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Understanding Students With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Title: Understanding Students With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder


1
Understanding Students With Attention-Deficit/Hype
ractivity Disorder
2
Video
  • http//www.chadd.org/Content/CHADD/EspeciallyForPr
    ess/CHADD_video.htm
  • http//www.chadd.org/Content/CHADD/EspeciallyForPr
    ess/CHADD_video.htm

3
IDEA Category
  • ADHD is a subcategory under Other Health Impaired
  • Has limited strength, vitality, or alertness,
    including a heightened alertness with respect to
    the educational environment that
  • Is due to chronic or acute health problems such
    as asthma, attention deficit disorder or
    attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Adversely affects a childs educational
    performance

4
Kids with ADHD
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vRcy2jF1EXjkfeature
    related

5
Prevalence
  • One of the most frequent reasons children are
    referred to guidance clinics
  • 3-7 of the school- age children suffer from ADHD
  • In a class of 25-30 students at least 1 student
    will have ADHD
  • Occurs more frequently in boys than girls boys
    are 3 times more likely to be diagnosed
  • Boys exhibit noticeable hyperactive and impulsive
    behaviors
  • Girls exhibit inattentive behavior

6
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Definition
  • Two types
  • Inattention
  • Hyperactivity-Impulsivity
  • DSM-IV Classification
  • ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type
  • ADHD, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
  • ADHD, Combined Type

7
Inattention Refers To
  • Consistent (over 6 months) and highly
    inappropriate levels of at least six of the
    following
  • Failing to pay close attention to details and
    making careless mistakes that are inconsistent
    with childs developmental level
  • Failing to sustain attention to tasks and/or play
    activities

8
Inattention Refers To (continued)
  • Failing to listen, even when spoken to directly
  • Failing to complete tasks
  • Having difficulty with organization
  • Resisting to work on tasks that require sustained
    attention
  • Losing materials and objects
  • Becoming easily distracted
  • Being forgetful

9
Hyperactivity Refers To
  • Consistent (over 6 months) and highly
    inappropriate levels of at least six of the
    following
  • Hyperactivity
  • Fidgeting or squirming
  • Having a difficult time remaining and seated in
    class
  • Running or climbing excessively when its not
    appropriate
  • Having difficulty playing quietly
  • Acting a though he/she is driven by a motor
  • Talking too much

10
Impulsivity Refers To
  • Consistent (over 6 months) and highly
    inappropriate levels of at least six of the
    following
  • Blurting out answers
  • Difficulty waiting for their turn
  • Interrupting others or butting into activities
  • Onset of inattention and/or hyperactivity should
    be present before age 7 and in two or more
    separate settings.

11
Simulation
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?voCbrQp3MIwcfeature
    related

12
Characteristics of ADHD
  • Poor sustained attention or vigilance
  • Impulsive or poor delay of gratification
  • Hyperactivity or poorly regulated activity
  • Diminished rule-governed behavior
  • Increased variability of task performance

13
Is ADHD Caused by
  • A lack of will or self-control
  • Parents who dont discipline their children
  • Watching too much TV or playing video games
  • Dietary issues such as too much sugar
  • Living in a fast-paced, stressful culture

14
Some Known Causes
  • Heredity
  • Greater than 50 likelihood if have a parent with
    ADHD
  • 5 to 7 times greater chance if sibling has ADHD
  • Structures of the brain
  • Frontal lobe, cerebellum and basal ganglia
  • Biological cause
  • Prenatal (exposure to cigarette smoke, lead,
    alcohol)
  • Perinatal (complications at delivery)
  • Postnatal (brain infections)

15
Affected Brain
  • There are 3 areas of the brain that have
    consistent abnormalities in people with ADHD
  • Prefrontal Lobes
  • Frontal Lobes
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Each of these areas are smaller in children and
    adults, abnormality shows more in the right side
    of the brain than other parts.

16
Prefrontal Lobes, Frontal Lobes, Basal Ganglia,
Cerebellum and Corpus Callosum
  • Prefrontal, Frontal Lobes
  • Regulates behavior
  • Basal Ganglia
  • Involves control of motor behavior and
    coordination
  • Cerebellum
  • Also responsible for coordination and motor
    behavior control
  • Corpus Callosum
  • Connects left and right hemispheres of the brain,
    necessary for communication between them.

17
Hereditary Factors
  • Family Studies
  • If a parent has ADHD there is a 57 chance their
    child will have ADHD
  • If a child has ADHD there is a 32 chance their
    sibling will also have ADHD
  • Twin Studies
  • If and identical twin and a fraternal twin have
    ADHD, the second identical twin is more likely to
    have ADHD than the second fraternal twin
  • Molecular Genetic Studies
  • There is no specific gene that causes ADHD, it is
    a combination of several genes.

18
Toxins Medical Factors
  • Fetal alcohol and tobacco use by a mother puts
    the child at a higher risk of ADHD due to toxins
  • Birth complications and low birthweight are also
    associated with ADHD
  • Low birthweight is caused by smoking

19
Coexisting Conditions
  • ADHD often occurs simultaneously with other
    behavioral and/or learning problems
  • 25 to 50 of people with ADHD also exhibit some
    form of emotional or behavioral disorder
  • In addition, persons with ADHD run a higher risk
    than the general population for substance abuse
  • Adolescents with ADHD are more likely to
    experiment prematurely with alcohol, tobacco or
    illicit drugs. Not exactly known why this is.

20

21
Medication as Treatment
  • Stimulant medication
  • Ritalin
  • Dexadrine
  • Adderall
  • Cylert
  • Concerta
  • Medication is only one aspect of a treatment
    plan

22
Medication Issues
  • http//www.helpguide.org/mental/adhd_medications.h
    tm

23
Educational Interventions
  • Use novelty in instruction and directions
  • Maintain a schedule
  • Prepare students for transitions and provide
    support in completing transitions
  • Emphasize time limits

24
Educational Interventions
  • Provide organizational assistance
  • Provide rewards consistently and often
  • Be brief and clear
  • Arrange the environment to facilitate attention
  • Provide optimal stimulation
  • Allow for movement and postures other than
    sitting

25
Educational Interventions
  • Keep homework assignments separate from
    unfinished school work
  • Use homework as practice for materials that have
    already been taught
  • Identify the minimum amount to demonstrate
    learning
  • Provide timelines for tasks associates with
    long-term assignments
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