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Dairy Breeds and Selection

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Dairy Breeds and Selection Overview Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Dairy Terms and Definitions Parts of a Dairy Cow Dairy Traits and Selection Judging Contests Major ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dairy Breeds and Selection


1
Dairy Breeds and Selection
2
Dairy Breeds and Selection Overview
  • Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Dairy Terms and Definitions
  • Parts of a Dairy Cow
  • Dairy Traits and Selection
  • Judging Contests

3
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Holstein
  • Black and White or Red and White color pattern
  • Large sized
  • Heavy milk producers

4
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Jersey
  • Color varies (light gray to a dark fawn being
    darker around the head and hips)
  • Medium sized
  • Produces more pounds of milk per body weight than
    any other dairy breed.

5
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Guernsey
  • Red (Fawn) and White in color
  • Medium sized
  • High milk production to feed intake ratio
  • Milk is high in betacarotene

6
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Brown Swiss
  • Solid brown, varying from very light to dark
  • Large sized
  • Light colored band around the muzzle
  • One of the oldest Dairy breeds

7
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Ayrshire
  • Red and white in color (amount varies)
  • Medium sized
  • Purebred Ayrshires only produce red offspring
  • Average milk production

8
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Milking Shorthorn
  • Red and white or any combination of red and white
  • Dual purpose breed
  • Split from the American Shorthorn Assoc. in 1949

9
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle
  • Milking Devon
  • Red in color
  • Triple purpose (Draft, beef, milk)
  • Medium sized

10
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Jersey

11
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Milking Shorthorn

12
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Brown Swiss

13
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Guernsey

14
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Milking Devon

15
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Ayrshire

16
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Review
  • Holstein

17
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz
1
2
3
4
18
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz
5
6
7
19
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz Answers
  • 1. Brown Swiss 2. Holstein
  • 3. Milking Devon 4. Guernsey

20
Major Breeds of Dairy Cattle Quiz Answers
  • 5. Ayrshire 6. Milking Shorthorn
  • 7. Jersey

21
Dairy Breeds and Selection Terms
  • bull - Mature male dairy animal
  • cow - Mature female dairy shows evidence of
    having produced one or more calves
  • heifer - female dairy animal that has not borne a
    calf
  • calf - male of female dairy animal under one year
    of age
  • springer - cow showing signs of pregnancy
  • breed characteristics - physical traits that
    differentiate on breed from another

22
Dairy Breeds and Selection Terms
  • dairy character - characteristics indicating the
    animal will be useful in the dairy industry
  • butterfat - percent of fat in the milk
  • milk production - amount in pounds of milk that a
    cow produces during a lactation period
  • lactation - span of time that a cow is giving
    milk
  • discrimination - defect that is undesirable
  • disqualification - statement that means an animal
    cannot be registered, or, in the show ring, is
    not eligible to win a prize

23
Dairy Breeds and Selection Terms
  • dairy herd improvement records (DHI) production
    records kept on producing dairy cattle
  • mammary system - parts of the cow directly
    responsible for producing and storing milk
  • disposition - manner in which an animal acts
    quiet, docile, vicious
  • pedigree - register of lines of ancestry

24
Dairy Breeds and Selection Can you remember what
youve studied?
  • 1. What is a bull?
  • 2. What is a heifer?
  • 3. The percent of fat in the milk is called what?
  • 4. A cow showing signs of pregnancy is considered
    what?
  • 5. What is a cow?
  • 6. What is the term for the span of time that a
    cow is giving milk?
  • 7. What is the term for the amount in pounds of
    milk that a cow produces during a lactation
    period?
  • 8. What is the term for the manner in which an
    animal acts?
  • 9. DHI is an acronym for what?
  • 10. The parts of the cow directly responsible for
    producing and storing milk is called what?
  • 11. An undesirable defect is called a what?
  • 12. What is the term used for register of lines
    of ancestry?
  • 13. What is the term that means an animal cannot
    be registered or in the show ring, is not
    eligible to win a prize?
  • 14. Bonus What is the term used for a castrated
    male dairy animal?

25
Dairy Breeds and Selection Can you remember what
youve studied?
  • 1. What is a bull?
  • 1. Mature male dairy animal
  • 2. What is a heifer?
  • 2. Female dairy animal that has not borne an
    offspring
  • 3. The percent of fat in the milk is called what?
  • 3. Butterfat
  • 4. A cow showing signs of pregnancy is considered
    what?
  • 4. Springer
  • 5. What is a cow?
  • 5. Mature female dairy animal shows evidence of
    having produced one or more calves
  • 6. What is the term for the span of time that a
    cow is giving milk?
  • 6. Lactation period
  • 7. What is the term for the amount in pounds of
    milk that a cow produces during a lactation
    period?
  • 7. Milk production

26
Dairy Breeds and Selection Can you remember what
youve studied?
  • 8. What is the term for the manner in which an
    animal acts?
  • 8. docile
  • 9. DHI is an acronym for what?
  • 9. Dairy Herd Improvement
  • 10. The parts of the cow directly responsible for
    producing and storing milk is called what?
  • 10. mammary system
  • 11. An undesirable defect is called a what?
  • 11. discrimination
  • 12. What is the term used for register of lines
    of ancestry?
  • 12. pedigree
  • 13. What is the term that means an animal cannot
    be registered or in the show ring, is not
    eligible to win a prize?
  • 13. disqualification
  • 14. Bonus What is the term used for a castrated
    male dairy animal?
  • 14. steer

27
Dairy Breeds and Selection Parts of a Dairy Cow
28
Dairy Breeds and Selection Parts of a Dairy Cow
Quiz
29
Dairy Breeds and Selection Parts of a Dairy Cow
Quiz Answers
  • 1. heel
  • 2. sole
  • 3. knee
  • 4. chest floor
  • 5. brisket
  • 6. point of elbow
  • 7. dewlap
  • 8. point of shoulder
  • 9. throat
  • 10. jaw
  • 11. muzzle
  • 12. bridge of nose

30
Dairy Breeds and Selection Parts of a Dairy Cow
Quiz Answers
  • 13. forehead
  • 14. poll
  • 15. horn
  • 16. neck
  • 17. heart girth
  • 18. withers
  • 19. crops
  • 20. ribs
  • 21. chine
  • 22. loin
  • 23. barrel
  • 24. hip
  • 25. rump
  • 26. thurl
  • 27. tailhead
  • 28. pin bones

31
Parts of a Dairy Cow Quiz Answers
  • 29. tail
  • 30. rear udder attachment
  • 31. thigh
  • 32. stifle
  • 33. flank
  • 34. rear udder
  • 35. hock
  • 36. switch
  • 37. dewclaw
  • 38. pastern
  • 39. hoof
  • 40. teats
  • 41. fore udder
  • 42. fore udder attachment
  • 43. mammary veins
  • 44. milk wells

32
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 1. Stature (measured at withers) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - very tall 99 to
    very low set 50 points.
  • 2. Chest and body (considering age and stage of
    lactation) points are awarded from 99 to 50
    points - wide chest, deep rib, long body 99 to
    extremely narrow and frail 50 points.

33
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 3. Dairy character (independent of performance)
    points are awarded from 99 to 50 points -
    extremely sharp 99 to extremely thick 50 points.
  • 4. Foot and shape (angle) points are awarded from
    99 to 50 points - extremely steep angle 90 to
    extremely low angle 50 points.

34
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 5. Rear legs (side view) points are awarded from
    99 to 50 points - extremely sickled 99 to
    extremely posty or overextended 50 points.
  • 6. Pelvic angle points are awarded from 99 to 50
    points - severe slope from hooks to pins 99 to
    pins clearly higher than hooks 50 points.

35
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 7. Rump width points are awarded from 99 to 50
    points - extreme width of pelvic area 99 to
    extremely narrow pelvic area 50 points.
  • 8. Fore udder attachment points are awarded from
    99 to 50 points - extremely tight attachment 99
    to extremely broken 50 points.

36
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 9. Rear udder width (at attachment) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - extremely wide 99
    to extremely narrow 50 points.
  • 10. Rear udder height (at attachment) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - extremely high 99
    to extremely low 50 points.

37
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 11. Teat placement (rear view) points are awarded
    from 99 to 50 points - base of teats extremely
    close 99 to extremely wide placement 50 points.
  • 12. Suspensory ligament (cleft) points are
    awarded from 99 to 50 points - extreme cleft 99
    to broken 50 points.

38
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
(Dairy Evaluation System)
  • 13. Udder depth (relative to point of hock)
    points are awarded from 99 to 50 points -
    extremely shallow, udder floor well above hock 99
    to extremely deep 50 points.

39
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
  • Milk Production Facts
  • Breed Percent Butterfat Pounds Butterfat Pounds
    Milk Prod
  • Holstein 3.66 703 19,185
  • Ayrshire 3.95 569 14,398
  • Jersey 4.75 618 13,020
  • Brown Swiss 4.03 606 15,062
  • Guernsey 4.57 611 13,363
  • Think about this?
  • 1. Which breed produced the most total pounds of
    milk? Why do think this is so?
  • 2. Why would butterfat be important to milk?
  • 3. What breed produced the lowest total pounds of
    butterfat?
  • 4. What would you think the most popular breed of
    Dairy cattle would be judging from this data?
    Why?
  • 5. What is the definition of milk production?
    Why would a cow be lactating?

40
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
Terms
  • balance of symmetry - proper proportions and
    blending of parts.
  • clean - free from fat
  • cow-hocked - rear legs turned so that the hocks
    are close together and feet point out when viewed
    from the rear.
  • body capacity - total amount of volume exhibited
    by a cow and indicated by a combination of depth
    of fore and rear rib, length of barrel, spring of
    rib and depth of flank.
  • quality - overall smoothness, blending of
    shoulders, and refinement of head and bone.
  • spring of rib - amount ribs arch out from the
    backbone.
  • type - combination of characteristics that make
    an animal most useful for a specific purpose.
  • sickle-hocked - rear legs too curved when viewed
    from the side.
  • What other terms might you use?

41
Dairy Breeds and Selection Traits and Selection
Factors to Consider
  • General appearance - Cows with good general
  • appearance are attractive, have femininity,
    vigor,
  • stretch, scale and a harmonious blend of all
    parts.
  • Evaluate all parts of the cow when considering
    general appearance.
  • Dairy character - Dairy character refers to a
    combination of characteristics that indicate a
    cows ability to convert feed into milk.
    Characteristics include angularity, freedom from
    coarseness, and evidence of milking ability with
    udder quality.
  • Udder - The udder should be large enough to
    produce and store milk. The length, width, and
    depth of the udder determines its capacity. The
    udder should be attached high and wide behind and
    carry well forward in front. Other factors
    considered would be teat placement, size and
    prominence of the mammary veins, and number and
    size of milk wells.

42
Dairy Breeds and Selection Use What you have
learned
  • Which animal would be considered desirable?
  • What terms would you use to describe the
    differences?
  • Which animal shows the best general appearance?
  • Are these cows or heifers? Why?

43
Dairy Breeds and Selection Use What you have
learned
  • Which animal would be considered desirable?
  • What terms would you use to describe the
    differences?
  • Which shows more dairy character? What are the
    indicators?
  • What about the udder?

44
What is involved in a Dairy judging CDE?
  • Dairy Judging is the process of carefully
    analyzing a dairy animals individual traits and
    comparing those traits to an ideal animal or
    standard
  • Registration and Placing Cards
  • Judging the Classes
  • Taking Notes
  • Presenting Oral Reasons
  • Calculate Placing Scores
  • Possible Awards

45
Dairy Judging
  • Purpose of the FFA Placing Card
  • Identify the judge
  • Record the placing
  • Computing Placing Scores
  • Compare placings to official placings
  • Write placings as pairs
  • Use the cuts to calculate points
  • Total the points of all pairs
  • Subtract total from 50 to find your score

46
Livestock Judging sample scoring
Official Placings Your Placings 3-2-1-4
3-4-1-2 5 3 3 (cuts)
Write you placings as pairs 3/4-0pts 4/1-3pts 1/2
-3pts 3/1-0pts 4/2-33pts 3/2-0pts
a. Compare each pair you placed to the
corresponding pair in the official placings. b.
Count points for pairs that do not match using
the cuts. c. Total the points and subtract from
50 (which would be a perfect score). The result
is your score.
Total - 12pts Score - 50 pts possible -12 pts
38
47
Preparing for and Presenting Oral Reasons
  • Take accurate notes on the class oral reasons
    will be presented.
  • Notes should include
  • -name of the class
  • -your placings
  • -general appearances of the class
  • -descriptive points pertaining to each pair in
    the placing.
  • -key points you would like to stress

48
Preparing for and Presenting Oral Reasons
  • Presenting Oral Reasons
  • -Speak with a clear, confident voice.
  • -Stand straight with feet in a comfortable
    position.
  • -Never use notes.
  • -Avoid excess body movement.
  • -Stay within the allotted 2 minutes.
  • -Use good voice control, both speed and volume.
  • -Introduce the class before beginning points.

49
Dairy Breeds and Selection Suggested Activity
  • Aquire 3 gallons (what ever is needed for the
    size of the class). Milk must have the cream
    included. 1/2 gallon of homogenized milk. 1/2
    gallon of 2 milk. A number of small dixie cups.
    Small glass containers with tight lids.
  • Discuss the differences between fresh milk and
    milk from the supermarket.
  • Divide the students into pairs of teams of 3.
  • Have them separate the cream out of the fresh
    milk.
  • Taste test the three samples of milk and describe
    the differences in writing.
  • Place the separated cream in the glass containers
    with lids.
  • Have the students shake the cream until it turns
    to butter.
  • Note This activity could be team taught with
    the Family and Consumer Science instructor.
    Bread could be made available for sampling the
    butter. A field trip to a dairy to view the
    milking process are other possible activities.

50
Dairy Breeds and Selection Suggested Assignment
Sheets
  • Assignment Sheet 9 - Use resource materials to
    locate information about a breed of dairy cattle.
    (This activity could also be done on powerpoint
    or a written assignment)
  • Assignment Sheet 2 - Selection and
    characteristics
  • Assignment Sheet 3 - Judging classes of cows
  • Assignment Sheet 1 - Computing placing scores
  • Note Additional judging classes and information
    can be obtained from these internet sites --
    www.hoards.com, www.dairybulls.com,
    www.holsteinusa.com
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