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Cardiovascular System

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Title: Cardiovascular System


1
Cardiovascular System
  • Anatomy and Physiology
  • Liberty Senior High

2
Whats the purpose of the cardiovascular
system?Do all organisms have one?
  • Lets model!

3
Why we need a cardiovascular system!
  • Human embryos before 3 weeks are so small,
    materials are transported by simple diffusion.
  • At third week (few mms in length), heart begins
    beating- first system to function.
  • Supplies nutrients to all 75 trillion cells in
    the body.

4
What is the cardiovascular system?
  • Three parts
  • Blood a circulating fluid. (Chapter 19).
  • Heart a pump. (Chapter 20).
  • Blood vessels the conducting pipes (Chapter 21)

5
Cardiovascular Lymphatic Systems
  • Fluid leaves the vessel and enters the tissues-
    interstitial fluid.
  • Eventually returns to the vessels.
  • Lymphatic system has its own vessels.
  • Used to transport antibodies, white blood cells,
    and monitor for infection and cancer.
  • Cardiovascular Lymphatic Circulatory System.

6
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7
What is blood?
  • Specialized connective tissue with cells in a
    fluid matrix.

8
Functions of the Blood
  • Transport dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones,
    and metabolic wastes.
  • Regulation of the pH and electrolytes of
    interstitial fluid. Neutralizes the acids
    created by metabolism (lactic acid).
  • Restricts fluid losses through damaged vessels or
    at injury sites- blood clots.

9
Functions of the Blood
  • Defense against toxins and pathogens- transports
    white blood cells that migrate into tissue to
    fight infection and remove debris. Also, deliver
    antibodies.
  • Stabilize body temperature- absorbs heat from
    active muscles and distributes to other tissues.
    Also brings heat to the surface of the skin to
    lose heat.

10
Composition of Blood
  • It is a fluid connective tissue with an
    extracellular matrix- plasma formed elements
    (cells and cell fragments) whole blood.
  • Plasma Formed Elements Whole Blood.

11
Whole Blood After Centrifugation
Plasma
White Blood Cells Buffy Coat
Red Blood Cells
12
Whole Blood
37-54
46-63
Centrifuge and Separate
Formed Elements
Plasma
13
Plasma
1 Electrolytes and other Solutes
7 Plasma Proteins
92 Water
14
Plasma- The Fluid of Life!
  • Plasma Plasma Proteins a Ground Substance
    (Serum).
  • Plasma Proteins
  • Albumin- transport fatty acids, maintain
    isotonic solution.
  • Globulin- immunoglobulin (antibodies).
  • Fibrinogen- form blood clots becomes fibrin- an
    insoluble protein.

15
Plasma
Globulin
Serum
Albumin
Fibrinogen
16
Plasma- The Fluid of Life!
  • Plasma that has been allowed to clot will lose
    its fibrin and other salts like Ca2.
  • Plasma without its fibrin Serum.

17
Formed Elements
  • Formed Elements Blood Cells Fragments
    suspended in the plasma.
  • Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) most abundant
    (99.9 of all cells) transport of oxygen and
    carbon dioxide.
  • Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) bodys defense
    cells. (0.1 of cells).
  • Thrombocytes (Platelets) small, membrane- bound
    packets of cytoplasm that contain enzymes for
    blood clot formation.

18
Erythrocyte
19
A Normal Blood Smear
20
Collecting and Analysis of Blood
  • Blood usually collected at a vein-venipuncture.
  • Venipuncture- veins are easy to locate, walls of
    vein are thinner, pressure is lower? heals
    easier.
  • Peripheral capillaries- tip of finger, earlobe
    oozing small drop for blood smear.
  • Arterial Puncture- check for effeciency of gas
    exchange.

21
Properties of Blood
  • Temperature- 38 C or 100.4 F.
  • Viscosity- has a great deal of dissolved proteins
    in plasma ? more viscous than water.
  • pH 7.35-7.45 slightly alkaline.

22
Erythrocytes (RBCs)
  • erythros- red cyte- cell.
  • RBCs are the most abundant blood cell (99.9). 25
    trillion in average adult. Takes 1 min. to
    travel circuit.
  • Hematocrit- percentage of formed elements in a
    sample of whole blood. of cells / microliter of
    whole blood.
  • Has a red pigment-hemoglobin- gives whole blood
    its color.

23
RBCs Structure and Function
  • Highly specialized cell to transport gases.
  • Cell structure is a biconcave disc.

24
EM of RBCs
25
RBCs Structure and Function
  • Shape provides the RBC with a large surface area.
  • Exchange of O2 with the surrounding plasma must
    be quick larger surface area? faster the
    exchange.
  • Total surface of all RBCs is 3800 m2 compared to
    1.9 m2 of the whole human body.

26
RBCs Structure and Function
  • Biconcave shape allows them to form stacks
    (dinner plates) rouleaux inside narrow blood
    vessels.
  • Rouleaux permit the cells to pass through blood
    vessels without bumping along the walls.
  • Do not form logjams or clogs in the narrow
    capillary.

27
Rouleaux in a Blood Smear
28
Rouleaux in Bone Marrow
29
RBCs Structure and Function
  • Biconcave shape allows the RBCs to bend and flex
    when entering capillaries.
  • May pass through capillaries ½ the RBCs
    diameter.

30
RBCs are Highly Specialized Cells
  • Have lost all organelles- lack nuclei,
    mitochondria, and ribosomes.
  • Lost these structures to allow more space for
    hemoglobin and oxygen transport.
  • Downside RBCs unable to divide or repair
    themselves. Made in bone marrow.
  • Short lifespan- 120 days and then must be broken
    down.

31
Hemoglobin (Hb)
  • Accounts for 95 of proteins inside the RBC.
  • 280 million Hbs in each RBC.
  • Hb binds to and transports O2 and CO2.

32
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33
Hb Molecule
  • Each Hb molecule four protein chains 2 alpha
    chains 2 beta chains of polypeptides.
  • Each chain is a globular subunit and has a heme
    group.
  • Heme a porphyrin which is a ring compound with
    an iron in the center.
  • Iron has a charge and can bind to O2 (negative).

34
Hb Molecule
  • When hemoglobin binds to O2 it becomes
    oxyhemoglobin.
  • Very weak interaction easy to separate.
  • Fetus uses a fetal hemoglobin- more readily binds
    to O2 for more efficient uptake from mothers
    RBCs.

35
Hb Molecule
  • Alpha and Beta chains bind to CO2 at other sites
    and transport to lungs.
  • If hematocrit is low or the amount of Hb in RBCs
    is low than normal activity cannot be sustained
    in tissue- anemia.

36
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37
Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Mutations in the beta chains of the Hb molecule.
  • When the blood contains abundant O2, the Hb and
    RBCs are normal.
  • But when the defective Hb loses its O2,
    neighboring Hb molecules interact and change the
    shape of the cell- curved and stiff.
  • Cannot form rouleaux and may form clots.

38
Sickle Cell Mutation
Sickle Cell Mutation
39
Sickle Cell Anemia
40
Iron-Deficiency Anemia
41
Malaria in an RBC
42
Leukocytes (WBCs)
  • General Properties
  • 1. Help defend against pathogens, toxins, and
    damaged cells.
  • 2. They have nuclei and other organelles.
  • 3. Are made in bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and
    other lymphatic tissue.

43
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44
Two Major Groups of WBCs
  • Granulocytes- WBCs with darkly-staining vesicles
    and lysosomes inside.
  • a. Neutrophils
  • b. Eosinophils
  • c. Basophils

45
Two Major Groups of WBCs
  • Agranulocytes- do not stain darkly on their
    interior have very small vesicles and lysosomes.
  • a. Monocytes
  • b. Lymphocytes

46
Leukocytes
  • Most WBCs are not in the circulatory system, but
    in tissues or organs of the lymphatic system.
  • Circulate for only a short time in vessels.

47
Characteristics of WBCs
  • Move along the capillaries by amoeboid movement.
  • Detect chemicals from injured cells.
  • Leave the capillary by squeezing through cells
    diapedesis.
  • Are positively chemotactic in the tissue.
  • Can destroy things by phagocytosis.

48
Infected Cell
White Blood Cell
Diapedesis
49
Neutrophils
  • Most abundant of WBCs.
  • Granules are neutral. Filled with toxins.
  • Have a dense, segmented nucleus of 2 to 5 lobes-
    Polymorphonulear (PMNs).
  • Very mobile and arrive at site of infection first.

50
Neutrophils
  • Phagocytize tagged bacteria.
  • Breakdown bacteria with their toxic granules.
  • Also, release chemicals to call WBCs to the site-
    interleukins.

51
Neutrophils
52
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53
Eosinophiles
  • Granules stain with eosin- a red dye.
  • Only amount 2-4 of the WBCs.
  • Have a bilobed nucleus.
  • Phagocytize bacteria and cell debris.
  • Use exocytosis to release toxins onto the surface
    of large parasites.
  • Release chemicals that cause allergic reactions.

54
Eosinophil
55
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56
Neutrophil and Eosinophil
57
Basophiles
  • Stain very darkly. Very small cells.
  • Very rare in circulation. Usually in tissue.
  • Release granules of histamine and heparin.
  • Histamine permeability of capillaries.
  • Heparin blood clotting.
  • Do not phagocytize.

58
Basophil
59
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60
Monocytes
  • Larger cells with oval nuclei.
  • Circulate throughout the blood stream.
  • Leave the vessel and become macrophages.
  • Macrophages phagocytize bacteria, cell debris,
    and other foreign elements.
  • Also, release chemical messengers.

61
Monocyte
62
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63
Lymphocytes
  • Larger than RBCs and lack deeply-stained
    granules. Single, large nucleus.
  • Abundant in blood. Migrate from blood ? to
    tissue? through lymph? return to blood.
  • Most are not found in blood at any one time.

64
Lymphocyte
65
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66
3 Kinds of Lymphocytes
  • T Cells cellular immunity against foreign tissue
    and cells infected with viruses have killer T
    cells and helper T cells (CD-4 and CD-8).
  • B cells humoral immunity, produce antibodies
    (globulin proteins).Also memory cells.
  • NK cells (Natural Killers) large granules of
    toxin that destroy cancerous cells and some
    virally-infected cells.

67
Leukemia
68
Platelets
  • Thrombocytes (nonmammalian)
  • Circulates for 9-12 days
  • Cell fragments

69
Platelet Function
  • Transport of chemicals important to the clotting
    process

70
Platelet Function
  • Formation of a temporary patch in the walls of
    damaged blood vessels
  • Forms a platelet plug slows the rate of blood
    loss while clotting continues

71
Platelet Function
  • Active contraction after clot formation has
    occurred
  • Contain actin myosin
  • After clot forms contraction shrinks clot
    reduces size of break in vessel wall

72
Blood Clot
73
Platelet Production
  • Thrombocytopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow
  • Bone marrow contains Megakaryocytes enormous w/
    large nuclei

74
Platelet Production
  • Megakaryocytes make proteins, enzymes,
    membranes.
  • Shed cytoplasm in small membrane-enclosed
    packets Platelets that enter circulation
  • Mature megakaryocyte produces 4000 platelets

75
Megakaryocyte
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