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Seminar on Meat and meat processing

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Seminar on Meat and meat processing Submitted by: Avinash sharma 4510 contents Nutritional value of meat Composition of meat Pre slaughter changes Factors affecting ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Seminar on Meat and meat processing


1
Seminar on Meat and
meat processing
Submitted by Avinash sharma 4510
2
contents
  • Nutritional value of meat
  • Composition of meat
  • Pre slaughter changes
  • Factors affecting pre slaughter changes
  • Slaughter changes
  • Post slaughter changes
  • Cutting and deboning of meat
  • Preservation and processing of meat
  • Standards for meat products
  • Gelatin production

3
Nutritional value of meat
  • Meat is very nutritious food
  • Having abundance of proteins, fats, minerals,
    vitamin B complex

4
Composition of meat
  • Proteins15-20
  • High biological value
  • Rich in essential amino acids

Amino acid lamb pork beef
Lysine 7.6 7.8 8.4
Methionine 2.3 2.5 2.3
Cystine 1.3 1.3 1.4
Tryptophan 1.3 1.4 1.1
Essential amino acids as of crude protein in
fresh meats
5
  • 2. Meat fats 5-40
  • Contains ample amount of essential fatty acids
    like linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidonic
    acid
  • Most abundant fatty acid is oleic acid
  • Some amount of cholesterol

6
  • 3. Minerals
  • Good source of all minerals except calcium
  • K is most abundant followed by P
  • Good source of Fe
  • Minerals provided by meat are in easily absorbed
    form

7
  • 4. Vitamins
  • Lean meat excellent source of Vit B complex
  • Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin are quite high
  • Vitamin c is almost absent
  • Contains traces of fat soluble vitamins

8
Pre-slaughter changes
  • Pre slaughter handling of animal is crucial for
    the meat quality
  • Quality attribute of meat is its ease of chew
    ability i.e. tenderness of meat
  • Unfavorable condition prior to slaughtering leads
    to loss in the quality of meat

9
Factors affecting pre slaughter changes
10
Slaughter changes
  • Slaughtering involves mainly stunning and
    bleeding
  • stunning
  • projectile stunning
  • use of electric current
  • AC current of 50 volts is satisfactory

11
Different stunning system
  • High frequency stunning HD II-F
  • Normal mains frequency can result in haemorrhages
    and bone fracture so frequency is converted in
    desired stunning frequency
  • 50-400Hz

12
  • 2.Waterbath stunning N and HD II-1,5
  • Use for poultry
  • Chicken are hanged upside down and dipped into a
    water bath to which an electric current is
    applied

13
Bleeding
  • Bleeding can be done in these three ways-
  • 1. Either the jugular vein is cut or
  • 2. Carotid artery is cut
  • 3. Anterior venacava-major blood vessel can be
    cut

14
Slaughter changes
15
  • Failure of circulatory system
  • Loss of homeostasis
  • Decrease in blood pressure
  • constriction of peripheral blood vessel
  • Depletion of O2 leads to anaerobic pathways
  • Accumulation of lactic acid

16
  • 2. pH decline
  • Accumulation of lactic acid lowers down the pH
  • Gradual decline continues from approx pH 7 in the
    living muscle during first few hours(5-6h) and
    then there is a little drop in the next
    15-20h,giving an ultimate pH in the range of
    5.5-5.7

17
  • 3. Rigor mortis
  • Caused by chemical changes in the muscle after
    death, causing the limbs of the corpse to become
    stiff.
  • ATP complexed with Mg2 is required for breaking
    the actomyosin bond,
  • As the level drops, permanent actomyosin cross
    bridges begin to form,
  • Muscle become less extensible
  • If pH decline is very slow or fast, the onset and
    completion of rigor mortis is rapid

18
  • 4.Loss of protection from microorganisms
  • Body defence mechanism stops and membrane
    properties are altered
  • So meat is quite susceptible to invading
    microorganism
  • 5.Degradation due to proteolytic enzymes
  • Due to decline in pH autolytic lysosomal enzymes
    called cathepsins are activated
  • Cathepsins causes the degradation of muscle
    protein

19
Post slaughter changes
  • Evisceration
  • Discarding of viscera or inedible parts like
    alimentary canal, lungs, reproductive system
  • Removal of feather, horns, skin etc

20
  • 2.Scalding
  • Washing of carcasses with hot water (900C) to
    remove traces of blood
  • Also lowers the chances of microbial attack
  • Protein denaturation take place

21
Cutting and deboning of meat
  • Cutting
  • Cutting of meat according the requirements.
  • According to Meat and Meat Product Order (MMPO),
    cuts and size of the pieces should be defined.
  • Basic requisites in meat cutting are
  • Carcasses has to be essentially chilled,
  • Cutting room should be maintained at 15-200C and
    RH of 80,
  • Uniformity in cuts

22
  • 2. Deboning
  • Removal of bone from meat
  • Temp 150C,and perform quickly within 2-3h of
    slaughtering
  • Deboning

mechanical
mannual
1.Genarally for muscle arround Neck, a screen
cuts meat into pieces nd it get
deboned. 2.Yield is 40-60
1.Chest and thigh Muscle are manually Deboned by
hand 2.Yield is high
23
Flowchart of deboning of poultry
breeding
Diet of animal
Stunning using electicity
scalding
24
evisceration
Chilling at refrigeration temperature
washing
Graded as per cuts
Pakaged and marketed
25
Processing and preservation of meat
26
  • Chilling
  • Storage at 2-50C
  • Relative humidity is kept 90
  • slows down the microbial growth and enzymatic
  • as well as chemical reaction
  • Shelf life of 5-7day

27
  • 2.Freezing
  • Storage temperature- -180C to-200C
  • Freezer burn occurs due to progressive surface
    dehydration resulting in the concentration of
    meat pigment on the surface,
  • Freezing can be slow or rapid
  • Rapid freezing is desierable

28
  • 3.Smoking
  • provide bacteriostatic effect and a
    characteristic smoky flavor.
  • Preservation is due to surface dehydration,
    lowering of surface pH and antioxidant property
    of smoke
  • Aldehyde contributes most of the colour
  • Phenol act as bacteriostatic, formaldehyde as
    bactericidal

29
  • 4.Irradiation
  • EM radiation are used
  • They destroy the microorganism by fragmenting
    their DNA and causing ionisation of inherent
    water.
  • Gamma rays are commercially used
  • 50-100k rad doseincreases shelf life of poultry
    by 19day
  • Dose of 4-5M rad can sterilize poultry, pork.
  • UV of 2650? are used for surface sterilization

30
  • 5.Cooking of meatthermal processing
  • cooking
  • Mild heating
  • Below 1000C
  • 58-750C is pasteurization

Heating beyond 1000c to achieve commercial
sterility
  • Meat is then refrigerated

31
  • 6.Canning
  • Process of preservation by thermal sterilization
    of a product held in a hermetically sealed
    container
  • Shelf life of atleast 2 year at ambient
    temperature

meat
condiment
precooking
(700C for 15-30min)
Either manually or mechanically
filling
32
Adjustment of headspace
It minimise the strain on the can seams due to
expansion of air during heating
Exhausting of air
Double seaming
retorting
High temperature and pressure
cooling
300C-400C
Labelled, storage and marketed
33
  • 7. Curing of meat
  • Done for specific colour and flavour development
    and for preservaton
  • Curing ingredientsNaCl, NaNo3,NaNo2 and sugar
  • Nacl-preservative action
  • Act by dehydration and alteration of osmotic
    pressure
  • Chloride ions directly act on microbes
  • Slows the action of photolytic enzyme

34
  • Role of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite
  • Served to stabilize the attractive colour and
    impart characteristic cured flavor
  • Colour reaction of cured meat
  • NO3 NO2
    NO
  • NOMb NoMMb
    NoMb


  • nitrosyl haemochrome

Absence of light and air
NRO
Nitric oxide myoglobin
Nitric oxide metmyoglobin
Heating or smoking
(pink colour pigment)
35
  • Permitted level of nitrate-500ppm and
    nitrite-200ppm.
  • Nitrites are bactericidal to Clostridium
    botulinum.
  • Nitrates and nitrites also retard the development
    of rancidity.
  • Role of sugar
  • Good food for nitrate reducing bacteria and
  • flavor and preservation

36
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37
Meat microbiological standards
  • A no of factors adds to he microbial load to
    meat-animal, production and post production
    process.
  • Various microbiological standards
  • 1. Total viable count
  • Estimation of mesophiles and psychrophiles
  • Handling and state of freshness or spoilage of
    meat
  • 2. Enterococci
  • Indicates poor hygienic quality of frozen meat
  • Inadequate heat treatment of canned food

38
  • According to MMPO
  • Total viable count in meat note more than
    105-107cfu/gm
  • Total viable count in poultry not more than
    105cfu/gm
  • Coliforms should be zero

39
Gelatin production
  • Gelatin a translucent, colourless, brittle,
    nearly tasteless solid substance extracted from
    the collagen inside animals connective tissue.
  • It is having nine essential amino acid out of
    twelve.
  • Bone and skin are good source of gelatin
  • It is soluble in water and other polar solvents.

40
  • Production of gelatin
  • Raw material is cleaned
  • Defatting
  • Demineralization to remove calcium and similar
    salts.
  • Raw material is now called ossein.
  • ossein

Alkali process
Acid process
  • Bone is soaked in lime
  • suspension for 60 days.
  • Gelatin is known as type B.
  • IEP-4.8-5.2
  • Bone is treated with
  • dil.acid for 8 weeks
  • Gelatin is typeA.
  • IEP-6-9.

41
Extracting, purifying and drying gelatin
  • Same extraction method for both types
  • Carried out at controlled temperature using
    water.
  • The dilute gelatin solution is then filtered,
    demineralized, concentrated in vaccum
    evaporators.(25-30concentrated)
  • UHT-sterilised and cooled and extruded to form
    gelatine noodles.
  • Dried by purifid air.
  • Tested for gel strength, viscosity,and other
    parameters

42
Uses of gelatin
  1. As a gelling agent in cooking.
  2. A a stabilizer, thickener n foods such as ice
    cream,jams, yogurt, cream,chese.
  3. Gelatin constitute the shells of pharmaceutical
    capsules.
  4. In photographic films and papers.
  5. Used by swimmers to hold their hair in place.

43
References
  • Sharma B.D , Meat and meat product technology 1st
    edition ,Medical publisher (P) ltd,new Delhi
  • www.egyankosh.com/meat
  • www.wikipedia.com
  • www.google.com/images/meat
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