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Animal Behavior

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Animal Behavior Things Animals Do ... hormones Animal Behavior Vocabulary Anthropomorphism = attributing human emotions to animals **** We need to be careful about ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Behavior


1
Animal Behavior
Things Animals Do
2
Animal Behavior Vocabulary
  • Ethology study of animal behavior
  • Behavior action performed in response
  • to stimulus
  • Stimulus something that elicits a
  • response

3
Animal Behavior Vocabulary
  • External Stimulus
  • Something outside
  • the animal taken
  • in with senses
  • e.g. sound, sight,
  • smell, etc, presence
  • of another animal

4
  • Internal Stimulus something inside the animal
  • e.g. hunger, fatigue,
  • feeling cold, hormones

5
Animal Behavior Vocabulary
  • Anthropomorphism attributing human emotions to
    animals
  • We need to be careful about ascribing human
    emotions to animals
  • E.g. the animal is happy

6
How We Behave
  • Cause by a mixture of the Nervous System and the
    Endocrine System
  • Nervous System
  • Detects processes and integrates information
    about stimuli.
  • Commands muscles and glands to make suitable
    responses.
  • Endocrine System
  • Produces hormones in response to neural stimuli.
  • Hormones influence behavior.

7
Causes of Behavior Development
  • Instinctive
  • Performed without having been learned.
  • Usually triggered by simple sign stimuli.
  • Response is a stereotyped motor program, a
    fixed-action pattern.
  • Learned
  • Responses change with experience.
  • Some categories of learned behavior
  • Imprinting Spatial learning
  • Insight learning
  • Habituation
  • Classical conditioning
  • Operant conditioning

8
Causes of Behavior Development
  • 1. Natural Selection
  • An animal that successfully completes
  • a helpful behavior survives to pass
  • on the behavior to offspring.
  • Those whose genes fit the
  • conditions survive.

9
Causes of Behavior Development
  • 2. Innate Behavior
  • Appear in fully functional form when first
    performed
  • Performed without having been learned.
  • Usually triggered by simple sign stimuli.
  • E.g. Startle behavior purpose
    self-preservation
  • E.g. web building, suckling, bird begging

10
Causes of Behavior Development
  • 3. Learning
  • development of behaviors through experience
    determines final shape of innate behaviors
  • Responses change with experience.
  • Some categories of learned behavior
  • Imprinting
  • Habituation
  • Conditioning

11
Types of Learning
  • Imprinting (both innate
  • learned)
  • occurs only during a critical time frame
  • once learned, cant be changed
  • Conrad Lorenz with ducklings
  • Time-dependent learning.
  • Triggered by exposure to a sign
  • stimulus during a sensitive period.

12
Types of Learning
  • 2. Habituation
  • Animal learns to ignore frequent, harmless
    stimulus
  • E.g. scarecrow,
  • habituation to observer

13
Types of Learning
  • 3 Classical Conditioning
  • Animal learns to associate unrelated response
    with a stimulus
  • E.g. Pavlovs experiments bell ringing, food, ??
    salivation bell ringing, salivation (even if no
    food is given)

14
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15
Conditioning Continued (Operant)
  • Animal learns to behave in a certain way through
    repeated practice
  • Trial error learning animal tests conditions
    for desired response
  • e.g. Skinner box
  • Animal learns that a behavior gets a certain
    response
  • e.g. rat presses lever, gets food

16
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17
Types of Behavior
  • 1. Foraging feeding
  • e.g. locate, obtain consume food

18
Types of Behavior
  • 2. Parental Care ensuring
  • survival of young
  • e.g. carrying, nursing,
  • cuddling, holding young

19
Types of Behavior
  • 3. Courtship attracting a mate
  • e.g. courtship displays, bright feathers, songs,
    other vocalizations, head butting, fighting

20
Types of Behavior
  • 4. Reproductive
  • e.g. mating, giving birth

21
Types of Behavior
  • 5. Offensive/Defensive aggression, submissive
    behavior, defense from aggressors
  • e.g. hiding, fighting, escape, threatening

22
  • 6. Territorial protect a resource for exclusive
    use
  • e.g. scenting / marking, birdsong, protection of
    mate / offspring, space, food or water source

23
Types of Behavior
  • 7. Social work to create alliances, help the
    group
  • e.g. grooming, babysitting, play, play fight
  • Lots of insects bees, termites, ants

24
Social behavior
  • Pheromones
  • Chemical signals that diffuse through air or
    water.
  • May bring about behavioral change in receiver or
    cause physiological change

25
Types of Behavior
  • 8. Migratory movement to a more
  • suitable environment as seasons
  • change
  • e.g. dry vs. rainy seasons, winter vs. summer
    range
  • for browsers birds
  • e.g. salmon upriver to spawn, arctic tern 1800
    m from Arctic to Antarctic, 2x/year

26
Types of Behavior
  • 9. Communication signaling between one animal
    another
  • Greeting e.g. sniff, hug, kiss bite
  • Aggression e. g. charge, bite, hit, fight, etc.
  • Non-aggression e.g. patting, head butting,
    stroking
  • Grooming (bonding, alliances, keeping clean)
  • Group hunt ( e.g. hyenas, lions)

27
Communication
28
Types of Communication
  • Vocalizations
  • e.g. bark, growl, snort, howl, hoot, chirp,
    whinny, alarm sound,
  • Non-verbal signaling
  • e.g. body, head, ear, / or tail position
  • showing teeth, smiling, looking away,
  • looking directly at, gesturing, thumping,
  • beating chest, raising hood, drumming,
  • tail slap, snort, scenting,
  • pheromones, sign language

29
Types of Behavior
  • 13. Play
  • Purpose training for life (defense, hunting)

30
Communication
  • Why Communicate?
  • Defense (warn away)
  • Alliance (get helper or mate)
  • Elicit play
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