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Manufacturing-Aware Physical Design

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Title: Manufacturing-Aware Physical Design


1
Manufacturing-Aware Physical Design
  • Andrew B. Kahng
  • Puneet Gupta
  • (Univ. of Calif. San Diego)

2
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Design for Value
  • Composability
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD

3
Printing
Figures courtesy Synopsys Inc.
4
Data Volume Explosion
Number of design rules per process node
MEBES file size for one critical layer vs.
technology node
5
RET Layers Explosion
Number of TSMC Mask Layers Using OPC/PSM
Number of design rules per process node
0
180nm
150nm
130nm
90 nm
Source TSMC Technology Symposium, April 22 2003
6
Design Rules Explosion
Number of design rules per process node
7
Variation Across-Wafer Frequency
8
Variation Leakage
  • Subthreshold leakage current varies exponentially
    with threshold voltage I ? exp(-Vth)
  • Vth f(channel length, oxide thickness, doping)
  • Most affected by variations in gate length

100 Isub
10 Ld
Dennis Sylvester, U. Michigan
9
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Design for Value
  • Composability PSM and Assists
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD

10
Symptoms Routing Rules (1)
  • Minimum area rules and via stacking
  • Stacking vias through multiple layers can cause
    minimum area violations (alignment tolerances,
    etc.)
  • Via cells can be created that have more metal
    than minimum via overlap (used for intermediate
    layers in stacked vias)
  • Multiple-cut vias
  • Use multiple-cut vias cells to increase yield and
    reliability
  • Can be required for wires of certain widths
  • Multiple via cut patterns have different spacing
    rules
  • Four cuts in quadrilateral five cuts in cross
    six cuts in 2x3 array
  • With wide-wire spacing rules, complicates pin
    access
  • Cut-to-cut spacing rules ? check both cut-to-cut
    and metal-to-metal when considering via-to-via
    spacing

11
Symptoms Routing Rules (2)
  • Width- and Length-dependent spacing rules
  • Width-dependent rules domino effects
  • Variant parallel-run rule (longer parallel
    runs ? more spacing)
  • Measuring length and width halo rules affect
    computation
  • Influence rules or stub rules
  • A fat wire, e.g., power/ground net, will
    influence the spacing rule within its
    surroundings ? any wire that is X um away from
    the fat wire needs to be at least Y um away from
    any other geometry.
  • Example fat wire with thin tributaries
  • bigger spacing around every wire within certain
    distance of the thin tributaries
  • ECO insertion of a tributary causes complications
  • Strange jogs and spreading when wires enter an
    influenced area

12
Example LEF/DEF 5.5, April 2003
13
Example LEF/DEF 5.5, April 2003
14
Symptoms Routing Rules (3)
  • Density
  • Grounded metal fills (dummy fill)
  • Via isodensity rules and via farm rules (via
    layers must be filled and slotted, have
    width-dependent spacing rule analogs, etc.)
  • Non-rectilinear (?-geometry) routing
  • X-Architecture http//www.xinitiative.org/
  • Y-Architecture http//vlsicad.ucsd.edu/Yarchitec
    ture/ , LSI Logic patents
  • Landing pad shapes (isothetic rectangle vs..
    octagon vs.. circle), different spacings (1.1x)
    between diagonal and Manhattan wires, etc.
  • More exceptions
  • More non-default classes (timing, EM reliability,
    )
  • Not just power and clock
  • gt0.25um width may be wide ? many exceptions

15
Symptoms Routing Rules
  • Degrade completion rates, runtime efficiency
  • Postprocessing likely no longer suffices
  • E.g., antennas
  • There is no chip until the router is done
  • Must / Should / Can tomorrows IC routers
    independently address these issues?

16
Whose Job Is It To Solve
  • Mask NRE cost (? runtimes ? shapes
    complexity)
  • BEOL catastrophic yield loss
  • Deposited copper ? can infer yield loss
    mechanisms
  • Open faults more prevalent than short or bridging
    faults
  • High-resistance via faults
  • Cf. non-tree routing for reliability and yield?
  • Variability budget for planarization
  • Copper is soft ? dual-material polish mechanisms
  • Oxide erosion and copper dishing ?
    cross-sectional variability, inter-layer bridging
    faults,
  • Low-k thermal properties, anisotropy,
    nonuniformity
  • Resistivity at small conductor dimensions

17
The Problem Evolution
  • Conflicting goals
  • Designer freedom, reuse, migration
  • EDA maintenance mode
  • Process/foundry enhance perceived value
    ( add rules)
  • ? Prisoners Dilemma who will invest in change?
  • Fiddling Incremental, linear extrapolation of
    current trajectory
  • GDS-3
  • Thin post-processing layers (decompaction, RET
    insertion, )
  • Leads to dark future (12th Japan DA Show
    keynote)

18
DAC-2003 Nanometer Futures PanelWhere should
extra RD be spent?
19
The Solution Co-Evolution
  • Designer, EDA, and process communities cooperate
    and co-evolve to maintain the cost (value)
    trajectory of Moores Law
  • Must escape Prisoners Dilemma
  • Must be financially viable
  • At 90nm to 65nm transition, this is a matter of
    survival for the worldwide semiconductor industry

20
Todays Design-Manufacturing Interfaces
Library (Library Team)
Design Rules Device Models
Litho/Process (Tech. Development)
Layout libs (Corner Case Timing)
RET
Design (ASIC Chip)
Mask Dataprep (Mask House)
Layout (collection of
polygons ?)
Tapeout
Guardbanding all the way in all stages!! (e.g.
clock ACLV guardband 30)
  • What do we lose ?
  • Performance ? Too much worst-casing
  • Turnaround time ? Huge OPC runtimes, overdesign
  • Predictability ? RET is applied post-design
  • Mask costs ? Overcorrection
  • Designers intent ? RET is not driven by design

21
Foundation of the DFM Solution
  • Bidirectional design-manufacturing data pipe
  • Fundamental drivers cost, value
  • Pass functional intent to manufacturing flow
  • Example RET for predictable timing slack,
    leakage, yield
  • RETs should win , reduce performance variation
  • ? cost-driven, parametric yield constrained RET
  • Pass limits of manufacturing flow up to design
  • Example avoid corrections that cannot be
    manufactured or verified ? e.g., design should be
    aware of metrology
  • N.B. 1998-2003 papers/tutorials
    http//vlsicad.ucsd.edu/abk/TALKS/

22
This Tutorial
  • Concrete examples of Manufacturing-Driven PD
  • Deployable today
  • Topic 1 Composability PSM and SRAF
  • Topic 2 Performance impact limited fill
    insertion
  • Topic 3 Function Aware OPC
  • Topic 4 Library-based OPC for predictability
  • Topic 5 Focus and proximity-effects aware STA
  • Some ramblings about future regular layout,
    robust optimization, leakage saving without
    multi-Vt
  • We will start with a manufacturing primer

23
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Lithography, Masks and Process Variations
  • Design for Value
  • Composability
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD

24
Photo-Lithographic Process
optical
mask
oxidation
photoresist coating
photoresist
removal (ashing)
stepper exposure
Typical operations in a single
photolithographic cycle (from Fullman).
photoresist
development
acid etch
process
spin, rinse, dry
step
25
Lithography Primer Basics
  • The famous Raleigh Equation
  • ? Wavelength of the exposure system
  • NA Numerical Aperture (sine of the capture angle
    of the lens, and is a measure of the size of the
    lens system)
  • k1 process dependent adjustment factor
  • Exposure the amount of light or other radiant
    energy received per unit area of sensitized
    material.
  • Depth of Focus (DOF) a deviation from a defined
    reference plane wherein the required resolution
    for photolithography is still achievable.
  • Process Window Exposure Latitude vs. DOF plot
    for given CD tolerance

26
Numerical Aperture
  • NAnsin? ? nrefractive index ? for air, UB 1.
    Practical limit 0.93
  • NA increase ? DOF decrease
  • Immersion lithography ? ? ngt1 (e.g., water)

Figures courtesy www.icknowledge.com
27
k1
  • k1 is complex process depending on RET
    techniques, photoresist performance, etc
  • Practical lower limit 0.25
  • Minimum resolvable dimension with 193nm steppers
    0.25193/0.93 52nm

Source www.icknowledge.com
28
RET Basics
  • The light interacting with the mask is a wave
  • Any wave has certain fundamental properties
  • Wavelength (?)
  • Direction
  • Amplitude
  • Phase
  • RET is wavefront engineering to enhance
    lithographyby controlling these properties

Direction
Amplitude
Phase
Courtesy F. Schellenberg, Mentor Graphics Corp.
29
Direction Illumination
  • Regular Illumination
  • Many off-axis designs (OAI)
  • Annular
  • Quadrupole / Quasar
  • Dipole


30
OAI Impact on PD
  • Off axis amplifies certain pitches at the expense
    of the others ?Forbidden pitches
  • Quasar / Quadrupole Illumination
  • Amplifies dense 0, 90 lines
  • Destroys 45 lines
  • Dipole Illumination
  • Prints only one orientation
  • Must decompose layout for 2 exposures

Depth of Focus
Pitch (nm)
Graph reference Socha et al. Forbidden Pitches
for 130 nm lithography and below, in Optical
Microlithography XIII, Proc. SPIE Vol. 4000
(2000), 1140-1155.
31
Amplitude OPC
  • Optical Proximity Correction (OPC)modifies
    layout to compensate for process distortions
  • Add non-electrical structures to layout to
    control diffraction of light
  • Rule-based or model-based

32
OPC Assist Features
Process Overlap Window
Iso-window after SRAF insertion
  • SRAF Sub-Resolution Assist Feature
    SB Scattering Bar
    Assists
  • SRAFs make isolated lines behave as dense
  • SRAF are not supposed to be printed on wafer but
    exist on mask

33
Phase PSM
  • Phase Shifting Masks (PSM) etch topography into
    mask
  • Creates interference fringes on the wafer
    ?Interference effects boost contrast ?Phase Masks
    can make extremely small gates

phase shifting mask
conventional mask
glass
Chrome
Electric field at mask
Intensity at wafer
34
Double-Exposure Bright-Field PSM
35
The Phase Assignment Problem
  • Assign 0, 180 phase regions such that critical
    features with width lt B are induced by adjacent
    phase regions with opposite phases

0
180
ltB
36
Key Global 2-Colorability
  • Odd cycle of phase implications layout
    cannot be manufactured
  • layout verification becomes a global, not local,
    issue

?
180
0
180
0
180
180
37
Phase Assignment for Bright-Field PSM
  • PROPER Phase Assignment
  • Opposite phases for opposite shifters
  • Same phase for overlapping shifters

Overlapping shifters
38
Critical features F1,F2,F3,F4
F2
F4
F1
F3
39
F2
F4
F1
F3
Opposite-Phase Shifters (0,180)
40
F2
S3
S4
F4
S7
S8
S1
F1
S2
F3
S5
S6
Shifters S1-S8
  • PROPER Phase
    Assignment
  • Opposite phases for opposite shifters
  • Same phase for overlapping shifters

41
Phase Conflict
F2
S3
S4
F4
S7
S8
S1
F1
S2
F3
S5
S6
Phase Conflict
Proper Phase Assignment is IMPOSSIBLE
42
Conflict Resolution Shifting
F2
S3
S4
F4
S7
S8
S1
F1
S2
F3
S5
S6
Phase Conflict
feature shifting to remove overlap
43
Conflict Resolution Widening
F2
S3
S4
F4
S7
S8
S1
F1
S2
F3
Phase Conflict
feature widening to turn conflict into
non-conflict
44
Minimum Perturbation Problem
  • Layout modifications
  • feature shifting
  • feature widening
  • ? area increase, slowing down
  • ? manual fixing, design cost increase
  • Minimum Perturbation Problem Find min of
    layout modifications leading to proper phase
    assignment. Kahng et al. ASPDAC 2001

45
Mask Costs(1)
Design
Mask Cost ? Data Volume OPC, PSM, Fill ?
increased feature complexity ? increased mask cost
Figure courtesy Synopsys Inc.
46
Mask Costs(2)
Half of all mask sets used for lt 570 wafers (lt
100K parts)
Vector scan Write cost proportional to feature
complexity Difficult to inspect, verify masks!
47
Manufacturing Yield
  • IC manufacturing process affected by
  • random disturbances
  • different silicon dioxide growth rates, mask
    misalignment, drift of
  • fabrication equipment operation, etc.
  • These disturbances are often uncontrollable and
    affect the circuit performance
  • Yield percentage of manufactured products that
    pass all performance specifications
  • Parametric yield (process variations)
  • What is the performance of the manufactured
    chips?
  • Catastrophic or functional yield (defects)
  • How many chips work?

48
Process Variation Taxonomy
  • Spatial scale
  • Die-to-Die or Inter-Die. E.g. Focus, etch
  • Within-Die or Intra-Die. E.g. lens aberration,
    diffraction effects
  • Nature
  • Random. E.g. batch-to-match material variation
  • Systematic. E.g. diffraction-based proximity
    effects
  • Systematic but difficult to model variations ?
    random

49
Process Variation Sources
  • Wafer topography, reflectivity
  • Reticle CD error, proximity effects, defects
  • Stepper Lens heating, focus, dose, lens
    aberrations
  • Etch Power, pressure, flow rate
  • Resist Thickness, refractive index
  • Develop Time, temperature, rinse
  • Environment Humidity, pressure

50
Simulation of Variation
  • Value X for a given parameter for a device i in
    path j in the kth Monte-Carlo run is given by
  • RAN-WID Random within-die variation
  • RAN-DTD Random die-to-die variation
  • SYS-WID Systematic within-die variation
  • SYS-DTD can not be accounted for at die-scale

51
Simulation of Variation (2)
Systematic effects should be correctly accounted
for. Treating them as random is an
oversimplification
  • (?, ?) for various components should be correctly
    reconstructed depending on their initial
    decomposition at the litho stage

52
Ideal Sampling ?
x11 x1n



xm1 xmn
die/MC sims ?
  • Row?WID
  • ?row ?WID
  • Column?DTD
  • ?col ?DTD

Devices on a die ?
  • Systematic variation, correlations?further
    dependence within rows and columns
  • Can such a multi-variate distribution be sampled?
    Is it even feasible ?
  • What is the relation between ? of various
    components in this case ?

53
Distributions Gaussian ??
  • Etch variation is radial
  • Less die at center than periphery ? CD variation
    due to etch is asymmetric
  • Focus based CD variation
  • Behavior of Isolated and
  • dense lines systematically
  • different ? pattern dependent
  • variation
  • Post-SRAF insertion, CD
  • distribution biased towards
  • dense lines ? asymmetry
  • More on this later..

54
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Design for Value
  • Composability
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD

55
Mapping Design to Value Selling Points
56
Design for Value (DFV)
  • Mask cost trend ? Design for Value (DFV)
  • Design for Value Problem
  • Given
  • Performance measure f
  • Value function v(f)
  • Selling points fi corresponding to various values
    of f
  • Yield function y(f)
  • Maximize Total Design Value ?i y(fi)v(fi)
  • or, Minimize Total Cost
  • Probabilistic optimization regime
  • See "Design Sensitivities to Variability
    Extrapolation and Assessments in Nanometer VLSI",
    IEEE ASIC/SoC Conference, September 2002, pp.
    411-415.

57
DFV vs. Design for Performance (DFP)
  • DFP
  • T circuit delay
  • yi process parameters
  • xi design parameters
  • DFV
  • Tm Selling point delay
  • PT Cumulative probability (yield)

58
Example Repeater Insertion
  • 130nm single repeatered 5mm global line with
    ITRS based Leff variation considered
  • Repeater location is varied
  • DFP nominal delay optimized
  • DFV Yield at given threshold delay optimized

DFV and DFP optima are different
59
DFV Impact of critical paths
Post-Opt
Paths
Pre-Opt
Timing slack
  • DFP optimization?A wall of optimized critical
    paths?increase in expected circuit delay in
    presence of variation
  • Intentional under-optimization ? E.g., IBM
    DAC02

60
Statistical Static Timing
  • Important component of DFV is a statistical
    static timing analysis (SSTA)
  • Simplest SSTA Monte-Carlo STA
  • Sample process parameters from their
    distributions
  • Generate a delay value for every timing arc
  • Update SDF and run standard STA
  • Repeat statistically significant no. of times and
    generate a circuit delay distribution

61
SSTA Other Approaches
  • Problem is to compute distribution of maximum of
    random variables
  • Intelligent Monte-Carlo UCSB DAC02
  • Bound-based UCB DAC02, IBM DAC03, UMich
    TAU02
  • Problems with current approaches
  • Runtime, scalability
  • Ability to handle correlations
  • Ability to handle non-Gaussian distributions
  • Incremental SSTA ?

62
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Design for Value
  • Composability
  • PSM and Assists
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD

63
Conflict Graph for Cell-Based Layouts
  • Coarse view at level of connected components of
    conflict graphs within each cell master
  • each of these components is independently
    phase-assignable
  • can be treated as a single vertex in
    coarse-grain conflict graph

cell master A
cell master B
connected component
edge in coarse-grain conflict graph
64
Standard-Cell PSM
  • Must Free composability of standard cells
  • Exit placer with a phase-shiftable layout
  • No loops back into the placer
  • RETs may interfere unique master cell with only
    one instantiation causes area loss
  • Can exploit
  • Multiple phase-shifted versions of master cell
  • Version-composability matrix

65
Taxonomy of Composability
  • (Same) Same row composability any cell can be
    placed immediately adjacent to any other
  • (Adj) Adjacent row composability any two
    cells from adjacent rows are freely combined
  • Four cases of cell libraries
    G guaranteed composability
    NG non-guaranteed composability
  • Adj-G/Same-G ? free composability
  • Adj-G/Same-NG ? less free
  • Adj-NG/Same-G ? painful
  • Adj-NG/Same-NG ? non-starter

66
Taxonomy of Composability
67
Adj-G/Same-NG Versioning
  • GIVEN
  • order of cells in a row
  • version compatibility matrix
  • FIND version assignment such that versions of
    adjacent cells are compatible
  • (BFS) traversal of DAG
  • nodes versions
  • arcs compatibility

68
Adj-G/Same-NG Shifting
  • GIVEN
  • - order of cells in a row (or optimal
    placement)
  • - version compatibility weighted matrix
    (weight extra sites)
  • FIND version assignment minimizing either
    total of extra sites or total/max displacement
    from optimal placement
  • Dynamic Programming O(kV)
    k max displacement

69
Assist Features and Variation
SB Scattering Bar ? SRAF
0.22
0.2
0.18
0.16
CD?
0.14
0.12
0.1
0.08
2 SB
1 SB
W/O SB
DOF?
0.06
0.04
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
  • SRAFs are dummy geometries
  • Improve process window overlap for dense and
    isolated features
  • Not supposed to be printed
  • Unavoidable for 90nm poly

SB2
No SB
SB1
70
Layout Composability for SRAFs
Better than
? x ?
?xdx?
  • Feature spacings are restricted to a small set
  • Two components
  • Assist-correct library layouts ? Inter-device
    spacing within a standard cells ? Intelligent
    library design
  • Assist-correct placement ? space between cells
    needs to be adjusted ? Intelligent whitespace
    management

71
Assist-Correct Placement
s3
(s1s3ws)2 Assist-Corr.-set (s2s4ws)2
Assist-Corr.-set
s1
ws
s4
s2
  • Change whitespace distribution to make the
    placement assist-correct
  • Can be formulated and solved as a post-placement
    minimum perturbation problem
  • Does not work well with cell layouts having
    non-preferred direction critical poly

72
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Design for Value
  • Composability
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD

73
CMP Area Fill
Chemical-Mechanical Planarization (CMP) Polishing
pad wear, slurry composition, pad elasticity make
this a very difficult process step
silicon wafer
slurry feeder
wafer carrier
polishing pad
slurry
polishing table
Area fill feature insertion Decreases local
density variation Decreases the ILD thickness
variation after CMP
Post-CMP ILD thickness
Features
Area fill features
74
Fixed-Dissection Regime
  • To make filling more tractable, monitor only
    fixed set of w ? w windows
  • offset w/r (example shown w 4, r 4)
  • Partition n x n layout into nr/w ? nr/w fixed
    dissections
  • Each w ? w window is partitioned into r2 tiles

w/r
w
tile
Overlapping windows
n
75
Density Control Objectives
Objective for Manufacture Min-Var Kahng et
al., TCAD02 minimize window density
variation subject to upper bound on window
density
Objective for Design Min-Fill Wong et al,
DAC00 minimize total amount of added fill
subject to UB on window density variation
76
Performance-Impact Limited Area Fill (PIL Fill)
  • Why?
  • Fill features insertion ? increased capacitance?
    increased interconnect delay and crosstalk
  • Post-tapeout fill synthesis ? Incorrect timing
    closure ?

Filled layout
  • General guidelines
  • Minimize total number of fill features
  • Minimize fill feature size
  • Maximize space between fill features
  • Maximize buffer distance between original and
    fill features

77
PIL Fill Formulation
  • Given
  • A fixed-dissection routed layout
  • Design rule for floating square fill features
  • Prescribed amount of fills in each tile
  • Fill layout with the following objective
  • Max-MinSlack-Fill-Constrained (MSFC) Maximize
    minimum post-fill slack over all nets, subject to
    layout density constraints
  • Chen et al, DAC03

78
Capacitance and Delay Models
  • Interconnect capacitance Overlap Coupling
    Fringe
  • Fringe, Overlap require cognizance of multiple
    layers ? Consider fill impact on
    coupling capacitance only
  • Elmore delay model ? incremental additivity of
    delay with added parasitic capacitance
  • Capacitance between two active lines separated by
    distance d, with m fill features in one column

79
Iterated MSFC Fill Approach
  • Run STA and sort fill columns in decreasing order
    of timing slack
  • Greedily insert fill into columns till
  • Fill requirement of tile is met or
  • No column with slack gt LB remains or
  • Total added delay due to fill gt UB
  • Decrease LB, UB. Update parasitics.
  • If fill requirement of tile is not met, goto 1
  • Pick next tile to be filled. Goto 1
  • UB, LB are iteration variables to control
    accuracy vs. STA iterations tradeoff. More
    details in Chen et al, DAC03

80
Experiments for MSFC PIL-Fill
Normal fill flow ? LP/Monte-Carlo (TCAD02)
81
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Design for Value
  • Composability
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Minimizing cost of corrections
  • Library-based correction
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD

82
DFV at Process Level Function-Aware OPC
  • Annotate features with required amount of OPC
  • E.g., why correct dummy fill?
  • Determined by design properties such as setup and
    hold timing slacks, parametric yield criticality
    of devices and features
  • Reduce total OPC inserted (e.g., SRAF usage)
  • Decreased physical verification runtime, data
    volume
  • Decreased mask cost resulting from fewer features
  • Supported in data formats (OASIS, IBM GL-I,
    OA/UDM)
  • Design through mask tools need to make, use
    annotations
  • N.B. General RET trajectory rules ? models ?
    libraries

83
DFV in OPC Regime
  • Given Admissible levels of (OPC) correction for
    each layout feature, and corresponding delay
    impact (mean and variance)
  • Find Level of correction for each layout
    feature, such that a prescribed selling point
    delay is attained
  • Objective Minimize total cost of corrections

84
Variation-Aware Library Models
  • Each capacitance or delay value replaced by (?,?)
    pair
  • Variation aware .lib
  • pin(A)
  • direction input
  • capacitance (0.002361,0.0003)
  • timing()
  • related_pin "A"
  • timing_sense positive_unate
  • cell_rise(delay_template_7x7)
  • index_1 ("0.028, 0.044, 0.076")
  • index_2 ("0.00158, 0.004108, 0.00948")
  • values ( \
  • (0.04918,0.001), (0.05482,0.0015),
    (0.06499,0.002)",
  • .

85
Correction Mask Cost CD Control
  • Levels of RET Levels of CD control
  • Levels of RET levels of CD control

Type of OPC Ldrawn (nm) 3? of Ldrawn Figure Count Delay (?, ?) for NAND2X1
Aggressive 130 5 5X (64.82, 2.14)
Medium 130 6.5 4X (64.82, 2.80)
No OPC 130 10 1X (64.82, 4.33)
OPC solutions due to K. Wampler, MaskTools,
March 2003
CD studies due to D. Pramanik, Numerical
Technologies, December 2002
86
Generic SSTA-Based Cost of Correction Methodology
  • Statistical STA (SSTA) provides PDFs of arrival
    times at all nodes
  • Assume variation aware library models (for delay)
    are available
  • Statistical STA currently has runtime and
    scalability issues

87
MinCorr Parallels to Gate Sizing
  • Assume
  • Gaussian-ness of distributions prevails
  • ? 3? corresponds to 99 yield
  • Perfect correlation of variation along all paths
  • Die-to-Die variation
  • ?12 3?12 ?1 3?1 ?2 3?2
  • Resulting linearity allows propagation of (?3?)
    or 99 (selling point) delay to primary outputs
    using standard Static Timing Analysis (STA) tools
  • (See DAC-2003 paper)

88
MinCorr Parallels to Gate Sizing
Gate Sizing Problem Given allowed areas and
corresponding delays of each cell, minimize total
die area subject to a cycle time constraint
Gate Sizing ? MinCorr
Cell Area ? Cost of correction
Nominal Delay ? Delay (?k?)
Cycle Time ? Selling point delay
Die Area ? Total cost of OPC
89
MinCorr Methodology (DAC-03)
  • Mapping of area minimization to RET cost
    optimization
  • Yield library analogous to timing libraries
    (e.g., .lib)
  • Synthesis tool (Design Compiler) performs gate
    sizing
  • Figure counts, critical dimension (CD) variations
    derived from Numerical Technologies OPC tool
  • Restricted TSMC 0.13 ?m library (7 cell masters
    BUF, INV, NAND, NOR)
  • Approach tested on small combinational circuits
  • alu128 8064 cells
  • c7552 2081 cell ISCAS85 circuit
  • c6288 2769 cell ISCAS85 circuit
  • Up to 79 reduction in figure complexity without
    any parametric yield impact

90
OPC and Designers Intent
  • OPC applied post-tapeout
  • Overcorrection (matching corners) ? mask cost
  • Large runtimes
  • Impact of OPC on performance unknown
  • Designers intent OPC quality metrics
  • CD (Poly over active)
  • Non-critical poly need
  • not be well-controlled
  • Contact Coverage
  • Perfect corners unnecessary
  • if there is enough contact overlap

91
Example Caution OPCing OPC
  • Historical rule on line end extension
  • OPC software assumes the layout is the target,
    and adds OPC to the old OPC extension
  • With model-based OPC, design rules can be much
    more aggressive

Truly desired on wafer
Layout according to design rule
OPC on the OPC
Figures courtesy F. Schellenberg, Mentor Graphics
Corp.
92
CD Error Distribution
  • Library based correction shows highly accurate
    average CD

93
Systematic ACLV
  • ACLV Through-pitch variation (50) Topography
    variation (10) Mask variation Etch,
    residuals
  • Current timing analysis (statistical or
    deterministic STA) assumes all variation is
    random
  • 50 of ACLV can be predictable by analyzing the
    layout
  • Smile-frown plots indicate
  • Through focus variation is systematic
  • Corners for timing analysis are derived from
    worst-case ACLV tolerance ? instance specific
    tolerances are much tighter

Figure courtesy ASML MaskTools
94
Taming Pattern and Focus Variation
  1. Obtain a set of nominal CD (wafer image
    simulation) for typical environments of the cell
    in a chip ? environment specific timing libs
    (typical ASIC libs very limited set of
    environments)
  2. Run in-context STA (post-placement) with
    context-specific timing libs ? accurate nominal
    timing at zero focus condition
  3. Input to output delay modeling based on the
    iso-ness and dense-ness of transistors in the
    input to output paths ? more accurate delay
    variation analysis in STA

Work done at IBM
95
Taming.. Timing Results
Testcase Traditional Timing Traditional Timing Traditional Timing New Accurate Timing New Accurate Timing New Accurate Timing
Testcase NOM BC WC NOM BC WC
C1355 C2670 C3540 C432 C499 2.15 5.07 6.32 5.77 2.30 1.57 3.74 4.72 4.21 1.66 2.88 6.64 8.34 7.70 3.10 2.15 5.05 6.26 5.70 2.29 1.70 4.04 5.20 4.53 1.79 2.62 5.96 7.35 6.88 2.82
Work done at IBM
96
Outline
  • Challenges
  • DFM Philosophy
  • Manufacturing and Variability Primer
  • Design for Value
  • Composability
  • Performance Impact Limited Fill Insertion
  • Function Aware OPC
  • Systematic Variation Aware STA
  • Futures of Mfg-Aware PD
  • RDRs, robust optimization, leakage

97
Acknowledgements
  • The Library-Based OPC and Systematic ACLV based
    STA work is still unpublished and was done at IBM
    during Puneet Guptas summer internship. We would
    like to thank Fook-Luen Heng, Daniel Ostapko,
    Mark Lavin, Ronald Gordon, Kafai Lai and all our
    collaborators in the work.
  • Dennis Sylvester and Jie Yang at University of
    Michigan were our collaborators for the MinCorr
    and variability-impact projection work. Yu Chen
    (Ubitech) was the coauthor for our work on
    PIL-Fill.
  • We would also like to thank Frank Schellenberg
    (Mentor Graphics Corp.), Tim Yao Wong (CMU) and
    Dennis Sylvester for letting us use parts of
    their previous talks.

98
Notes on Regular Layout
  • 65 nm has high likelihood for layouts to look
    like regular gratings
  • Uniform pitch and width on metal as well as poly
    layers
  • ? Predictable layouts even in presence of focus
    and dose variations
  • More manufacturable cell libraries with regular
    structures
  • New layout challenges (e.g., preserving
    regularity in placement)

99
Regular Layouts
  • Standard cells
  • high performance, high density, low part cost,
    low power
  • escalating NRE, TAT, variability
  • Programmable devices (FPGA)
  • regular, predictable, fast TAT, low NRE
  • low performance, low density, high part cost,
    high power
  • Middle ground e.g. via programmability (eASIC,
    CMU)
  • VPGA retain regularity, but remove field
    programmability
  • Use only a few via masks to configure a circuit

Courtesy Center for Silicon System
Implementation, CMU.
100
Via Patterning
Connection made
Connection not made
Sample synthesis Results
Courtesy Center for Silicon System
Implementation, CMU.
101
Stochastic/Robust Optimizations
  • Physical design is no longer deterministic
  • An example probabilistic LP
  • Problem Too slow and not at all scalable

102
Example Robustness Metric for Power Distribution
  • Power distribution analysis by solving GVI
  • G Conductance matrix of the power distribution
    network
  • I Current requirements for sinks
  • V IR drop (if Vdd is put to 0)
  • V Peak IR drop (l-1 norm)
  • Random variations
  • G E.g., width and thickness variation
  • I E.g., inaccurate estimation of peak currents

103
Example Robustness Metric for Power
Distribution (2)
  • Perturbation analysis
  • E random perturbation in G
  • e random perturbation in I
  • V IR drop map after perturbation
  • GG-1 condition number measure of
    robustness

104
Leakage Understanding Control
  • Understanding variation in chip-level leakage
    due to intra- and inter-die Leff variation
  • cost-benefit of controlling relevant variation
    sources
  • Control Multi-everything (threshold, supply,
    sizing)

105
Multi-Lgate Design for Leakage?
  • Lgate biasing from 130nm to 140nm
  • Leakage benefit 29
  • Delay overhead 5 Dynamic power overhead
    3.5
  • Potential alternative/supplement to multi-Vt
    design
  • Avoid high variability in low Vt and
    manufacturing overheads of multi-Vt
  • CD variability (as a ) is less for larger Lgate
    design

106
Conclusions
  • Designer, physical design, and mask communities
    must maintain cost (value) trajectory of Moores
    Law
  • Wakeup call Intel 157nm announcement
  • Bidirectional design-mfg data pipe driven by
    cost, value
  • Pass functional intent to mask and foundry flows
  • Pass limits of mask and foundry flows up to
    design
  • Examples
  • Manufacturability and cost/value optimization
  • Exploitation of systematic variations (e.g.,
    iso-dense)
  • Composability
  • Performance impact-limited dummy fill
  • Intelligent mask data prep, restricted design
    rules, etc.
  • Manufacturing-aware PD much work lies ahead

107
Thank You!
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