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Title: General Parasitology Zoology 4104


1
General ParasitologyZoology 4104
Matthew Bolek, LSW 415 bolek_at_okstate.edu
2
Introduction to Parasitology
  • Each animal is a host of many parasites thus,
    there are far more parasitic organisms on earth
    than there are nonparasitic organisms.

3
Introduction to Parasitology
  • Each animal is a host of many parasites thus,
    there are far more parasitic organisms on earth
    than there are nonparasitic organisms.
  • It has been estimated that more than 50 of all
    living plants and animals are parasitic at some
    stage during their life cycle.

4
Introduction to Parasitology
  • In this course we will concentrate on 3 major
    groups of parasites
  • 1. Protozoa- flagellates, amebas, malarial
    organisms
  • 2. Helminths - parasitic worms such as the
    flukes, tapeworms, and roundworms
  • 3. Arthropods - insects and arachnids that are
    ectoparasites and carriers (vectors) of diseases

5
Protozoa!
6
Helminths!
7
Arthropods!
8
Why do we study parasites?
  • Parasites provide unique examples of biological
    phenomena not found in free-living organisms.

9
Why do we study parasites?
  • Parasites provide unique examples of biological
    phenomena not found in free-living organisms.
  • Medical Importance

10
Why do we study parasites?
  • Parasites provide unique examples of biological
    phenomena not found in free-living organisms.
  • Medical Importance
  • Veterinary Importance

11
Why do we study parasites?
  • Parasites provide unique examples of biological
    phenomena not found in free-living organisms.
  • Medical Importance
  • Veterinary Importance
  • Economic Importance

12
Medical Importance of Parasites
  • Humans are hosts to many species of parasites.

13
Medical Importance of Parasites
  • Humans are hosts to many species of parasites.
  • Many of these parasites are causative agents of
    major public health problems of the world.

14
Recent estimates of the number of people infected
with parasites in the world are
Ascaris 1.3 billion

Hookworms 1.3 billion
Whipworms 1
billion
Filarial worms 657
million
Malaria 500 million
Schistosomes 270 million

Amebiasis 50 million
Taeniad
tapeworms 50 million

Clonorchis 20 million

Chagas Disease 15 million   These
parasites cause untold suffering and death in the
world today.
15
Examples of Medical Importance in the World
16
Examples of Medical Importance in the World
  • The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the
    mid-40's due to Schistosomes.

17
Examples of Medical Importance in the World
  • The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the
    mid-40's due to Schistosomes.
  • 15 million children in the world will die this
    year from a combination of malnutrition and
    parasites.

18
Examples of Medical Importance in the World
  • The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the
    mid-40's due to Schistosomes.
  • 15 million children in the world will die this
    year from a combination of malnutrition and
    parasites.
  • Over 1 million African children will die this
    year from the effects of malaria.

19
Examples of Medical Importance in the World
  • The life expectancy of an Egyptian is in the
    mid-40's due to Schistosomes.
  • 15 million children in the world will die this
    year from a combination of malnutrition and
    parasites.
  • Over 1 million African children will die this
    year from the effects of malaria.
  • Many cases of plague, transmitted by fleas, still
    occur throughout the world.

20
Examples of Medical Importance in the U.S.
  • We in the comfort of the U.S. are not immune from
    parasites.

21
Common parasitic diseases in the U.S. include
Pinworms Giardiasis Dog
roundworms Ticks
22
Importation of Parasites from Tropics to the U.S.
  • Movement of persons from all areas of the world
    have introduced parasitic diseases into the U.S.

23
Importation of Parasites from Tropics to the U.S.
  • Movement of persons from all areas of the world
    have introduced parasitic diseases into the U.S.
  • Numerous cases of malaria are brought back by
    vacationers from the tropics.

24
Importation of Parasites from Tropics to the U.S.
  • Movement of persons from all areas of the world
    have introduced parasitic diseases into the U.S.
  • Numerous cases of malaria are brought back by
    vacationers from the tropics.
  • Service personnel are often employed in areas
    endemic with many parasites.

25
Importation of Parasites from Tropics to the U.S.
  • Movement of persons from all areas of the world
    have introduced parasitic diseases into the U.S.
  • Numerous cases of malaria are brought back by
    vacationers from the tropics.
  • Service personnel are often employed in areas
    endemic with many parasites.
  • Many immigrants have brought their parasites with
    them.

26
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
27
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
  • In Africa, cattle cannot be raised in an area
    equal to that of the U.S. due to trypanosoms.

28
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
  • In Africa, cattle cannot be raised in an area
    equal to that of the U.S. due to trypanosoms.
  • A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.

29
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
  • In Africa, cattle cannot be raised in an area
    equal to that of the U.S. due to trypanosoms.
  • A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.
  • Cattle, pigs, and sheep infected with parasites
    fail to gain weight and may not reproduce.

30
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
  • In Africa, cattle cannot be raised in an area
    equal to that of the U.S. due to trypanosoms.
  • A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.
  • Cattle, pigs, and sheep infected with parasites
    fail to gain weight and may not reproduce.
  • Dogs may become infected with heartworm and die
    if untreated.

31
Veterinary Importance of Parasites
  • In Africa, cattle cannot be raised in an area
    equal to that of the U.S. due to trypanosoms.
  • A poultry farmer can be wiped out by coccidia.
  • Cattle, pigs, and sheep infected with parasites
    fail to gain weight and may not reproduce.
  • Dogs may become infected with heartworm and die
    if untreated.
  • Cats are infected by many species of protozoans
    and helminths.

32
Some Veterinary Parasites may infect Humans
  • Several dog parasites are transmissible to
    humans

33
Intestinal roundworm can infect humans causing
the disease Visceral Larval Migrants
34
Some Veterinary Parasites may infect Humans
  • Many species of dog and cat tapeworms can infect
    humans.

35
Some Veterinary Parasites may infect Humans
  • Many species of dog and cat tapeworms can infect
    humans.
  • Cattle are infected with Cryptosporidium that can
    contaminate drinking water and infect humans.

36
Some Veterinary Parasites may infect Humans
  • Many species of dog and cat tapeworms can infect
    humans.
  • Cattle are infected with Cryptosporidium that can
    contaminate drinking water and infect humans.
  • Toxoplasma gondii occurs in cats and can cause
    serious congenital infections in humans.
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