Ray Finned
  • Most fish are this type
  • Fins are supported by bony structures called
    Rays.
  • Teleosts are the most advanced form of ray finned
    fish (symmetrical tails and mobile fins).
  • Lobe Finned
  • Fins are long, fleshy, muscular, supported by
    central core of bones.
  • Thought to be ancestors of amphibians.
  • Examples are Coelacanth, Lungfish

28
Characteristics of Bony Fish
  • Class Osteichthyes are jawed fish with bone
    skeletons.
  • Most have a swim bladder and scales.
  • Most control buoyancy by adding or releasing gas
    to/from their swim bladder.
  • They control the swim bladders with oxygen gas
    exchanged to and from blood circulation.
  • Many have a special organ called the gas gland
    and the rete mirabile that take up gases from the
    bloodstream for the swim bladder.
  • This allows many species to hover nearly
    motionless in midwater.
  • Most bony fish reproduce externally.
  • The female lays her eggs, the male immediately
    fertilizes them.
  • Their strategy is to produce a vast number of
    off-spring with only a few expected to survive
    to maturity.

29
Characteristics of Bony Fish (continued)
  • Bony fish have characteristics for life on the
    reef and for life in the open ocean
  • Bony fish have lateral lines that detect
    water motion and vibrations.
  • Most open ocean and schooling fish have a
    torpedo-like streamlined shape that minimizes
    drag and turbulence.
  • This fusiform shape is spindle-like, slightly
    broader at the head and a V-shaped tail. This
    makes them fast swimmers.
  • Most open-ocean and schooling fish have a lighter
    underside and dark topside for concealment.
  • Bony fish living in reefs and on the bottom
    use survival strategies more diverse and
    include concealment and armor instead of
    swimming.
  • For this reason, you see far more diversity in
    color, shape, and size among reef and bottom fish.

Bony Fish Half the Worlds Vertebrates
Chapter 5 Pages 5-74 5-75
30
Figure 8.08b
31
Fish Anatomy
32
Fins
33
Figure 8.12b
34
Figure 8.14b
35
Fish Anatomy
36
Fins
37
Fish Respiration
  • Water flows over Gills as fish opens mouth and
    swims.
  • Water flows opposite direction of blood flow.
  • O2 diffuses from the water into the blood.
  • Gills are made of thousands of gill filaments.
  • Gills are covered by the Operculum.

38
Figure 8.15
39
Up Close and Personal
40
Gills
  • Oxygen enters the bloodstream and carbon dioxide
    diffuses out at the gills, which are feathery
    structures found along the sides of the head.
  • The gills of a healthy fish are bright red due to
    the high level of oxygen in the blood that is
    very close to the surface of the gills. (Without
    oxygen, the gills would be brown.)
  • In bony fish, the gills are covered by a bony
    place called an operculum.

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43
Skin
  • The skin of most bony fish is covered with bony
    scales that look like shingles on a roof. 
  • Bony fish scales are waterproof and help protect
    the fish.
  • Glands in the skin in which the scales are
    embedded secrete a layer of mucus that covers the
    entire body

44
  • Mucus helps protect fish from infection.
  • Handling fish removes this mucus coating and can
    be harmful to the fish.

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46
Shape
  • The shape of a fish's body tells a lot about its
    lifestyle. 
  • Fish with fusiform, or streamlined, bodies are
    usually fast swimming predators that may swim at
    high speeds much of the time or are capable of
    great bursts of speed.

47
  • Many tropical fish are laterally compressed
    (flattened from side to side).
  • Fish with this shape are not very streamlined but
    they do not rely on speed for catching food or
    escaping from predators. 
  • Their body shape is perfectly adapted for hiding
    in the cracks and crevices of rocks and reef. 

48
  • They can move into these areas to hide, to escape
    predators or to get at food that cannot be
    reached by other fish. 
  • Fish with this body shape, like angelfish, are
    very maneuverable and capable of short bursts of
    speed.  
  • They are often camouflaged with disruptive
    coloration.

49
  • Other fish are flattened from top to bottom. 
  • Fish with this body shape spend most of their
    time at the bottom. 
  • They are usually camouflaged or can change color
    to match the bottom.

50
  • Fusiform (Streamlined)
  • Laterally Compressed (Flattened from side to side)

51
  • Depressed (Flattened from top to bottom)
  • Eel-Like (Body shaped like a snake)

52
Fins
  • Fins are used for swimming and sometimes for
    protection. 
  • Some fins are paired and others unpaired. 
  • The paired fins are the pectoral and pelvic fins.
     
  • The unpaired fins are the dorsal, caudal (tail)
    and anal fins.

53
  • The way the fins are used varies among different
    groups of fish. 
  • Most fish use their tails to move through the
    water and their other fins to steer with. 
  • Fins are most bony fish are flexible and
    supported by visible spines and rays. 
  • The shape, location and size of a fish's fins are
    closely linked with its way of life.

54
Pectoral Fins
  • The paired pectoral fins are usually responsible
    for turning, although they can be used for other
    functions such as tasting, touching, support and
    as a source of power for swimming.

55
Pelvic Fins
  • Paired pelvic fins add stability and are used for
    slowing some bony fishes.

56
Dorsal Fin
  • This may be a single fin or be separated into
    several fins.  In most bony fishes, the dorsal
    fin is used for sudden direction changes and acts
    as a "keel" to keep the fish stable in the water.

57
Caudal (or tail) fin
  • This is responsible for propulsion in most bony
    fishes

58
Anal Fin
  • The anal fin adds stability.

59
Tails
  • The shape of the tail can be an indicator of how
    fast a fish usually swims.
  • Crescent-shaped Fish with crescent-shaped tails
    are fast swimmers and constantly on the move.
  • Forked Fish with forked tails are also fast
    swimmers, though they may not swim fast all of
    the time.  The deeper the fork, the faster the
    fish can swim.
  • Rounded Fish with a rounded or flattened tail
    are generally slow moving, but are capable of
    short, accurate bursts of speed.

60
  • Fish with continuous caudal fins (dorsal, caudal,
    and anal fins attached) are able to swim in and
    around cracks and crevices.
  • Fish with lunate caudal fins tend to be the
    fastest fishes and maintain a rapid speed for
    long durations.

61
  • Many continuously swimming fish have forked
    caudal fins.
  • Fish with truncate caudal fins are usually
    strong, but slow, swimmers.
  • Fish with rounded caudal fins are usually strong,
    but slow, swimmers.

62
Eyes
  • Fish are visual predators. 
  • Many nocturnal fish have large eyes to help them
    feed at night. 
  • Fish such as sharks have pupils that dilate and
    constrict, and some sharks also have an eyelid
    that closes from the bottom upward. 
  • Bony fish eyes lack both of these
    characteristics.

63
Mouths
  • The position of a fish's mouth gives a general
    indication of where it feeds in the water column.
  • Fish with up-pointing mouths like hatchetfish
    primarily feed on the food flakes that float or
    hang near the water surface. 
  • Some fish with mouths on the underside of their
    head, like the catfish, feed on the bottom. 

64
  • Large For eating whole fish or chunks of fish
  • Small For nibbling on plants and small animals
  • Dorsal For eating near the surface

65
  • Anterior For eating in the water column
  • Ventral For eating on the bottom

66
Breathing Underwater
  • Fish, like most organisms, need oxygen to
    survive. 
  • The oxygen that fish "breathe" is dissolved in
    the water. 
  • The oxygen enters the water surface by diffusion
    or in the water from plants as a byproduct of
    photosynthesis.

67
  • Water enters the fish's mouth, moves across the
    gills and passes out the gill slits or
    operculum. 
  • The gills are made up of a bony or cartilaginous
    arch supporting a large number of paired gill
    filaments. 
  • Numerous small projections with very thin
    membranes on each filament are the sites of gas
    exchange (oxygen to carbon dioxide).

68
  • Beneath the thin membrane is a network of blood
    vessels. 
  • Oxygen diffuses from the water through the
    membrane into the blood and carbon dioxide
    diffuses outward.

69
Senses
70
Sight
  • Most fish have well-developed eyes on the sides
    of their heads. 
  • This placement allows them to see in all
    directions. 
  • The structure of the eye is very similar to that
    of other vertebrates.

71
  • In fish, focusing on near and distant objects is
    achieved by moving the lens backward and forward
    by muscular action. 
  • Fish that are colorful can probably see in
    color. 
  • Bony fish that are active at night have large
    eyes that help them see in the dark.

72
Smell
  • Fish can smell odors in the water with receptors
    inside blind sacs, called nares, located on the
    head. 
  • Nares are similar to our nostrils, but fish do
    not use them to breathe. 
  • The sense of smell is well developed and is
    useful in detecting distant odors.

73
Taste
  • For fish, taste is more of a close range sense. 
  • Taste buds, which can be found on different parts
    of the fish, are used in the identification of
    food. 
  • Taste buds are located in and around the mouth,
    and, on some fish, on the skin and even on the
    fins. 
  • Barbels, whisker-like structures near the mouth
    of fish such as catfish, are covered with taste
    buds and are used in locating food.

74
Hearing
  • Fish have ears but they do not open to the
    outside and cannot be seen.  
  • Hearing in fish is well developed. 
  • Water carries sound much better than air and the
    sound waves are picked up through the fish's body.

75
Lateral Line
  • A line of holes runs along both sides of a fish
    from the head to the tail.  
  • The holes have nerve connections that are
    sensitive to vibrations. 
  • The lateral line is used form schooling, avoiding
    obstacles and detecting prey and predators.

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77
Electroreception
  • Some bony fish can detect weak electrical fields
    through pit organs on their heads and faces. 
  • This ability is used for locating prey (all
    living things give off weak electrical fields),
    avoiding obstacles in murky water and in
    migrating.

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79
Buoyancy
  • Neutral buoyancy, the ability to remain
    motionless in the water without rising or
    sinking, is of great importance to a fish. 
  • It allows a fish to spend energy feeding,
    escaping predators or mating that would otherwise
    be needed to maintain its position in the water. 

80
  • Several strategies help achieve neutral buoyancy.
     
  • Most bony fish have a structure called a swim
    bladder, which is a balloon-like organ in the
    body cavity. 
  • Gases from the blood are added or removed to
    control buoyancy at different depths.

81
Fish Behavior
  • Behavior is the action of a fish in response to
    its environment including other animals. 
  • The most interesting and sometimes the most
    obvious behaviors involve interactions with other
    individuals.

82
Migration
  • Many species of fish migrate during their life
    cycle. 
  • It is well known that salmon make long migrations
    to spawn. 
  • Other fish migrate in response to changing
    environmental conditions, such as temperature or
    abundance of food.

83
Schooling
  • Many fish congregate in groups called schools. 
  • A school is a group of similarly-sized fish of
    the same species aligned and swimming in the same
    direction.  
  • Sight seems to be the primary means of
    maintaining the school. 
  • The lateral line may also be used.

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Aggression
  • Aggressive behavior is an interaction between two
    fish of the same species (intraspecific) or
    different species (interspecific). 
  • It is usually associated with reproduction or the
    defense of feeding territory. 
  • It includes posturing, direct attacks and
    displays such as fin flaring and changes of color.

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Resting
  • Some fish spend a good portion of their day
    resting. 
  • Resting reduces competition, provides protection
    from predators and may help in energy
    conservation.

88
Communication
  • Senses play an important part in fish
    communication. 
  • Visual communication is important to most fish. 
  • Body movements, postures, colors and color
    patterns are the primary means of visual
    communication. 

89
  • Sound is also used for communication.  
  • Sounds are produced by grinding teeth, flexing or
    contracting muscles and vibrating the swim
    bladder.

90
  • Fish also communicate by releasing chemicals
    called pheromones.  
  • These are chemical signals produced by an animal
    that, when released, influence the behavior of
    others of the same species. 
  • The sense of smell is important for this form of
    communication.

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92
Cleaning
  • Some tropical fish are cleaners. 
  • They pick parasites from other fish.  Cleaning
    fish, such as wrasses, are brightly colored. 
  • They establish cleaning stations that other fish
    approach in order to be cleaned. 
  • Body posturing, a form of visual communication,
    is used to initiate cleaning.

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Color
95
Red
  • Red is a common color in fish. 
  • You might think that red fish would be very easy
    for a predator to find. 
  • However, most fish that have this coloration live
    in dark or deep water, or are nocturnal (active
    at night). 
  • In deep water, red light is filtered out quickly
    so red is a good camouflage. 
  • At night, red-colored objects appear gray.

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97
Countershading
  • Many fish are dark on top and light on the
    bottom. 
  • When seen from above they "disappear" by blending
    in with the dark color of the depths of the
    bottom.  
  • Seen from below, the light belly blends into the
    sky above.

98
Disruptive Coloration
  • This is a form of camouflage. 
  • The patterns and lines break up the outline of
    the fish and help it to blend into the
    background. 
  • This confuses predators since the fish shape is
    not easily identifiable.

99
Eye Spots
  • Eye spots are a form of mimicry. 
  • They eye spot, usually found near the tail, may
    be used to draw attention away from the real eye
    which is a target that a predator might strike.

100
Warning Coloration
  • Many fish use bright colors to "advertise" the
    presence of venomous spines or some other
    defensive mechanism

101
Camouflage
  • Many fish have colors or patterns that match
    their backgrounds. 
  • Some fish can even change color to match
    different backgrounds either to hide from prey
    (if an ambush is planned!) or to hide from a
    predator.

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103
Food
  • As a group, bony fishes have a diverse range of
    food preferences. 
  • They may be herbivores (plant-eaters), carnivores
    (meat-eaters), omnivores (plant- and meat-eaters)
    or detritivores (animals that eat decomposing
    plants and animals). 
  • Some of the animals common in the diets of bony
    fishes include worms, marine snails, mussels,
    clams, squids, crustaceans, insects, birds,
    amphibians, small mammals and other fishes.

104
  • The amount of food a bony fish eats is directly
    related to its size, its metabolic rate and the
    temperature of its environment. 
  • Warm water fishes, such as tropical fish,
    generally have higher metabolic rates and require
    more food than coldwater species of the same size.

105
  • The esophagus in bony fishes is short, expandable
    and layered with muscles so that large objects
    can be swallowed. 
  • Most species of bony fishes have a stomach with
    gastric glands that release substances that break
    down the food to prepare it for digestion. 
  • The intestine is where the majority of food
    absorption takes place and the digestive system
    terminates at the anus.

106
Reproduction in Fish
  • In most species of bony fishes, sperm and eggs
    develop in separate male and female individuals. 
  • Fertilization is predominately external and, in
    some instances, internal. 
  • Males and females may look similar, or they may
    look very different. 
  • Male/female characteristics may include size,
    coloration, external reproductive organs, head
    characteristics and body shape. 

107
  • While reproduction in bony fishes is generally
    cyclic, various factors may influence bony fish
    breeding such as changes in the duration of
    sunlight, temperature changes, moon stages and
    presence of spawning areas.

108
  • Bony fishes show at least three types of
    embryonic development  egg layers (oviparous),
    egg retainers (ovoviviparous) and live bearing
    (viviparous). 
  • Depending on the species, fish parents (male
    and/or female) may scatter, hide, guard or brood
    eggs. 

109
  • There is great variation in the development stage
    at which offspring are released from the parent
    fish. 
  • The number of offspring is inversely related to
    the chance a single egg has to reach maturity and
    reproduce in general, species whose eggs have
    little chance to reach maturity lay the most
    eggs. 
  • For the most part, many species give no care to
    their eggs or young.

110
Figure 8.25
111
Fish Reproduction
  • Most Fish reproduce sexually, and fertilize
    their eggs externally (Sharks-internally).
  • Spawning is the process of fertilizing eggs.
  • Baby fish are called FRY.

112
Fish Circulation
  • Fish heart has 2 chambers
  • Single loop circulation
  • Blood flows into gills, picks up O2, goes to the
    body, returns to the heart.

113
Fish Adaptations
  • Lateral Line System- used to detect vibrations,
    orient the fish in water, it is a line of cells
    running down the side of the fish.
  • Operculum- gill cover, movement of operculum
    allows more water to be drawn in.
  • Swim Bladder- a gas filled sac that helps the
    fish maintain buoyancy. Sharks dont have a swim
    bladder!
  • Fins- Dorsal, Caudal, Pectoral, Pelvic, Anal.

114
Adaptations
  • Air Bladder Operculum Lateral
  • Gills
    Line

Fins
115
Figure 8.02
116
Figure 8.16a
117
Figure 8.16b
118
Figure 8.17a
119
Figure 8.17b
120
Figure 8.17c
121
Figure 8.17d
122
Figure 8.17e
123
Figure 8.18a
124
Figure 8.18b
125
Figure 8.19
126
Figure 8.22
127
Figure 8.24
128
Figure 8.28
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