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Intro to Radiologic Technology (RADT A)

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* Individual Disciplines of Radiology * Radiography : ... Since its introduction in the late 1950 s ultrasonography has become a very useful diagnostic tool in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Intro to Radiologic Technology (RADT A)


1
Intro to Radiologic Technology (RADT A)
2
RTEC A INSTRUCTOR
  • MINA COLUNGA, B.S.,RT., C.R.T.
  • Instructor, minacolunga_at_yahoo.com or
    mcolunga_at_elcamino.edu
  • WEB page www.elcamino.edu/faculty/mcolunga

3
WHY CHOOSE RADIOGRAPHY?
4
Is this a safe profession?
  • Why do you want to do this?
  • Why are you taking this class?

5
Preconceived Ideas regarding the X-ray field
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  • What is x-rays?
  • X-rays are electromagnetic radiation with
    extremely short wavelengths. They can pass
    through many materials.

8
What is radiation?
  • Radiation transfer of energy through space or a
    material away from the source

9
Radiographic Terminology
  • Radiology- Medical specialty in which x-rays,
    radium, and radioactive substances are applied in
    the diagnosis and treatment of the patient
  • Diagnostic Imaging- Medical specialty in which
    x-rays, radium, radioactive substances, sound
    waves, and radio frequencies are applied in the
    diagnosis and treatment of the patient
  • Radiologist- Physician who applies any form of
    radiation in the diagnosis and treatment of
    disease.

10
Radiographic Terminology
  • Radiographer- Skilled person qualified by
    education to provide patient services using
    imaging modalities as directed by a physician
    qualified to order and/or perform radiographic
    procedures.
  • (X-ray Technologist)
  • Radiograph- a photographic record produced by
    x-rays through an object.

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  • Types of Radiation
  • Non-ionized Ionized ex radio
    ex x-rays, gamma

13
Electromagnetic Spectrum
14
History of Radiology
15
Historical Perspectives
  • November 8, 1895
  • Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered x-rays
  • German Physicist
  • University of Wurtzburg

16
  • Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895 - discovered
    x-rays
  • Working with Crookes vacuum tube
  • He found invisible rays were produced.
  • These new rays could go through skin and flesh
  • Give a picture of a person's bones.

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X-rays the Basic Radiological Tool
Röntgens experimental apparatus -Crookes tube
Taken 22 Dec. 1895
19
First Radiograph
  • Anna Bertha Röntgen
  • 30 minute exposure
  • .

20
Collaborative Events
  • Crookes tube
  • Air evacuated glass tube
  • Cathode side
  • Anode side
  • Electrical supply
  • Screen or board painted with barium
    platinocyanide
  • Low light work area

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Willie Röntgen
  • Honored in 1901 with the first Nobel prize in
    physics for his efforts.

23
In the beginning..
24
Early years in Radiologic Technology
  • Nurses or nurses aides taught how to take an
    x-ray
  • NO special education
  • Only ON THE JOB training
  • Experience the best teacher
  • The first Technologist is credited to be
  • EDWARD C. JERMAN.

25
An early therapy session
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In 30 years
  • Developed from a technical trade to one of a
    professionalism
  • Once thought that anyone could be trained to
    quickly push the buttons
  • To now where it is considered a profession that
    requires analytical thinking and problem solving

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  • X rays began to be used in industry and medicine
  • Years later, they noticed it can be harmful
  • They could be harmful to
  • living tissue
  • even cause cancer if the exposures were too
    great or too prolonged

31
Early signs of possible damage from Radiation
exposure
  • Skin dryness
  • Erythema
  • Ulcers formed

32
Acute Ulceration
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Radiologic Technologists
  • Practices
  • RADIATION SAFETY
  • TO SELF
  • AND
  • OTHERS

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HISTORY REVIEW
  • Who is this?

40
HISTORY REVIEW
  • Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

41
HISTORY REVIEW
  • What did he discover?

42
HISTORY REVIEW
  • He discovered x-rays

43
HISTORY REVIEW
  • What were the series of events that led to the
    discovery?

44
HISTORY REVIEW
  • Crookes tube
  • With electrical supply
  • 2) Screen coated with barium platinocyanide
  • 3) Low light area

45
Accreditation, Certification, Registration,
Licensing???
  • What is all that?

46
Accrediting Agencies for Schools (JRCs)
  • Joint Review Committee on Education in Diagnostic
    Medical Sonography (JRCDMS)
  • Joint Review Committee on Education in Nuclear
    Medicine Technology (JRCNMT)
  • Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic
    Technology

47
Individual Certification
  • Take an exam
  • Pay a fee
  • You then get registered
  • Nearly all hospitals require appropriate
    certifciation as a condition of employment.

48
National Registry Agencies
  • American Registty of Diagnostic Medical
    Sonographers (ARDMS)
  • American Registry of Radiologic Technologists
  • Nuclear Medicine Certification Board

49
State Licensing Agencies
  • Vary from state to state
  • List of individual state requirement can be
    obtained at www.arrt.org
  • Must provide proof of certification
  • Fill out paperwork
  • Pay a fee
  • Sometimes take an exam

50
Certification vs. License
  • ARRT
  • National certification
  • R.T.
  • Must take an exam
  • Pass with 75
  • Can take this after completing program
  • CRT
  • State Licensing
  • Must pass ARRT or other equivalent national exam
    to get this
  • Pay fee to get radiography license (R)
  • Take fluoroscopy exam and pay a fee for (F)
    license

51
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY
  • It covers all of our individual disciplines.

52
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY
  • Radiography
  • Mammography
  • Computed Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Quality Management
  • Sonography
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Bone Densitometry
  • Vascular Sonography
  • Breast Sonography
  • Cardiac Interventional Radiography
  • Vascular Interventional radiography
  • Radiologist Assistant
  • Nuclear Medicine

53
5 Primary Certifications
  •  Radiography (R)
  • Nuclear Medicine Technology (NM)
  • Radiation Therapy (T)
  • Sonography (US) (RDMS)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR)

54
Post Primary Certifications









  • Mammography (M)
  • Computed Tomography(CT)
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MR) or (MRI)
  • Note Both a primary and post-primary track
  • Quality Management (QM)
  • Cardiac-Interventional Radiography (CI)
  • Vascular-Interventional Radiography (VI)
  • Sonography (US) or (RDMS)
  • Note Both a primary and post-primary track
  • Vascular Sonography (VS)
  • Breast Sonography (BS)
  • Bone Densitometry (BD)
  • Registered Radiologist Assistant (RA)

55
MRI and Sonography are PRIMARY and POST PRIMARY
  • Can get formal education
  • On the job training
  • if you have a primary certification in
    radiography, nuclear medicine or radiation
    therapy
  • meet clinical requirements.

56
Individual Disciplines of Radiology
57
Radiography Primary Certification
  • Mina Colunga R.T. (R)
  • Mina Colunga Registered Technologist in the
    specialty of Radiography

58
RADIOGRAPHY
  • Diagnostic Radiology
  • Technologist
  • Radiographer
  • Technician (Limited Licensure)
  • Specializing in the use of x-rays to create
    images of the body including the skeletal
    system,chest and abdomen

59
Two Types of x-ray examinations
  • Radiography
  • Fluoroscopy

60
Fluoroscope
  • 1898 by Thomas Edison

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Types of Diagnostic Exams
  • Chest
  • Extremities
  • Skull/ Facial
  • Spine
  • Gastrointestinal
  • Interventional

63
All types of EXAMS
PEOPLE
  • Infants
  • Elderly
  • All classes
  • All ethnicity
  • All backgrounds
  • Head to toes
  • Trauma
  • Special procedures
  • Critical patients
  • Walk ins
  • Surgery

64
Uses Ionizing Radiation to create images of the
human body
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Flouroscopy- xrays in motion
68
Fluoroscopy
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Beyond Diagnostic Radiography
  1. Ultrasound (sonography)
  2. Angiography
  3. Computerized tomography (CT)
  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  6. Nuclear Medicine
  7. Mammography
  8. Radiation Therapy

74
Beyond Diagnostic Radiography
  1. Ultrasound (sonography)
  2. Angiography
  3. Computerized tomography (CT)
  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  5. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  6. Nuclear Medicine
  7. Mammography
  8. Radiation Therapy

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SALARY RANGES RTs
  • New R.T. (R) 23 -40 per hour
  • ON-CALL O.T. 48,000 83,000 YR
  • Advance disciplines
  • R.T. (CT), (T), (NM), (S), (M), etc
  • 30 - 50 PER HOUR

77
Bone Densitometry (BD) Post primary
certification
  • 1) Must have primary certification in
    radiography, nuclear medicine or radiation
    therapy
  • 2) Meet clinical requirements

78
Bone Densitometry- measures mineral content and
density of bones
79
Low Doses of Radiation


80
Career in Radiography
  • Ultrasound (sonography)
  • --uses high frequency sound waves

81
Ultrasound beam is transmitted and reflected
as special crystal at the end of the transducer
can determine the type of tissue
Determines depth
82
Uses SOUND WAVES (NOT X-RAYS)
real time images
83
ULTRASOUND
uses a technique similar to Navy SONAR to produce
diagnostic images.
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U/S the real thing
88
Vascular Sonography
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Angiography
93
ANGIOGRAPHY is a specialized radiographic
examination where the images of the blood
vessels of the body are demonstrated by
injection of contrast media
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SUB SPECIALITY IN ANGIOGRAPHY
  • Cardiovascular Interventional Technology
  • Vascular Interventional Technology
  • Must have certification in diagnostic radiography
    in order to be trained and certified in these
    special procedures.

96
Cardiac Interventional Radiography (CI)- Primary
certification
  • Mike Smith, RT (R) (CI)
  • Must have primary certification in radiography
  • 2) Meet clinical requirements

97
Vascular Interventional Radiography (VI)- Post
primary certification
  • JOE CAR, RT (R) (VI)
  • Must have primary certification in radiography
  • Meet clinical requirements

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100
A medical imaging technique using x-ray and
contrast agent to visualize the inside of blood
vessels and organs of the body.
  • Angiogram

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103
Also known as CT, Cat Scans
  • Computed Tomography

104
Computed Tomography
  • Uses ionized radiation to obtain cross sectional
    images
  • Designated by CT
  • Jennifer Smith, R.T. (R) (CT)
  • Must have primary certification in radiography,
    nuclear medicine or radiation therapy
  • Meet clinical requirements

105
Computed Tomography
  • Able to do 3D reconstruction

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MRI
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging

108
MRI SIGNAL PRODUCTION
  • Uses
  • Magnet field
  • radio waves

109
  • MRI
  • Uses magnetic and radio waves to create images
  • Can be whole body or cross sectional
  • Designated by MRI
  • Jeremy Assef, R.T., CRT, (MRI)

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Which one is MRI? CT?
114
Look for the signs.
115
What are the differences between MRI and CT?
  • CT
  • MRI
  • Uses magnets and radiowaves
  • Cannot be used on patients who have metal in
    their body
  • Slow
  • Uses ionizing radiation
  • Can be used on any patient
  • Fast

116
Which is better?
117
What are the similarities between CT and MRI?
118
  • Nuclear Medicine

119
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Uses radioactive isotopes to produce images
  • Radiation comes from within the patient
  • Primary or Post primary certification

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  • PET scan

122
  • Mammography

123
  • Mammography
  • Breast imaging using ionized radiation

124
Radiation Therapy
  • Medical dosimetrists are involved in treatment
    planning and dose calculations
  • 1-4 year program

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  • Radiation therapy

128
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Involved the treatment of diseases
  • Use high level of ionized radiation (megavolt) to
    kill cancerous cells
  • Primary certification

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Additional Opportunities
  • Education
  • Administration
  • Management (QM)
  • Commercial
  • Radiologist Assistant RA
  • Sales
  • Application specialist

131
Radiologist Assistant (RA)
  • Still not widely accepted
  • Must have a primary certification in radiography
  • Must meet clinical requirements

132
TRAVELING TECHNOLOGIST SEE THE WORLD AND GET

133
Other working opportunities
  • Registry (local)
  • Registry (out of state)
  • X rays taken around the world !!

134
Variety of Work Settings
  • physicians offices,
  • clinical outpatient facilities,
  • free standing imaging centers,
  • mobile imaging centers
  • portable services to rehabs
  • Mammos to under privileged areas
  • Urgent care

135
RA
  • Radiology Assistant (Like PA)
  • LLU
  • PART OF RADIOLOGIST GROUP
  • Still not widely accepted

136
Questions ?
  • Diagnostic Imaging Modalities
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