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Motor Development and Motor Learning for Children


Gender Similarities Physical differences between boys and girls ... of musculature required Gross motor skills Stages of learning Styles of Teaching ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motor Development and Motor Learning for Children

Chapter 2
  • Motor Development and Motor Learning for Children

Chapter 2 objectives
  • Describe the normal process of motor
    development-ages 3 through 12.
  • Discuss the concepts of motor learning that
    influence skill acquisition.
  • Identify developmentally appropriate teaching
    practices for motor skills.
  • Comprehend how regular physical activity benefits
    growth and development.

Gender Similarities
  • Physical differences between boys and girls
    during early and later childhood are minimal
  • They have similar amounts of muscle and bone mass
    during preschool and early primary grades
  • The onset of preadolescence sees greater limb
    growth than trunk growth

Developmental readiness
  • Movement educators must consider whether a
    designed movement task matches the abilities of
    each child
  • Developmentally appropriate activity meets each
    childs abilities based on fitness and skill
    level, body size, age and readiness

Accounting for readiness
  • Consider whether students demonstrate less
    complex skills
  • How does a child look when performing motor
    skills of lower or like complexity?
  • Is a child capable of manipulating equipment or
    does the equipment control the child?

Size of musculature required
  • Gross motor skills require large muscles to
    perform such skills as running, jumping,
    throwing, or kicking
  • Fine motor skills require more precise movements,
    typically of the hand and fingers

Gross motor skills
  • There is a critical period from ages 3 to 8 in
    which children should demonstrate mastery of the
    control and coordination of large muscle groups
  • When children fail to develop mature skills
    during this period, they may experience
    difficulty coordinating more complex skills
    required in sport and recreational activities

Stages of learning
  • Beginner the learner is getting the idea of the
    movement and how to coordinate the body
  • Intermediate the learner is beginning to refine
    the movement and make fewer errors
  • Advanced the learner is automatic in performance
    of a skill and thinks little about the execution
    of the skill

Styles of Teaching
  • Decisions comprise all teaching-learning
  • Three categories of decisions are
  • Pre-impact made during preparation and planning
  • Impact made during the execution of the lesson
  • Post-impact made during the evaluation of the

Styles of teaching
  • Common styles for elementary children
  • Command
  • Task
  • Reciprocal
  • Self-check
  • Inclusion
  • Exploratory (convergent and divergent)

Command Style
  • The teacher makes all decisions throughout all
    three phases of pre-impact, impact, and
  • Instruction is uniform for all children, however
    individual differences of children are not taken
    into account
  • The style is effective when time is limited
  • Explain the objective, demonstrate, let students

Task Style
  • The teacher makes decisions in the pre-impact and
    post-impact category
  • Children make decisions during the execution of
    the lesson, often times using task sheets or in
    learning stations
  • Children participate at their own pace, and the
    teacher is free to provide feedback and
    individual instruction

Reciprocal style
  • The teacher makes decisions in pre-impact, helps
    organize students into pairs and facilitates good
    communication between the student pair in impact
  • Task sheets often are used
  • The students make decisions during impact as they
    teach each other the tasks prepared by the
  • Children engage in critical thinking and provide
    feedback to the partner on his or her performance

Self-check Style
  • The movement educator makes decisions during
    pre-impact as the lesson is prepared and
  • Task sheets with critical cues are often used
  • Children make decisions during impact and will do
    post-impact assessment based on the criteria
    established by the teacher on the task sheet

Inclusion Style
  • The teacher makes decisions about the movement
    content in the pre-impact phase
  • Tasks are of various levels of difficulty so that
    children may select tasks that are challenging to
  • For example students may select from
  • 5 forward rope jumps, 10 forward rope jumps, 15
    forward rope jumps, 20 or more forward rope jumps

Exploratory Style
  • The exploratory style encourages children to
    create or discover learning through movement
    rather than replicate movement
  • Individual differences in responses are expected
    as children move to prompts about the tasks and

Which style to use?
  • No one style is better than another
  • The decision on which style to use should be
    based on the learning goal and which style best
    fits that goal
  • Movement educators should feel comfortable with
    as many styles as possible to meet the goals of
    instruction and needs of children

Learning Styles
  • Ways that children process information presented
    to them
  • Listener
  • Thinker
  • Kinesthetic
  • Visual
  • Try to accommodate as many styles as possible in
    the lesson delivery

Whole Skill
  • When the parts of the skill are highly related
    and of low complexity, teaching the whole skill
    is beneficial
  • Whole skill gives the beginner a better sense of
    the coordination of the skill
  • More advanced learners may do well in whole
    practice as they are able to remember longer

Part Skill
  • When the parts of the skill are not highly
    related and the skill is fairly complex, children
    may benefit from practicing parts of the skill
    before the whole skill
  • Part practice reduces the cognitive processing so
    children should not become overwhelmed

Appropriate Opportunities
  • Children are not mini-adults
  • Children should not be expected to specialize in
    adult sports
  • Practice of a wide variety of skills is
  • Some inappropriate activities are in the Hall of

Elements of the Hall of Shame
  • Absence of educational learning objectives
  • Potential embarrassment of children
  • Elimination of children from activity
  • Overemphasis on fun rather than learning
  • Lack of emphasis on skill acquisition
  • Low participation time
  • Likelihood of danger or risk of injury

Most children.
  • Love to move and play in elementary school. To
    keep this alive, plan activities that emphasize
    self improvement, participation, and cooperation.

TEACHING development-Graham
  • 3 styles of teaching development
  • 1st style-Induction-this is your student
    teaching and 1st year of teaching.
  • This is your most difficult time, new situations
    and lots of new stuff to do. We learn about
    content, how long to spend on tasks, and
    effective discipline.

Styles continued
  • The second style is-
  • Consolidation-how to accommodate varying skill
    levels. Our knowledge of teaching content
  • The third style is-
  • Mastery-your lessons are more enjoyable and
    goals clearer. Children are interested,
    challenged, and successful.
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