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What is Mental Illness?


What is Mental Illness? ... Debilitating illness may also lead to chronic depression. Treatment Options Biological Medication Electroconvulsive therapy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is Mental Illness?

What is Mental Illness?
  • A disturbance in thoughts and emotions that
    decrease a person's capacity to cope with the
    challenges of everyday life.

What is Stigma?
  • A mark or token of infamy, disgrace, or reproach
  • How does stigma affect us?

Mood Disorders
  • Persistent changes in mood caused by chemical
    imbalances in the brain.

Mood Disorders
  • Major depressive disorder
  • Depressed mood accompanied by symptoms such as
  • loss of interest or pleasure in life
  • irritability and sadness
  • sleep or appetite problems
  • lack of concentration
  • sense of worthlessness, guilt
  • in some cases thoughts of suicide.

Mood Disorders contd
  • Bipolar disorder
  • A cycle of depressed mood, normal mood and
  • Mania is an elevated mood accompanied by symptoms
  • inflated self-esteem and confidence
  • increased energy and sexual drive
  • poor judgment
  • increased involvement in pleasurable and possibly
    dangerous activities.

  • Active state of experiencing hallucinations or
    delusions and can be organic or drug-induced

  • Schizophrenia
  • A disturbance involving
  • Delusions (false beliefs or misinterpretations of
    situations and experiences)
  • Hallucinations (can be auditory, visual,
    olfactory, gustatory, or tactile)
  • Disorganized speech and or catatonic behaviour.

Anxiety Disorders
  • Feelings of anxiousness, combined with
    physiological symptoms that interfere with
    everyday activities

Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • marked by repeated obsessions and/or compulsions
    that are so severe they interfere with daily life

Anxiety Disorders contd
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • re-experiencing a traumatic event
  • E.g battle situation or car crash
  • accompanied by feelings of extreme anxiety.

Anxiety Disorders contd
  • Phobias
  • Significant and persistent fears of objects or
  • Exposure causes extreme anxiety that inteferes
    with daily life
  • May be specific or social.

Personality DisordersA pattern of inner
experience and behaviour that is significantly
different from the person's culture and leads to
distress or impairment.
  • Dissociative identity disorder
  • Formerly known as multiple personality disorder
  • The presence of 2 or more distinct identities
    that alternately control a person's behaviour
  • Most individuals have a history of childhood

Eating Disorders Involve an obsession with food,
weight and appearance that negatively affects a
person's health, relationships, and daily life.
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • an intense and irrational fear of body fat and
    weight gain
  • the strong determination to become thinner
  • the refusal to maintain a normal
  • a distorted body image

Eating Disorders contd
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Self-defeating cycles of binge eating and purging
  • Body Dysmorphic Disorder
  • Feeling that your body is distorted and
    monstrous when it is normal
  • Can lead to self-injury

Fact or Fiction?
  • One person in 100 develops schizophrenia.
  • Fact 1 of the general population develops

Fact or Fiction?
  • A person who has one or more parent with mental
    illness is more likely to develop mental illness.
  • Fact Mental illness may be hereditary. If one
    parents has schizophrenia, 8 chance. Both
    parents, 37-46. Depression, 1/10 chance, but ¼
    chance if parents have experienced depression.

Fact or Fiction?
  • Mental illness is contagious.
  • Fiction It is not contagious. Heredity can
    play a factor in the development of mental

Fact or Fiction?
  • Mental illness tends to begin in adolescence.
  • Fact First episode of a mental illness often
    occurs between 15 and 30 years. Early
    intervention is one of the most important factors
    for recovery, however, embarassment, fear and
    stigma often prevent young people from seeking

Fact or Fiction?
  • Poor parenting causes schizophrenia.
  • Fiction Childhood abuse or neglect does not
    cause mental illness. However, stressful or
    abusive environments may seriously impair a
    person's ability to cope with and later manage
    the illness.

Fact or Fiction?
  • Drug use causes mental illness.
  • Fact and Fiction Alcohol and other drugs
    sometimes play a role in the development of some
    symptoms and disorders, but do not usually cause
    the illness. However, long-term use can lead to
    the development of drug-induced psychosis. Drugs
    are also often used to cope, but can serve to
    make symptoms worse.

Fact or Fiction?
  • Mental illness can be cured with willpower.
  • Fiction Mental illness is associated with
    chemical imbalances in the brain and requires a
    comprehensive treatment plan.

Fact or Fiction?
  • People with mental illness never get better.
  • Fiction With the right kind of help, many
    people with a mental illness do recover and can
    lead healthy, productive lives. The illness may
    not go away, the symptoms can be controlled.

Fact or Fiction?
  • People with mental illness tend to be violent.
  • Fiction People who experience a mental illness
    acutely sometimes behave very differently. While
    behaviour may seem bizarre, people with mental
    illness are not more violent than the rest of the

Fact or Fiction?
  • People who are poor are more likely to have a
    mental illness than people who are not.
  • Fiction Income is not a factor in overall rates
    of mental health problems. However, people with
    lower incomes experiences slightly higher rates
    of depression. People who live with major mental
    illnesses often end up in lower social classes
    because the illness may interfere with their
    ability to hold a job.

Mental Health Trends
  • 22 of people in Ontario have experienced at
    least one mental health problem in their
  • Women are more likely than men to experience a
    mental health problem, specifically anxiety or

Mental Health Trends
  • Men are more likely to experience antisocial
    personality disorder.
  • Older people experience depression more often
    than younger people.

Mental Health Trends
  • 31 of 15-24 year olds have experienced a mental
    health problem
  • 27 have anxiety problems
  • 7.5 have affective problems

Mental Health Trends
  • 15-24 year olds are more likely to have social
    phobias and bipolar disorder.
  • 52 of people in Ontario whose parents have
    experienced a mental health problem also
    experience a mental disorder.

Contributing factors
  • Chemical imbalance in the brain
  • Substance use not a causal relationship, but
    may be used to treat/relieve symptoms, however,
    drugs usually make things worse.
  • Traumatic life events may make someone more
    vulnerable to developing a mental illness.

Contributing Factors contd
  • Heredity many are thought to have a genetic
    component, usually triggered by life events
  • Other Illnesses Alzheimer's, Parkinson's,
    damage from strokes cause memory loss and
    confusion. Debilitating illness may also lead to
    chronic depression.

Treatment Options
  • Biological
  • Medication
  • Electroconvulsive therapy
  • Psychosocial
  • Psychotherapy
  • Self-help groups
  • Family support
  • Community support

  • Talking About Mental Illness A guide for
    developing an awareness program for youth.
  • Teachers Resource
  • Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 2001
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