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Sports Nutrition


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Title: Sports Nutrition

Sports Nutrition
  • Unit 8

Role of Diet if Athletics
  • Maximize their performance
  • Provide the necessary raw material to allow a
    good training program to build and run the human
  • Nutritional status, age, genetic background
    affect nutrient needs
  • Diets must be individualized
  • Many myths and fads among athletes

Purpose of Nutrition
  • Good Nutrition promotes a healthier mind and body
  • Aids in resistance to illnesses
  • Energy and vitality are increased
  • Help athlete feel better and sleep better

Functions of Food
  • The right combination of nutrients work together
    in the body to
  • Provide heat
  • Promote growth
  • Repair tissue
  • Regulate body processes

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Developed The Food Guide Pyramid
  • Provides the following basic dietary guidelines
  • Eat a variety of foods
  • Avoid too much fat, especially unsaturated fat
    and cholesterol
  • Eat food with adequate starch and fiber
  • Maintain a desirable body weight
  • Avoid too much sodium and sugar

The Food Guide Pyramid
  • The categories in the pyramid are not considered
    to be equals
  • Idea is to get people to eat more of the foods at
    the base of the pyramid and fewer foods in the
    groups toward the top
  • Benefits are many
  • Lower fat
  • Increase Fiber
  • Get more vitamins and minerals in diet
  • Protect yourself from illness

Breads,Cereals, Rice and Pasta Group
  • 6-11 servings per day
  • Foundation of a healthy diet
  • Good source of complex carbohydrates, which are
    rich in vitamins, minerals and other nutrients
  • Ideally 50-60 of the daily calories in a typical
    American diet should come from complex

Vegetable Group
  • 3-5 servings per day
  • Naturally low in fat and high in fiber
  • Provide crucial vitamins and minerals
  • One serving consists of
  • one cup of leafy vegetables
  • one-half cup of other vegetables
  • one potato or ear of corn
  • Best to eat a variety
  • Many vegetables help lower a persons risk of

Fruit Group
  • 2-4 servings per day
  • Excellent source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber
  • Fruits may protect against cancer
  • Serving of fruit consist
  • Medium apple, banana or orange
  • half cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit
  • three-quarters of a cup of fruit juice

Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Bean, Egg and Nut Group
  • 2-3 servings per day
  • Excellent source of proteins
  • Build framework for our muscles, bones, blood,
    hair, and fingernails and essential for growth
    and repair
  • Supply various vitamins and minerals
  • Serving consists of
  • 2-3 oz of lean, cooked mean, fish, or poultry or
    about the size of your palm
  • One egg or 1/2 cup dry beans

Milk, Yogurt and Cheese Group
  • 2-3 servings per day
  • Milk and yogurt are best sources
  • Choose products that are low fat or non-fat
  • One Serving consists
  • 8 oz cup of milk
  • One cup of plain yogurt
  • 11/2 oz of hard cheese
  • 1 tablespoon of cheese spread

Fat, Oil, and Sweet Group
  • Use sparingly
  • These are placed at the very top of the pyramid
    so that all Americans will realize they should
    use them only in very small amounts
  • Supply little or no vitamins or minerals
  • Added sugars are often hidden in favorite foods
    (sweeteners in jam, jellies or syrup)

Basic Nutrients
  • Chemical substances in food that
  • provide energy
  • act as a building block in forming new body
  • Assist in the functioning of various body
  • 6 classes
  • Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins,
    Minerals, and Water

  • Basic source of energy for body heat and body
  • Sugars, starches, and fiber found in fruits,
    vegetables and grains
  • Body converts sugars and starches to glucose for
    energy or to glycogen for energy storage in the
    liver and muscles
  • When glycogen stores are full, excess
    carbohydrates are stored to fat
  • Fiber is not absorbed but is essential for
    gastrointestinal functioning
  • 50-60 of caloric to keep glycogen stores filled
  • Carbohydrate loading requires 70-80 carbohydrate

  • Derived from animal foods-meat, milk, eggs, fish,
    cheese and poultry
  • Derived also from soybeans, dry beans, some nuts
    and whole grain products
  • Broken down into 20 amino acids
  • 8 are essential to build and repair tissue
  • Bodies least efficient source of energy
  • Body can not store protein, therefore extra is
    converted into fat
  • Intake 10-12 of caloric intake

Fats (Lipids)
  • Fried foods, butter, margarine, salad dressings,
    oils, mayonnaise are all high sources
  • Meats, eggs, milk and cheese contain fat too
  • Provide energy, carry vitamin A and D to cells,
    and are necessary for normal growth and
  • Insulate the body from temperature extremes
  • Protect and shield body organs from impact
  • Add flavor to our food

Fats cont...
  • Are necessary, in fact important in diet
  • Often eat far more than the daily recommended
  • 30 of caloric intake is recommended
  • Most Americans consume 50 or more of their
    caloric intake from fat
  • High fat diets are associated with heart disease,
    hypertension and cancers

Saturated or Unsaturated Fats
  • Saturated fats tend to raise the cholesterol
    level of blood
  • Unsaturated fats are subdivided
  • Monounsaturated
  • Are neutral effect on cholesterol
  • Polyunsaturated
  • Lower the cholesterol level in blood Fats are not
    digested as quickly as other nutrients
  • Considered basic source of muscular energy, since
    they are used when carbohydrates are depleted

  • Essential for maintaining good health
  • Lack of vitamins lead to deficiency conditions
  • Most cannot be synthesized by body and must be
    ingested via foods or pills
  • No single food or food group will supply all
    vitamins needed by the body
  • Eat a variety of foods

Fat Soluble or Water Soluble Vitamins
  • Fat Soluble
  • Vitamins A, D, E, and K
  • Emulsified and absorbed in the small intestines
  • Stored in body cells, especially the liver
  • Water Soluble
  • B complex and Vitamin C
  • Absorbed along with water through the digestive
    track and dissolve in body fluids
  • Body does not store well, excess excreted in urine

  • Inorganic substances
  • Have functions essential to life
  • Calcium
  • Necessary for bone strength and muscle
  • Potassium
  • Regulates cardiac rhythm
  • Iron
  • Assists hemoglobin in the delivery of oxygen to
    body tissues
  • Sodium
  • Essential in maintaining fluid balance
  • Phosphorus
  • Needed for strong bones and teeth

  • Necessities of life
  • Most of water intake is ingested in the daily
    diet as fluid or as the fluid contained in solid

  • Chemical reactions occurring in the body
  • Two phases
  • Catabolism
  • Reactions which break down complex organic
    compounds into simple compounds
  • Provides Energy
  • Anabolism
  • Series of reactions whereby small molecules are
    built into more complex molecules
  • Form bodys structural and functional components
  • Requires energy

Sports Nutritional Myths
  • Calories are calories
  • False- a variety of nutrients are very important
    to maintaining a healthy diet
  • Athletes bodies require supplements during
  • False-Supplements are only required when the diet
    is not able to meet the bodys demands
  • Protein build strong bodies
  • False-Exercise builds strong bodies. Protein is
    required to repair tissue but does not build
    muscle by itself

Sports Nutritional Myths
  • When we need fluids, we feel thirsty
  • False- We need water long before we feel thirsty.
    Constant fluid replacement is required.
  • Body weight matters most light athletes are
  • False- Body composition is more important than
    body weight. Muscle is heavy.

Sports Nutritional Myths
  • The only food intake that really matters is the
    food ingested immediately before an important
  • False-Nutrition is a long-term pursuit and what
    you eat weeks before an event can effect your
  • What you eat between and after events doesnt
  • False-What you eat before, during, and after an
    event can affect your performance. Post event is
    very important for rapid recovery

Pre Game Meals
  • What you eat before you train or compete has four
    main functions
  • To help prevent hypoglycemia
  • To help settle your stomach, absorb some of the
    gastric juices and decrease hunger
  • To fuel your muscles with food eaten in advance
    that is stored as glycogen and food eaten within
    an hour
  • To pacify your mind with knowledge that your body
    is well fueled

Nutrition Benefits for Sport Performance
  • Eat adequate high carbohydrate meals
  • To fuel and refuel your muscles
  • Food eaten an hour before exercise keeps you from
    getting hungry and maintains your blood sugar,
    they dont replenish muscle glycogen stores
  • If exercising for longer than 60-90 minutes
    intake carbohydrates that enter bloodstream
    slowly as they are digested
  • Rice, pasta, yogurt, oatmeal, bean soup, apples,
  • If exercising for less than an hour snack on
    foods that digest easily and will settle
  • Bread, English muffins, bagels, crackers, pasta

Nutrition Benefits for Sports
  • Limit high-fat proteins like cheese, steak,
    hamburgers and peanut butter
  • These proteins take longer to empty from the
  • Fat delays gastric emptying and cause
    sluggishness and nausea
  • Be cautious with sugary foods
  • Soft drinks, jelly beans, sport drinks etc
  • Quickly enter the bloodstream as they are
  • If eat within 15-20 minutes before hard exercise
    can drop the blood sugar , leaving one tired,
    light-headed, and fatigue

Nutrition Benefits for Sports
  • Allow adequate time for food to digest
  • High calorie meals take longer to leave the
    stomach than do lighter snacks
  • Allow 3-4 hours for a large meal to digest, 2-3
    hours for a smaller meal and 1-2 hours for a
    liquid meal and less than an hours for a small
  • If you get jittery and are unable to tolerate any
    food before an event
  • Have an extra-large bedtime snack instead of
  • Learn how to best fuel your body

Nutrition Benefits Cont
  • Always eat familiar foods before competition
  • Dont try anything new
  • New foods always carry the risk of settling
    poorly, causing intestinal discomfort, acid
    stomach, heartburn or camps
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • You are unlikely to starve to death during an
    event, but you might dehydrate
  • Drink an extra 4-8 glasses of fluid the day
  • Drink at least 2-3 glasses of water up to 2 hours
  • Dink another 1-3 glasses 5-10 min before start

Pre-Event Training
  • Tapering
  • It is wise to gradually decrease the training
    program about 48 hours before competition
  • This enables the body to replenish essential
  • Reduces or allows body to eliminate various
    metabolites that might reduce performance

Alternate Eating Patterns
  • Food fads are rampant among athletes
  • NO food, vitamin, hormone or supplement will
    substitute for sound nutrition and hard work
  • Vegetarian diet
  • Primary concern is whether enough protein is
  • Proteins have essential amino acids and are
    balanced better in animal products than plant
  • Must carefully plan diet to include all amino

Carbohydrate Loading
  • Endurance athletes whose events last for more
    than 90 continuous minutes benefit best from
    carbohydrate loading
  • Long distance runners, swimmers, bicyclists and
    cross country skiers
  • May also benefit athletes involved in sports that
    require prolonged movements of varying
  • Soccer, lacrosse, ice hockey, as well as
    tournament sports

Carbohydrate Loading
  • Defined as saturating the muscle with
    carbohydrates- the bodys most efficient source
    of fuel
  • 1-3 pounds of water weight is usually gained
    during carbo-loading, since water is stored with
  • 70-80 of calories should come from carbs, 10-15
    from fat and 10-15 from protein

Carbohydrate Loading
  • Load every day, not just before a big event
  • Daily intake of 60-80 of carbohydrates prevents
    chronic glycogen depletion
  • Allows one not only to compete at best, but train
    at best
  • Be careful, too many carbohydrates can cause
    intestinal distress
  • When you taper training, you do not need to
    intake additional calories, simply maintain
    standard intake

Carbohydrate Loading
  • Include adequate protein
  • Especially endurance athletes who use some
    protein for energy
  • Do not fat overload
  • Choose wholesome, fiber-rich carbs
  • Keeps your system running smoothly
  • Bran muffins, whole wheat bread, bran cereals,
  • Plan meals carefully
  • Day before event, eat biggest meal at lunchtime
    so that the food has more time to digest
  • Drink extra fluids to hydrate your body
  • Avoid alcoholic and caffeine beverages-

Post Game Meals
  • What you eat after a hard workout or competition
    affects recovery
  • Often athletes do not feel hungry or dont have
    time to eat after exercise
  • Recreational exerciser who works out 3-4 times a
    week, need not worry about recovery diet
  • Competitive athletes need to make careful
    selections of foods eaten after exercise
  • Football two a days
  • An athlete with multiple event per meet
  • Triathlete who trains twice a day
  • An aerobic instructor who teaches several classes

Recovery Fluids
  • Loose fluids by sweat during exercise
  • Best replacements are by water, juices and watery
    foods like watermelons
  • Determining how much you need to replace
  • Weigh yourself before and after
  • The goal is to lose no more that 2 of bw
  • Any more than 2 are you are dehydrated

Recovery Carbohydrates
  • Ideally you should consume carbohydrate rich
    food/beverages within 15 minutes after your
  • Enzymes responsible for making glycogen are most
    active at this time and will most rapidly replace
    the depleted glycogen stores
  • Liquids and solids are equal

Recovery Carbohydrates
  • Popular carbohydrate rich foods are
  • 8 oz or orange juice and medium bagel
  • 16 oz of cranberry juice
  • 8 oz fruit yogurt
  • One bowl of corn flakes with milk and banana
  • Sport drinks
  • Be aware that they lack most vitamins and
    minerals that natural foods have
  • More expensive

Recovery Protein
  • Protein can enhance glycogen replacement in the
    initial hours after hard exercise
  • Protein Eaten along with carbohydrates is a
    winning combination

Recovery Electrolytes
  • When you sweat you lose water as well as minerals
    such as potassium and sodium
  • Electrolytes are primarily responsible for muscle
    cramping and intolerance to heat
  • You do not need supplements to replenish
    electrolytes after exercise- standard diet has
    more than enough to replenish any lost

  • Time is necessary for the recovery process of
    healing and refueling
  • To completely replace depleted glycogen stores,
    the muscles may need up to 2 days of rest with no
    exercise and a high carb diet
  • Expect to experience soreness on the second day
    after strenuous exercise that damages your muscle
  • Quality training is better than quantity
    training- do not underestimate the power of rest

Fluid Replacement
  • Water is one of the most important nutrients
  • You can survive only a few days without it
  • Drinking too little water or losing too much
    through sweating inhibits ability to exercise at
    maximum potential
  • Free access to water before, during and after
    activity should be encouraged

Purpose of Water
  • Water in the blood transports glucose, oxygen and
    fats to working muscles
  • In blood, water carries away metabolic waste
  • In urine, water eliminates metabolic waste
  • In sweat, water dissipates heat through the skin,
    regulating body temperature
  • In saliva and gastric secretions, water helps
    digest food
  • Water helps to lubricate joints and cushion
    organs and tissues

Fluid Replacement
  • Plain water is most effective and inexpensive
  • Drink small volumes (8 oz) of water frequently
    (every 15 min) rather than large volumes
  • Thirst mechanism is unreliable
  • Brain does not signal the thirst until you are
    becoming dehydrated
  • This significantly hurts your performance
  • Drink a cold fluid, help hydrate and cool you off

Body Composition
  • Estimation of a persons body fat versus body
  • Women have approximately 10 more adipose tissue
    than do men
  • Fat is stored in various locations and severs as
    a protection and insulation to the body
  • Average Female 22-25 fat
  • Average Male 12-18 fat
  • Fat is a must, a goal of 0 is not possible
  • Less than 6 is unsafe for males
  • Less than 10 for women leads to amenorrhea

Measuring Body Fat
  • There are four common methods
  • Underwater weighing, Skin calipers, BIA and NIR
  • There is no simple, inexpensive method to date
    that is 100 accurate
  • Standard error of most measurement is plus or
    minus 3
  • Body Fat and Ideal Body Weight should be
    discussed together
  • Body Fat changes as one
  • Lose fat, gain muscle, shape up or slim down

Underwater Weighing
  • Traditionally considered to be most accurate
  • Subject exhales all the air in their lungs and is
    then weighed while submerged in a tank of water
  • Measures body density and is translated
    mathematically into percent body fat
  • Errors
  • Not completely exhaling all air out of lungs
  • Equipment may not have precise weighing systems

Skin fold Calipers
  • Convenient and relatively accurate
  • Calipers are large pinchers that measure the
    thickness of the fat layer of specific body sites
  • Errors
  • Poorly calibrated calipers
  • Imprecise location of the specific body sites

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis
  • Computerized method with increasing accuracy
  • Current current is sent through the body via
    electrodes attached to wrists and ankles
  • Flow of the current is affected by the amounts of
    water in the body
  • Because water is the only fat free tissue,
    current flow can be translated into percent body
  • Errors
  • If you are dehydrated, premenstrual, have
    undigested food in your stomach or are improperly
    positioned during the test

Near Infrared Reaction
  • Measures the thickness of the skin at only one
  • May poorly represent overall body fat
  • Based on the principles of light absorption and
  • An instrument that emits an infrared light beam
    is placed over the biceps
  • The light that is absorbed by the muscle and fat
    and is reflected off the bone
  • The measurement at only one site limits the

Weight Gain
  • Proper exercise and diet must be combined in
    right ways
  • In order to gain 1 pound of body weight per week
    you need to consume an additional 500 calories
    per day- above normal intake
  • Extra calories should primarily come from extra
    carbohydrates rather than extra proteins
  • Protein Powders and amino acid supplements are
    fruitless expenses

Weight Gain Challenges
  • Finding time to eat can be hard, here are some
    tips to help boost caloric intake
  • Pack portable snacks
  • Eat frequently
  • Eat an extra snack
  • Eat larger than normal portions at mealtime
  • Eat higher calorie foods
  • You most likely to gain weight if you
    consistently eat larger than normal meals

Weight Gain Summary
  • Consume 500-1000 additional calories per day
  • Include muscle-building exercise- weight workouts
    to promote muscle growth rather than fat deposits
  • Have your body fat measured, to be sure that your
    weight gain is mostly muscle not fat

Weight Loss
  • High energy, low calorie reduce programs are the
    best possible method for weight loss
  • Wisely choose what and when you eat
  • Before attempting a weight loss program have your
    body fat measured

Weight Loss Facts
  • To lose weight and successfully keep it off you
    should do the following
  • Pay attention to how much you eat
  • Calories do count! The amount of calories is
    important, not just the amount of fat grams
  • Pay attention to when you eat
  • Eat big breakfasts rather than big dinners
  • Pay attention to why you eat
  • Are you bored, stressed, lonely, or actually

Weight Loss Summary
  • Eat 500 fewer calories per day than you normally
  • You should only lose 1-2 pounds per week for a
    safety reasons
  • Eat slowly- the brain needs 20 minutes to receive
    the signal that you are full
  • Exercise regularly, but do not over exercise

Eating Disorder Statistics
  • One out of every 150 American girls ages12-30
    develop patterns of an eating disorder (among
    athletes much higher)
  • At least 1/3 of all Americans are obese and 60
    are overweight
  • 77 of individuals with eating disorders report
    that the illness can last 1-15 years
  • The mortality rate for eating disorder is 20
  • Only 50 of all people with an eating disorders
    report being cured
  • 10 of all eating disorders are males

Eating Disorder Facts
  • All people with an eating disorder can die at any
    time and at any weight- not just extreme cases
  • Most often death is due to a side effect such
    as cardiac arrest or kidney failure
  • Eating disorders are on the rise among active
  • Sports that emphasize weight such as running,
    gymnastics, dancing, wrestling, and figure
  • 4 types of eating disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa
  • Compulsive Eating and Bigger-exia

Eating Disorder Thinking Process
  • Food is not fuel, it is the Enemy
  • Desire to be perfectly thin
  • Goal is thinness at any price
  • Distorted body image
  • Feeling loss of control over their lives
  • Eating disorder sometimes is not about the food,
    but rather a way to exert some control over
    something in their lives

Signs to an Eating Disorder
  • Social isolation
  • Lack of confidence
  • Ritualistic eating behaviors
  • Obsession with calories and weight
  • Distorted body image
  • Wearing layers of baggy clothes
  • Nervous at mealtime
  • Patterns of leaving table after mealtime
  • Hyperactivity/compulsive exercise
  • Decrease in performance
  • Recurrent overuse injuries
  • Running water in the bathroom after meals
  • Significant weight loss
  • Obsession with grades
  • Obsession with organization and personal space
  • High emotions
  • Signs of Malnutrition
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Loss of hair
  • Light headedness
  • Blood shot eyes
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Depression

Typical Victim
  • Perfectionist
  • Obedient
  • Over compliant
  • Highly motivated
  • Successful academically
  • Well liked
  • Good athlete

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Restriction of caloric intake for long period of
    time and deliberately starve themselves
  • Loss of body weight of at least 15
  • Achieved by avoiding food, frenzied exercise
  • Intense fear of becoming obese
  • Distorted body image

American Psychiatric Association
  • Defines anorexia Nervosa as
  • Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat
    even though they are already under weight
  • Disturbance in body weight perception- claiming
    they feel fat
  • Weight loss to less than 85 of normal weight
  • Refusal to maintain body weight over a minimal
    normal weight for age and height
  • Denial of the seriousness of the current weight
  • Absence of at least three consecutive menstrual
  • Anorexia is a life threatening condition if left

Bulimia Nervosa
  • A cycle pattern of binge-eating associated with
    some type of purging
  • Purging takes on different forms
  • Fasting
  • Self-induced vomiting
  • Excessive exercising
  • Use of enemas or diuretics

American Psychiatric Association
  • Defines Bulimia as
  • Recurrent episodes of binge eating, characterized
    by both of the following
  • Eating an unusually large amount of food in a
    discrete period of time
  • Feeling out of control during the eating episodes
    and unable to stop eating or control what and how
    much is eaten
  • Compensating for the binge to prevent weight gain
    such as induced vomiting, misusing laxatives,
    enemas, or other medications, fating or
    exercising excessively
  • Binge eating and purging, on the average at least
    twice a week for three months
  • Evaluation of self worth according to body shape
    and weight

Side Effects of Anorexia/Bulimia
  • Up to 50 of individuals who have been diagnosed
    with anorexia will also develop Bulimia
  • Eating disorders are extremely dangerous!
  • Some serious medical complications are commonly
    seen in Anorexic and Bulimic individuals are
  • Stomach rupture
  • Tooth decay
  • Inflammation of the mucous lining of mouth and
  • Eventually cause heart, kidney and liver damage
  • Urinary infections
  • Osteoporosis
  • Menstrual irregularities

Compulsive Eating
  • Largest percentage of individuals with eating
    disorders are compulsive eaters
  • A compulsive eater keeps eating beyond the time
    when hunger has been satisfied
  • Eating is driven by anxiety, feat, frustration,
    or anger rather than by hunger or pleasure
  • Feel great amount of guilt and shame after eating
  • Feel envious and inferior toward others who
    handle food better than they do
  • May be a compulsive dieter as well

More about Compulsive Eating
  • You can be any weight and be a compulsive eater
  • A person can be heavy and obese and not be a
    compulsive eater
  • It is the relationship to the food that
    determines whether or not a person is a
    compulsive eater
  • A person who values food for its instant
    gratification and its ability to comfort, defuse
    anger, or help calm down is probably a compulsive

  • New term to described individuals who use
    steroids and other ergogenic aids to build muscle
  • They are both compulsive and excessive about body
    building workouts
  • See extreme size not as an exaggeration but as
    something to aspire to
  • Feels the need to be big and powerful in order to
    feel good about themselves
  • Reverse of people who desire to be thin
  • A lot of health problems associated with use of
    some ergogenic aids

  • Any victim must be approached and handled
    extremely carefully!
  • Referral for medical treatment is essential
  • True anorexic and bulimic commonly deny the
    problem, insisting that they are perfectly fine

Eating Myths
  • Many athletes believe that by restricting food
    intake to lose weight that they will exercise
    better, look better and enhance performance
  • Restricting food actually depletes fuel stores,
    cause ammenorrhea, stress fractures, fainting,
    weakness, fatigue and impaired performance
  • Can maintain for a while, but lack of energy and
    injuries will catch up with them

Prevention of Eating Disorders
  • People need to learn to love their bodies
  • As a society we must
  • Dispel the myth that thinness equals happiness
    and success
  • Discourage the notion that the thinnest or most
    muscular athlete is the best athlete
  • Love our bodies for what they are, rather hate
    them for what they are not
  • Emphasize fit and healthy as more appropriate
    goals than slender and skinny

Ergogenic Aids
  • Any substance (or food) that is believed to
    enhance ones performance above normal standards
  • IOC definition (summarized)
  • The administration or use of substances in any
    form alien to the body with the exclusion aim of
    attaining an artificial and unfair increase in
    performance in sports
  • Use of these substances and practices is
  • Drug testing has been instituted in many sports
    in order to help curtail the use of these
  • Because of the inequities that result in
    competition and health problems can result, the
    use of these substances cannot be condoned

Examples of Ergogenic Aid
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Amino Acids
  • Nutritional supplements
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Caffeine
  • Creatine
  • Diuretics
  • Human Growth Hormone
  • Other illegal recreational drugs

Class 1 IOC Ergogenic Aids
  • Stimulants
  • Narcotics
  • Anabolic Steroids
  • Beta Blockers
  • Diuretics

Types of Stimulants
  • Amphetamines
  • Cocaine
  • Ephedra
  • Caffeine

Stimulants Effects
  • Increase alertness
  • Reduce fatigue
  • Increase competitiveness
  • Produce hostility
  • Increase blood pressure
  • Vomiting
  • Headaches
  • Irregular heart beat
  • Anxiety
  • Tremors

Caffeine Effects
  • Energy-enhancing effect
  • May reduce the fatigue associated with long bouts
    of exercise
  • Has a diuretic effect
  • In large quantities has been listed as a banned
    substance by the IOC

  • Morphine and codeine
  • Used for management of moderate to severe pain
  • Banned by the IOC
  • High risk for physical and psychological

Beta Blocker
  • Produce a relaxation of blood vessels
  • Slows the heart rate
  • Decreases cardiac output
  • Used in sports where physical activity is of
    little to no importance, but a steady hand is
  • Heart rate and signs of nervousness are kept to a

  • Increase kidney excretion and urine output
  • Can be misused in two ways
  • To reduce body weight quickly
  • To decrease a drugs concentration in the urine
    to try to avoid the detection of drug misuse
    through urinalysis

Anabolic Steroid
  • Most commonly abused ergogenic aid in sports
  • It is illegal to possess or distribute for
    non-medical uses
  • Steroids are obtained on the black market
  • Banned by all sports governing boards including
    the IOC, NCAA and professional sport leagues

Anabolic Steroids
  • Synthetic forms of male sex hormones
  • Increase muscle size and body weight
  • Gives athlete advantage over their opponents
  • No studies that show steroids improve agility,
    skill, cardiovascular capacity or overall
  • Major problem in sports that involve strength

Side Effects to using Steroids
  • Increase muscle mass
  • Permanent side effects, including death
  • Other side effects to name a few
  • Aggression, mania and depression
  • Heart, liver and kidney disease/cancer
  • Risk of HIV/ Hepatitis
  • Acne, Baldness, bad breath, decrease sex drive
  • Increase muscle, tendon injuries
  • Infertility
  • Male- increase risk to prostate cancer, growth of
  • Female-deep voice, facial and body hair, cervical

Human Growth Hormone
  • Is naturally produced by pituitary gland
  • Can be made synthetically and is readily
  • Increases muscle mass, skin thickness, body
    length and weight and decreases body fat
  • More difficult to detect in urine than steroids
  • Permanent side effects
  • Premature closure of growth sites
  • Acromegaly

Erythropoeitin / EPO
  • EPO is naturally produced by the kidneys as a
    response to a low oxygen level
  • Can be synthetically created and used as a
  • Used generally by endurance athletes
  • Increases the number of red blood cells
  • Side effects
  • Stroke

Class II IOC Ergogenic Aid
  • Blood re-injection or blood doping
  • Used by endurance athletes or events at high
  • Purpose is to increase blood volume and red blood
    cells to meet the increased aerobic demands
  • Banned my many sport governing bodies

Blood Doping
  • Blood is removed form the athlete and stored
  • After at least 6 weeks the blood is re-infused
    into the athlete
  • During the 6 weeks the body has reestablished a
    normal red blood cell count
  • The added blood raises the cell count to greater
    than normal levels
  • This increases the oxygen carrying capacity and
    improves aerobic endurance

Risks to Blood Doping
  • Allergic reactions
  • Clotting
  • Kidney damage
  • Fever
  • Jaundice
  • Transmission of infectious disease
  • Shock
  • Heart failure

Class III IOC Ergogenic Aid
  • Alcohol
  • Local anesthetics
  • Corticosteroids

  • Number one abused substance in US
  • Acts as a depressant
  • Produces sedation and tranquility
  • Does not improve athletic performance
  • Not currently banned by IOC, however they can
    request a blood alcohol level and can take
    actions if the level is too high

Local Anesthetics and Corticosteroids
  • Inhibit or deaden the pain
  • Serious concerns
  • The athlete will not feel the pain that could
    indicate a serious injury
  • Continued use of these drugs can lead to weakness
    and degeneration of tendons and ligaments

Prevention of Drug Use
  • Goal of sporting organizations
  • Protect the health of athletes
  • Help ensure that competition is fair and
  • Sports programs should have full-service programs
    that provide substance abuse education,
    counseling and drug-detection
  • Drug testing should be done periodically in a
    random manner

Prevention of Drug Use
  • Athletes, parents, coaches, athletic trainers
    physicians and administrators must be educated
    about the dangers of drug abuse
  • Winning at all cost is wrong
  • Promote athletes to do their best and adhere to
    the rules

The End
  • Any Questions???