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~Thyroid Gland~

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Title: ~Thyroid Gland~


1
Thyroid Gland
Katie Brown Dena Livingstone
Endocrine system 3rd Quarter Project
2
anatomy
  • The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped organ thats
    located in the front of the neck. It is
    controlled by the hypothalamus part of the brain.
  • It sits inferior to the Adams apple and
    anterior to the trachea.
  • Its one of the larger endocrine glands
  • Contains 2 primary lobes (right left) on either
    side of the trachea.
  • Between the 2 lobes is the isthmus
  • Covered in a tough fibrous capsule which protects
    it from other tissues/organs.

3
Thyroid Gland
Illustration
Actual healthy thyroid gland
4
The Thyroid is hormonal
Chemical Description of the Thyroid
  • The Thyroid gland produces 2 main hormones
    thyroid hormone calcitonin
  • There are 2 active iodine-containing thyroid
    hormones
  • Thyroxine (T4)
  • - this type of
    hormone is produced and
  • released by the
    thyroid follicles. It is a
  • iodine-filled
    hormone.
  • Triiodothyronine (T3)
  • Formed at target tissues by conversion of T4 into
    T3
  • Both these hormones are similar in that they are
    built from 2 linked tyrosine amino acids.
    Thyroxine has 4 bound iodine atoms, while
    triiodothyronine has 3.
  • Calcitonin
  • a hormone which decreases the levels of calcium
    and phosphate contained within in the blood
    stream
  • it also promotes/strengthens bone formation.

5
Molecular makeup
The thyroid gland is composed of numerous hollow
structures called thyroid follicles - which
contain colloidal material that help to form
thyroid hormone (particularly thyroxine). Also
contained within the thyroid gland are the
parafollicular cells, which produces calcitonin.
- these are located within the
connective tissue in between the
follicles. The Thyroid Gland is normally simple
cuboidal epithelium.
colloid
follicle cell
parafollicular cell
6
  • The thyroid is known to many people because of
    those who are obese, who tend to blame it on
    their glands!
  • However, the effect of the thyroid gland on
    weight is NOT that great!!!
  • - Thyroid hormone regulates metabolism
    rate. People with normal functioning thyroids
    that take thyroid hormone for weight loss may end
    up losing little weight (muscle NOT fat) or gain
    weight due to hyperthyroidism.

7
Physiology
  • The function of the thyroid gland is to take
    iodine and turn it into thyroid hormones
    thyroxine (T4) and triiodothrynine (T3).
  • Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body that
    can absorb iodine. T4 and T3 are made by these
    cells combining iodine and the amino acid
    tyrosine. These hormones are then released into
    the bloodstream for transport, through which
    metabolism is controlled by converting
    oxygen/calories to energy.
  • Thyroid hormone controls the rate at which
    glucose is burned/oxidized and converted into
    body heat and chemical energy. It is also
    involved in normal tissue growth and development
    (chiefly in the reproductive and nervous system)
    (METABOLISM).
  • Calcitonin, another hormone produced by the
    thyroid gland, decreases blood calcium levels by
    having calcium deposited in the bones.
  • Every cell in our bodies depend on the thyroid
    gland for regulation of their metabolism.

8
The Thyroid Gland and the Organs it Interacts
With
C O N T I N U E D O N N E X T P A G E
  • The Thyroid gland, a hormone producing gland,
    interacts with organs of various body systems.
  • The thyroid hormones it produces are needed for
    regular tissue growth/development within these
    location.
  • These hormones are metabolic hormones that help
    produce body heat and chemical energy.
  • Some organs that interact with the thyroid are
    gland are
  • The parathyroids miniscule glandular tissues
    located on the posterior side of the thyroid
    itself.
  • The glands of the parathyroids release
    parathyroid hormones (PTH) and create calcium
    ions (Ca 2) whenever there is a decrease in
    calcium level of the human body.
  • However, when there is too much calcium within
    the body, the parafollicular cells in the thyroid
    produces calcitonin, which reduces the calcium in
    the blood and stores them into the bones.
  • These two body structures collaborate together in
    order to regulate the calcium amount contained
    within the bloodstream.
  • The ovaries and testes
  • the thyroid gland produces hormones that help to
    regulate both the female ovaries and male testes
    of the Reproductive System

9
CONTINUED
10
Thyroid Diseases
  • Goiters
  • Developed years ago in people in the Midwest who
    were far from the seashore. They were located in
    iodine-deficient soil and had a lack of fresh
    seafood. (Region was known as goiter belt)
  • Endemic Goiter ( a type of simple goiter)
    Enlargement of thyroid gland due to iodine
    deficiency.
  • Uncommon in U.S. since most of our salt is
    iodized.
  • The signal sent to the thyroid from the pituitary
    gland when thyroid hormone levels are too low as
    a result of low iodine levels, is thyroid
    stimulating hormone (TSH). It causes the abnormal
    increase in size.

11
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12
Goiters Disease
Patient w/ enlarged thyroid (goiter)
Goiters manifestation
13
C O N T I N U E D O N N E X T P A G E
A Normal thyroid gland with colloid-filled
follicles
B Endemic goiter w/ abnormal proliferation of
cells w/o colloid-dilled follicles
14
C O N T I N U E D O N N E X T P A G E
Hashimotos Thyroiditis
Is a particular form of goiter, in which the
thyroid gland is destroyed by its own immune
system. In this self-destructive condition, the
thyroid glands become unable to produce an
efficient amount of hormones needed for the
bodys visceral organs. TSH is then, released as
the pituitary gland (located in the brain) senses
that there is a lowered level of thyroid
hormones. The TSH then excites the thyroid, in
response to the lack of decreased hormone
creation. This thus, causes the thyroid
follicular cells to grow larger and produce more
thyroglobulin, which then leads the thyroid to
grow and swell.
- Goiter is usually caused by a lack of IODINE
within the human body.
-TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Molecular Imaging
15
Graphic/ Physical Imaging
lt_lt
O_o
16
This is a great example of what happens when
"negative feedback" is shut down.
Hypothyroidism
Literally means the under-production of thyroid
hormones. Hypothyroidism occurs when not enough
thyroglobulin protein (created by the thyroid
gland itself) binds to iodine to form the
hormones.
thyroglobulin an iodine containing protein that
is obtained from the thyroid gland.
Some symptoms of Hypothyroidism, as described in
the video are fatigue, weight gain, and hair loss.
Note This video not only describes the causes
and symptoms of this disease, it also briefly
describes the regular functions of a healthy
THYROID.
17
Sources include
  • http//www.steadyhealth.com/4540/Image/thyroid1.jp
    g
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    6871/80526119.jpg
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    5
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  • Essentials of Human Anatomy Physiology by
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    tgh357w432sz106hlenstart53zoom1tbnid
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    188dur1826hovh204hovw247tx212ty175oei
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18
Sources Continued
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vjnqWrrde_Fkfeature
    related
  • http//www.google.com/imgres?imgurlhttp//homepag
    e.smc.edu/wissmann_paul/anatomy2textbook/thyroidNo
    rmal.jpgimgrefurlhttp//homepage.smc.edu/wissman
    n_paul/anatomy2textbook/glandular.htmlusg__dDq_b
    v2CYmM4O7zfJV92dy4Oml8h337w504sz38hlenst
    art44zoom1um1itbs1tbnid_CjZG8tF17A4xMtb
    nh87tbnw130prev/images3Fq3Dmicroscopic2Bpi
    cture2Bof2Bthyroid2Bgland26start3D3626um3D1
    26hl3Den26sa3DN26rlz3D1R2ADRA_enUS37126ndsp
    3D1826tbs3Disch1ei3-VlTaytHI2SgQf-iu2PDQ
  • http//www.wisegeek.com/what-is-calcitonin.htm
  • http//www.thyroid.org/patients/patient_brochures/
    goiter.html
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    oid_and_parathyroid.htmproduce20and20store
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