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GIS: The Management Perspective


GIS: The Management Perspective Talbot J. Brooks ASU Dept. of Geography GIS Management Management decisions are the single most important component inherent in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GIS: The Management Perspective

GIS The Management Perspective
  • Talbot J. Brooks
  • ASU Dept. of Geography

GIS Management
  • Management decisions are the single most
    important component inherent in creating a
    successful GIS
  • Management has the big picture perspective
  • Budget
  • User expectations
  • Planning
  • Technical implementation
  • I am yet to hear about a single GIS project that
    failed due to technical considerations

Some general keys to success
  • Organization
  • Justification

Organization of the study/people
  • Emphasize your talent and ideas.
  • Give the reviewer an idea of how your project is
    going to function on a daily basis
  • Provide milestones for the implementation
  • Emphasize project quality and uniqueness

A word about need based arguments
  • Who are you more inclined to fund
  • My department is a mess and I need this cool
    software and analysis system to straighten it
    out, but I dont have the money to make it work
  • Were doing an excellent job but have some
    innovative ideas we would like to implement.
    Heres our plan. Will you help us do something
    new and exciting?

Selling points
  • Emphasize advantages of GIS to individual users
    and entire organization
  • Require high level of competency by all
  • Ensure high level of management commitment from
    all management levels in the organization
  • Require participation in team building and team
    participation within between departments
  • Ensure minimum data quality and access for all
  • Require development team to set realistic
  • Minimize time between user needs assessment and
    availability of useful products.
  • Develop positive attitude toward change within
  • Ensure level of technology is appropriate for
    intended uses
  • Highly visible Pilot Project that is successful

GIS Development Cycle
  • Needs Assessment
  • Creation of an implementation plan
  • Develop a theoretical framework
  • Survey of Available Data
  • Survey of GIS Hardware and Software
  • Detailed Database Planning and Design
  • Database Construction
  • Pilot Study/Benchmark Test
  • Review/modify the original plan
  • Acquisition of GIS Hardware and Software
  • GIS System Integration
  • GIS Application Development
  • GIS Use and Maintenance

The Needs Assessment
  • This is the single most important element in GIS
  • Must consider 3 factors
  • Who are the users?
  • What is the end product?
  • Who is going to manage the GIS (oversight)?
  • Accountability
  • Fiscal responsibility

Basis for Needs Assessment
  • Describing their needs to the GIS analysts
  • Learning what the GIS will be capable of
    accomplishing for them
  • Understanding the nature of the GIS development
    cycle - the time involved and the costs.

The implementation plan
  • Define the scope of the project
  • Spatial boundaries
  • End products
  • Participants/users
  • Create project goals and timelines
  • Assign responsibilities

Develop a theoretical framework
  • Sketch out how things will work
  • Work flow
  • Data flow
  • Quality assurance
  • Documentation
  • Procedures!!!!
  • Training and consensus building

Survey available data
  • Become familiar with the origin of data
  • Maricopa County Association of Governments puts
    out a street layer
  • They get it from ESRI
  • ESRI gets it from TIGER line files
  • TIGER line files originate from the Census
  • The Census gets them from ADOT, MCDOT, and
    municipal government
  • Get out there and look to see whos producing data

Survey of hardware and software
  • Do not just limit software search to GIS packages
  • Include all of the software being used by
    prospective users see if it can integrate
  • Likewise for hardware most municipalities and
    organizations use many different platforms

Detailed database planning and design
  • For our purposes well always base things upon an
  • Many ways to diagram, but well use
    Entity-Relationship (ER) diagrams
  • For GIS, its best to construct ER diagrams based
    upon cardinality

Cardinality the GIS application of an RDBMS
  • Attributes can be single or multi-valued.
  • Species is a single-valued attribute of
  • FACILITY has an attribute called PointId which is
    the identification for the spatial location of
    instances of the entity. It is possible for a
    given facility to span two distinct point

Cardinality contd
  • Entity-entity relationships are described by
    cardinality which may be
  • One to one. A FOREST can have only one MANAGER
    and a MANAGER can have only one FOREST
  • Many to one. Many FACILITIES may be contained
    within one FOREST
  • Many to Many. The relationship water_supply may
    have many entries and may be connected to many
    entries FACILITIES, FOREST, etc

Diagram Characteristics
  • Boxes represent entities
  • Ovals represent attributes
  • Diamonds represent relationships
  • Note how cardinality is depicted
  • Key attributes are underlined
  • Multi-valued attributes are in double ovals

Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagrams A Conceptual
Exercise work in pairs 10 minutes
  • Choose whose job you want to model
  • Pick a feature that matches each geometry type
    (point, line). For example
  • For FD points, pick hydrants and pump stations
  • For FD lines, pick streets and water mains
  • For FD polygons, pick service areas and zoning
  • Sketch an ER diagram similar to the one shown for
    your job

Database Construction Additional Considerations
  • What will be the source for each data item?
  • How will sharing be arranged? . . purchase? . .
    license? . . other agreement?
  • Who will own the data?
  • How will new GIS data be integrated with existing
    data files (legacy systems)?
  • Who will be responsible for updates to the data?
  • How will the cost of the data (creation and
    maintenance) be allocated?
  • Who will provide public access to the data?
  • Who will be responsible for data archiving and
    retention? . . of the original? ..of copies?

Pilot Study/Benchmark Test
  • Pick a subset that is representative of all
    assets/arenas to be incorporated in the GIS
  • Involve all parties and users
  • Dog and pony show GET FEEDBACK!

Review and modify
  • Review and modify plan
  • Achieve buy-in
  • Do not move forward until pilot study complete
    and all users are satisfied

Purchase hardware and software
  • Talk to your purchasing folks up front
  • Learn the purchasing rules
  • Competitive bids create equalizers

Roll it out
  • System integration
  • Subsequent application development
  • Use and maintenance