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Ancient Egypt

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Ancient Egypt app. 10,000 sq. miles the same as Sumer and Akkad radically different in shape a ribbon of fertile land 600 miles long half a dozen miles wide for most ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Egypt


1
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2
Ancient Egypt
  • app. 10,000 sq. miles
  • the same as Sumer and Akkad
  • radically different in shape
  • a ribbon of fertile land 600 miles long
  • half a dozen miles wide for most of its length
  • compared to 165 miles in Mesopotamia

3
Egypt, cont
  • more arid and more fertile than Mesopotamia
  • divided into two parts
  • the Delta (Lower Egypt) and the Upper Nile
  • south, not north is the important direction

4
Earliest Villages ??
  • 4500 B.C.
  • but recent studies may push it back
  • one thousand years or more

5
Two Kingdoms, 3,500 B.C.
  • two kingdoms
  • upper and lower Egypt
  • same culture
  • same language
  • same gods

6
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7
Unification
  • tradition is the only source
  • Date? around 3000 (3200?) B.C., or so....
  • Menes (Namar) the first pharaoh
  • reigned for 62 years
  • killed by a hippopotamus (ah, well...)

8
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9
Culture and Civilization
  • Egyptian culture distinctive and peculiar
  • already set prior to unification
  • continued to evolve through the Old Kingdom
    period
  • by the Pyramid Age (3-4th dynasties, ca. 2700
    B.C.)
  • it was set and would not change for 2,000 years

10
Origins of Egyptian Civilization
  • diffusion from Mesopotamia ??
  • and how do you tell, anyway ??
  • writing ??
  • cylinder seals ??

11
Formative Period
  • ended by 2700 B.C.
  • theocratic
  • highly centralized government
  • Primary Phase, which will last about 1,000 years

12
Historical Schema
  • The Old Kingdom (2700-2200 B.C.)
  • First Intermediate Period (2200-2000 B.C.)
  • The Middle Kingdom (2000-1800 B.C.)
  • Second Intermediate Period (1800-1500 B.C.)
  • The New Kingdom (1500- 1100 B.C.?)

13
The Hyksos
  • ended the Middle Kingdom by invasion
  • Semites
  • generate an imperialist response
  • the New Kingdom

14
Comparison and Contrast with Babylon
  • profound differences
  • because of environmental conditions
  • Mesopotamia open to invasion
  • Egypt isolated by geography
  • invasion as culturally stimulating ????

15
C. and C., cont
  • effects on Egypt positive and negative
  • E. culture perfectly adapted to the environment
  • lines of development logical and obvious
  • Egyptian culture static, outwardly opposed to
    innovation

16
Agriculture
  • depended on irrigation
  • nationally controlled
  • annual flooding of the Nile (Gift of the Nile)

17
Transportation
  • Mesopotamia wheeled vehicles and boats
  • Egypt boats (The Nile as Highway)
  • sailboats still a major means of transportation
  • Old and Middle Kingdom wheeled vehicles rare

18
Architecture
  • lacks timber
  • used mud-brick
  • main building STONE

19
Sculpture
  • early and sophisticated development
  • human figures and architectural forms
  • led to great expertise in painting and other
    representational arts

20
Writing
  • hieroglyphic scripts
  • for architectural and monumental purposes
  • papyrus paper

21
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Other Features
  • wheat, instead of barley
  • cattle and poultry
  • slavery virtually unknown
  • high degree of social mobility

23
Dynastic Chronology
  • Egyptians divided their history into dynasties
  • not always chronologically successive
  • Manetho, gave the chronology to the Greeks
  • the system is confusing, but maintained by
    Egyptologists

24
Theocratic Government
  • all Egyptian government was theocratic in form
  • all power was concentrated in the Pharaoh
  • the pharaoh was the head of a planned and
    organized economy
  • modern comparisons ???

25
The Nature of Kingship and Religion
  • modern perceptions
  • ancient ideas
  • even politics had a religious base

26
Unification
  • the most important event in Egyptian history
  • what role did Menes play in religion and politics
    ?
  • how was unification maintained ?

27
Egyptian Kingship
  • Mesopotamian kings (and Hebrew)
  • Semitic in their concepts
  • acted as mediators between gods and the people

28
Kingship, cont
  • Pharaoh link between the gods and people
  • Pharaoh divine
  • his rule eternal and absolute
  • Egypt was not just ruled for the gods
  • but by a god

29
Distinctions ?
  • human vs. divine ??
  • They could tell the difference
  • in practice whoever held the throne was divine
  • including women, foreigners, commoners

30
The Pharaoh
  • shed his impermanent and human status
  • assumed the eternal and unchangeable divine
    status
  • became the embodiment of the divine
  • led a divinely unified Egyptian state

31
Theory of the New State
  • basis of justice and authority
  • meaning truth, justice, order, righteousness,
    balance
  • a cosmic or divine force for harmony and
    stability,
  • dating from the beginning of time

32
  • these confirmed, consolidated and perpetuated the
    rule of the Pharaoh
  • this unified and stabilized the state

33
Egyptian Religion
  • each city had its patron deity
  • emergence of national government caused some to
    be more important
  • as dynasties changed, the primary gods changed
  • why??

34
Examples
  • Memphis Ptah
  • later, as the center of power changed, Re/Ra
  • or Horus
  • etc.

35
The Gods
  • Mesopotamian gods mostly anthropomorphic
  • Egyptian gods vary wildly
  • animals, human, celestial bodies, etc.

36
Cosmology
  • Gods created Order out of Chaos
  • various stories
  • not mutually exclusive
  • like the monotheistic religions

37
Early Creation Story
  • Atum
  • primeval mound of mud (Annual flood of the Nile?)
  • godly (How do you get a date when there is nobody
    there but you?)
  • generation of the gods

38
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39
Different Perspectives
  • Mesopotamians pessimistic
  • life is unpredictable, their gods unstable, their
    afterlife indistinct and undesirable
  • Egyptian religion inspired confidence
  • in the eternal, stable order of the universe

40
Different Perspectives, cont
  • divinely guided, rhythmic cycle of life and death
  • and belief in a final, eternal bliss

41
Egyptian religion
  • extremely tolerant of difference
  • extremely tolerant of many gods
  • as opposed to, say.. Hebrew religion
  • the principal deity (national/Pharoahs deity)
    allowed other gods to flourish
  • the number is considerable

42
Egyptian religion oddities
  • overlap of functions
  • expansion and contraction of cults
  • amalgamation of cults
  • worship of the Pharaoh was nationwide

43
Religion as a Unifying Force
  • Mesopotamia master-slave relationship
  • Egypt gods conceived of as shepherd
  • who cherish and care for the people

44
Religion, cont
  • probably the origins of the idea of
    Jehovah-as-shepherd
  • especially in the Psalms
  • which are pre-dated by Egyptian psalms
  • Akhenatons Hymn to the Sun

45
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46
Permanence of the Cycle of Life
  • everything was a cycle
  • eternal, unchanging
  • life and death
  • continuous and rhythmic
  • human life existed in a never-ending interchange
    of natural and universal elements

47
The Gods
  • immanent in nature
  • existed in a sphere of divine activity
  • consubstantial they are existent in everything

48
The Temples
  • controlled by temple corporations
  • producing those things necessary for the god
  • maintaining the very existence of the universe
    !!!!
  • if they get slack, were screwed...in a major way

49
The Idea of the Cosmos
  • religious ideas rooted in a static and
    changeless universe
  • influenced every aspect of Egyptian life
  • influenced every aspect of Egyptian development
  • gave very strong resilience to Egyptian culture
  • survived virtually unchanged for 3,000 years

50
The Pharonic State Ancient Economy
  • the pyramid model
  • pharaoh as capstone
  • pharaoh as commander-in-chief
  • pharaoh as royal administrator
  • pharaoh as owner of Egypt

51
The Pharonic State Corvee
  • the annual inundation
  • conscription for public works
  • dependence on irrigation
  • cooperate work essential

52
Achievements of the Old Kingdom
  • efficient, centralized authority
  • astronomy, arithmetic, geometry
  • medicine

53
The Most Important
  • Solar calendar
  • pyramids
  • belief in immortality

54
Solar Calendar
  • Egyptian solar calendar 3rd millennium B.C.
  • Connected with the rising of Sothis
  • the Dog Star (Sirius)
  • companion of Orion

55
Solar Calendar, cont
  • length of the solar year and the rising of Sothis
    are virtually identical
  • only a few minutes difference
  • we get our solar calendar from the Egyptians
  • by way of the Romans

56
Pyramids
  • Imhotep architect and developer of the calendar?
  • Imhotep physician, architect, doctor, miracle
    worker, giver of wisdom
  • designed the Step Pyramid of Zoser
  • processor of the Pyramids of Giza

57
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58
Pyramids, cont
  • eternal home for the immortal pharaoh
  • insured their divinity for all eternity

59
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60
Pyramids, cont
  • Khufu, Khafre, Menkure
  • Cheops, Cehphren, Mycerinus
  • amazing architecture
  • how?
  • necropolis

61
Belief in Immortality
  • first to really develop the idea
  • sophisticated consciousness
  • another order of existence

62
Decline of the Old Kingdom
  • Old Kingdom the most stable period
  • the Pharaoh dominated life
  • the emergence of provincial power
  • but gradually lost power to royal officials
  • gradual drying of the environment
  • failure of the Nile to flood on time

63
Decline of the Old Kingdom
  • Pepi II ruled 94 years
  • at his death rapid decline
  • followed by Nitocris
  • collapse of central power

64
First Intermediate Period
  • 2180-2050 B.C.
  • localism, anarchy, short reigns, palace coups,
    assassinations
  • seventy kings in seventy days
  • reversal of established order
  • dissolution of law and order
  • disruption of trade and agricultual production

65
The Middle Kingdom
  • 2050-1800 B.C.
  • united under the Eleventh Dynasty
  • from Thebes, not Memphis
  • followers of the god Amon
  • elevated to the rank of primary god
  • modern examples??

66
The Middle Kingdom
  • solidification of Egyptian borders
  • military garrisons on the borders
  • new office the vizier
  • separate administrations of Upper and Lower Egypt
  • suppression of the nobility rise of the middle
    class

67
The Middle Kingdom
  • decline with the Twelveth Dynasty
  • Pharaoh Sobekeneferu
  • beginning of the Second Intermediate

68
Second Intermediate Period
  • 1800-1570 B.C.
  • Thirteenth and Fourtheenth Dynasties
  • contemporaries
  • invasion by the Hyksos
  • Semitic peoples from Palestine
  • Hyksos dynasty by 1650 B.C. (Fifteenth Dynasty)

69
The New Kingdom
  • rise of the Seventeenth Dynasty
  • Thebes
  • beginning of the imperial period
  • reconquest of Egypt
  • We had to destroy this village to save it.

70
The New Kingdom
  • 1570-1150 B.C.
  • reaction to control by a foreign people
  • policy of planned aggression
  • create a buffer zone (cordon sanitare) in
    Palestine
  • any modern examples ???

71
The New Kingdom
  • more cosmopolitan
  • international trade
  • large, professional army
  • the usual bureaucracy

72
Imperialism 18th Dynasty
  • Thutmoses I
  • Hatshueput I
  • Thutmoses III
  • conquest of an Asian Empire
  • successor had problems

73
Akhenation the Amarna Revolution
  • worship of the Aton
  • the solar disk
  • elevated the worship of the Aton
  • suspended the worship of other gods
  • particularly Amon

74
Amarna Revolution Political Terms
  • struggle with the priests of Amon
  • innovation vs. conservative stagnation
  • monotheism ???

75
Lost of Empire
  • to Indo-European states
  • emerging in Asia Minor and other areas

76
King Tut
  • Pharaoh Tutankhaten succeeded Akhenaten
  • Restoration of the gods
  • Probably murdered by a guy named Ay
  • King Tut Video

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High Point
  • Nineteenth Dynasty
  • Rameses II
  • pharaoh of the Exodus ??
  • New Kingdom collapse
  • ca. 1150 B.C.
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