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Digital Camera

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Digital Camera s and WebCams Technology Advancement Group (TAG) Doug Baleshta May 10, 2004 Sign of the Times A Short Course on Using Digital Cameras and Web ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Digital Camera


1
Digital Cameras and WebCams
  • Technology Advancement Group (TAG)
  • Doug Baleshta May 10, 2004

2
Sign of the Times
3
A Short Course on Using Digital Cameras and Web
Cams
  • Introduction
  • What is a digital photograph
  • Checklist
  • Types of Cameras
  • Image Sensors
  • Image Storage
  • Image Compression

4
Contd
  • Automatic Flash
  • Lenses
  • Automatic Settings
  • Batteries
  • Other Features - Panorama - Movie Mode
  • Webcams - resolution - ethernet - wireless

5
Introduction
  • Cameras on display today
  • What brands
  • What features
  • Memory
  • Price

6
What is a digital Photograph?
  • Depends who you talk to!?
  • Conversion of light intensity and colours into
    Digital bits
  • Pixel series of dots on the screen (picture
    element)
  • RGB 250,000 question on who wants to be a
    millionaire
  • Bit Maps
  • Additive Colour process

7
Colour
  • Using three primary colours through an additive
    process
  • Varying intensity and combining gives us millions
    of colours

8
Pixels
  • What do they look like?

9
Pixels
  • Think of it as Jelly Beans (this picture)

10
What is Contd
  • Screen Resolution
  • Digital Camera Resolution
  • T.V. Resolution
  • Printer/Scanner Resolution

11
Screen Resolution
  • 800 x 600 pixels and variations
  • Optical vs Digital resolution

12
Resolution
Element Resolution Total Pixels
Color TV (NTSC) 320 x 525 168,000
Human eye 11,000 x 11,000 120 million
35-mm slide   The "Economist" magazine says it has 20 million or more. CMOS Imaging News says 5 to 10 million depending on the film. Another source says about 80 million pixels. Robert Caspe at SoundVision states that color negative film has 1000 pixels per inch while color positive film has 2000 pixels per inch.
 
13
Resolution
  • Same Image, different size

14
Resolution
  • Stylus 300
  • Adjustable Resolutions2048 x 1536 SHQ, JPEG 2048
    x 1536 HQ, JPEG 1600 x 1200 SQ1, JPEG 1280 x 960
    SQ2, JPEG 1024 x 768 SQ2, JPEG 640 x 480 SQ2,
    JPEG 320 x 240 _at_ 15fps QuickTime Motion JPEG 160
    x 120 _at_ 15fps QuickTime Motion JPEG

15
Size Isnt Everything
  • Despite your Spam
  • An 1800 x 1200 pixel image is approx an 8x10
  • A 640 x 480 is close to a 5 x 4 picture
  • Why use a 2400 x 1800 image when it wont even
    fit on the computer screen?

16
Printer/Scanner Resolution
  • Printer and scanner resolutions are usually
    specified by the number of dots per inch (dpi)
    that they print or scan. (Generally pixels per
    inch refer to the image and display screen and
    dots per inch refer to the printer and printed
    image.
  • For comparison purposes, monitors use an average
    of 72 ppi to display text and images, ink-jet
    printers range up to 1700 dpi or so, and
    commercial typesetting machines range between
    1,000 and 2,400 dpi.

17
Checklist
  • Will you be shooting indoors? This will determine
    the quality of the flash you need
  • Will you be photographing static scenes such as
    home interiors, or action shots such as sports?
    This will determine the best viewfinder and lens.
  • In the Weather? You may need something robust.

18
Checklist Contd
  • Will you be photographing wide angle scenes such
    as landscapes and home interiors, telephoto
    scenes such as portraits, or close-ups such as
    stamps and coins?
  • This will determine the focal length of the lens
    you need and whether you need a zoom lens,
    auxiliary lenses, or macro mode.

19
Checklist Contd
  • Are you a casual user, or a serious amateur or
    professional photographer? This will help you
    determine how many manual controls you'll want on
    the camera.
  • Will you print the photos as snapshots,
    enlargements, or embed them in word documents? Or
    will you publish the images on a Web page, e-mail
    them to others, or include them in a
    presentation? This will determine the best
    resolution for your situation.

20
Checklist Contd
  • What imaging software do you need?
  • What comes with the camera?
  • Do you need more or less?
  • Photoshop may be overkill

21
Types of Cameras
  • Regardless of how digital cameras look, the
    market for them is roughly divided into three
    tiers with blurry lines separating cameras based
    mainly by image resolution, features, and of
    course, price.
  • At the low end are the fully automatic point and
    shoot cameras with resolutions of 3 to 4 million
    pixels or so and prices below 500.

22
Types of Cameras contd
  • At the next level are those having 4 to 5 million
    pixels in their image sensors. Costing less than
    1000 these cameras also give you lots of
    creative control.
  • 1000 - 2000 for amateur and professional
    photographers. These cameras have 6-12 million
    pixels and many are based on 35mm designs and
    interchangeable lenses. These cameras have the
    highest resolution, most features, and highest
    prices.

23
Cameras Digital Movie
  • With the latest digital video cameras, you don't
    have to digitize frames because they are captured
    in a digital format. - But
  • Some digital still cameras are capable of
    capturing short video sequences and some digital
    video cameras can also capture still images.
  • Resolution is higher with digital cameras

24
Cameras Contd - Cell Phones, Watches
25
Sensors
  • Two flavours, CCD (Charge Couple Device -) and
    CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor)

This photo shows the pixels on an image sensor
greatly enlarged. Courtesy of IBM.
26
Sensors contd
  • The Canon EOS 10D is a high-end digital SLR from
    a major manufacturer that uses a CMOS image
    sensor. The Canon EOS 1Ds, used by professionals,
    also uses a CMOS sensor and has 11.1 million
    pixels. Courtesy of Canon.

27
Image Storage
  • Fixed limited size, limited amount of pictures
  • Removable lots of flavours - some are specific
    to your camera Olympus xD allows panoramic
    pictures - Compact Flash - CompactFlash cards and
    slots that are 3.3 mm thick are called
    CompactFlash (abbreviated CF) or CompactFlash
    Type I (CF-I). - CompactFlash cards and slots
    that are 5mm thick are called CompactFlash Type
    II (CF-II). 

28
Image Storage contd
  • Sony memory sticks - shaped something like a
    stick of gum, are currently used mainly in Sony
    products.

29
Image Storage Contd
  • So how many pictures can I store?
  • Well, that depends
  • Image format (JPEG, TIFF), Image Size (1800x1200
    or 640x480) and Flash Card size. (Ex - Olympus
    128megs 160 full size jpeg images).

30
Image Storage
  • Stylus 300
  • Number of Storable PhotosWith 16MB xD-Picture
    Card SHQ, HQ 2048 x 1536 6, 20 shots SQ1 1600
    x 1200 24 shots SQ2 1280 x 960 38 shots SQ2
    1024 x 768 58 shots SQ2 640 x 480 99 shots HQ
    Movie 320 x 240 15 fps 16 sec. max per movie SQ
    Movie 160 x 120 15 fps 40 sec. max per movie

31
Image Storage Etc
  • HP integrates their printers with their cameras
    flash memory, infrared, docking station.

32
Image Compression
  • Lossless vs Lossy
  • Lossless compression uncompresses an image so its
    quality matches the original sourcenothing is
    lost.
  • For this reason, lossless compression is used
    mainly where detail is extremely important, as it
    is when planning to make large prints. Lossless
    compression is offered by some digital cameras in
    the form of TIFF and RAW file formats

33
Image Compression contd
  • Lossy compression.
  • Because lossless compression isnt practical in
    many cases, all popular digital cameras offer a
    lossy compression.
  • This process degrades images to some degree and
    the more they're compressed, the more degraded
    they become. In many situations, such as posting
    images on the Web or making small to medium sized
    prints, the image degradation isn't obvious.

34
Image Compression contd
  • Jpeg Variable Compression dramatic reduction
    in file size

35
Flash
  • Flash Range?
  • Flash Working RangeWide 8" 8.5' (.2 m 2.5
    m), Tele 8" 6.0' (.2 m 1.8 m) (Olympus
    Stylus 300)
  • Red-Eye Reduction
  • Automatic Mode

36
Flash contd
  • Fill mode flashes even in bright conditions

37
Lenses
  • Focal Length as used on 35 mm cameras (50 mms
    are usual, 35 mm are wide angle, 65 mm are
    telephoto)

38
Lenses contd
  • Olympus Stylus 300 - Lens Olympus aspherical
    glass 3x zoom lens 5.8 17.4mm (35 105mm
    equivalent in 35mm photography), 5 lenses in 3
    groups
  • Interchangeable with 35mm? depends
  • Optical Zoom is superior to Digital Zoom
  • Glass is better than plastic

39
Lenses - Aperture
  • The larger the Aperture, the less light required
  • The Stylus has an aperture range of F3.1W/F5.2 T
  • F1.8 would let more light in, can be used in
    darker conditions

40
Automatic Settings
  • It take the digital camera some time to calculate
    focus, colour balance, shutter speed, F settings
  • Remember this when taking the picture
  • Moveable focus

41
Automatic Setting Contd
  • Different lighting gives different results
  • Incandescent gives warm tones

42
Automatic Settings contd
  • Fluorescent washes out colours

43
Automatic Settings
  • Underwater pictures rapidly loose the Reds and
    Yellows the deeper you go - the longer wave
    length light gets absorbed (warm colours).
  • Require additional lighting to fill in. Filters
    can also work (Red for example).

44
Batteries
  • Lithium Ion Best, most expensive, fast
    charging, no memory last 2-3 years
  • NiMh Nickel Metal Hydride good value, 400
    charges
  • NiCad not usual for digital cameras
  • Sizes proprietary or available off the shelf?

45
Batteries - rating
  • Batteries are rated by voltage and milliamp hours
    (mAH). Most AA-sized NiMH batteries are rated up
    to 2100 mAH. A 2100 mAH battery can deliver 2,100
    milliamps (mA) for one hour (H). Generally
    speaking, the higher the rating, the more
    pictures you can take.

46
Batteries contd
  • Storage cool dry place when not in use
  • Travelling get them charged first you may
    have to demonstrate your equipment at security
  • Europe/Asia 220 Volt need a
    converter/inverter?

47
Other Features
  • Panorama Mode ability to link pictures together
    to create a seamless image Up to 10 frames
    stitchable with CAMEDIA Master software when
    using Olympus brand xD-Picture Card
  • Sequence - 1 frames per second, more than 4
    frames in HQ mode.

48
Other Features contd
  • For 16 mb card. HQ Movie 320 x 240 15 fps 16
    sec. max per movie SQ Movie 160 x 120 15 fps 40
    sec. max per movie Stylus 300 no sound
    however.
  • Flash Variation Timed, red eye, night-time, low
    light

49
Other Features contd
  • Viewing RCA video out?
  • USB file transfer
  • Date/Time stamp
  • Image Preview use power, use viewfinder if
    possible

50
WebCams
  • Cheap- 50
  • USB Universal Serial Bus
  • Sometimes include a microphone
  • Lower Resolution
  • Good for video conferencing
  • Resolution typically 380 lines, smaller than
    regular TV

51
Web Cams
  • Ethernet/wireless WebCAM - connect to the
    internet - allows remote control through the
    internet - can automatically take a picture when
    detecting movement
  • IR WebCams no light conditions.

52
Whew!!!
  • A little knowledge is dangerous
  • Callling all Carbon Units - Go forth and use your
    technology

53
Credits
  • http//www.shortcourses.com/index.htm
  • http//www.olympus.com
  • Technology Advancement Group Natasha Scott,
    Martin Voelkening

54
Resources
  • http//www.dpreview.com/ - Website that reviews
    digital cameras
  • www.gimp.org open source imaging software
  • http//www.imaging-resource.com/ - imaging
    resources website
  • greenbatteries.com. Battery information

55
Thanks!
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