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TDC 564 Local Area Networks Lecture 8 IP-based Storage Area Network

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TDC 564 Local Area Networks Lecture 8 IP-based Storage Area Network * TDC564-08 11/05/07 * * * * IOGen Test (Emulation of Database) 11/05/07 * TDC564-08 11/05/07 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TDC 564 Local Area Networks Lecture 8 IP-based Storage Area Network


1
TDC 564Local Area Networks Lecture 8IP-based
Storage Area Network
2
Course Outline
  • IP over FC (RFC 2625)
  • IP-SAN
  • iSCCI (RFC 3720)
  • IP and FC-SAN Interworking
  • FC Encapsulation (RFC 3643)
  • FCIP (RFC 3821) FC over IP
  • iFCP (RFC 4172)

3
RFC 2625 IP and ARP over FC
  • FC supports multiple higher layer protocols, and
    SCSI is the most widely used one.
  • Needs/Applications of IP over FC
  • Access data in SAN from IP-based servers
  • interworking between NAS and SAN
  • RFC 2625 addresses two issues.
  • A scheme to encapsulate IP and ARP packets inside
    the FC frame (as the FC payload)
  • A procedure to resolve the address mapping

4
IP over FC (RFC 2625)App-1 accessing SAN from
IP-based servers
FC-based Storage Device
FC/IP Gateway
Data
Data
IP
IP
IP
IP
L2
L2
RFC 2625
RFC 2625
PHY
PHY
FC
FC
FC
5
IP over FC (RFC 2625)(App-2 interworking
between SAN and NAS)
NAS-based Storage Device
FC/IP Gateway
FC/IP Gateway
Data
Data
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
IP
L2
L2
RFC 2625
RFC 2625
L2
L2
PHY
PHY
FC
FC
FC
PHY
PHY
6
FC Address Resolution
  • Three steps schemes
  • ARP - IP to MAC
  • MAC gt World-Wide Port Name (WW_PN)
  • FC-ARP - WW_PN gt Port_ID
  • Optional Header is used for Network Header by RFC
    2625

D_NAA (4)
Dst. Network Address (60)
16 bytes
S_NAA (4)
Src. Network Address (60)
Format of Network Header
NAA Network Address Authority
unused (12 bits)
IEEE 802.3 MAC Address (48 bits)
Format of Network Address (WW_PN)
7
RFC 2625 IP and ARP over FC (1)
ARP Request (broadcast) - Sender HW (MAC) Address
HW(A) - Sender IP Address IP(A) - Target HW
(MAC) Address ?? - Target IP Address IP(B)
A
FC SAN
FC switch
C
B
D
8
RFC 2625 IP and ARP over FC (2)
ARP Reply (unicast) - Sender HW (MAC) Address
HW(B) - Sender IP Address IP(B) - Target HW
(MAC) Address HW(A) - Target IP Address IP(A)
A
C
B
D
9
RFC 2625 IP and ARP over FC (3)
FC-ARP Request - Requester N_Port_Name (WW_PN) -
Requester N_Port_ID - Responder N_Port_Name
(WW_PN) - Responder N_Port_ID ??
A
C
B
D
unused (12 bits)
IEEE 802.3 MAC Address (48 bits)
WW_PN
10
RFC 2625 IP and ARP over FC (4)
FC-ARP Reply - Requester N_Port_Name - Requester
N_Port_ID - Responder N_Port_Name - Responder
N_Port_ID
A
C
B
D
11
Advantages of IP for SAN
12
IP Network Capabilities
13
IP-SAN Protocols
14
IP - SAN
Storage Devices
15
IP - Storage Area Network (SAN)
  • IP storage networking carrying storage traffic
    over IP
  • Uses TCP, a reliable transport for delivery
  • Can be used for local data center and long haul
    applications
  • Two primary IETF protocols/standards
  • iSCSI Internet SCSI allows block storage to
    be accessed over a TCP/IP network as though it
    were locally attached
  • FCIP Fibre-Channel-over-IP used to tunnel
    Fibre Channel frames over TCP/IP connections

IP
TCP
iSCSI
SCSI
Data
IP
TCP
FCIP
FC
SCSI
Data
16
Internet SCSI (iSCSI)
  • iSCSI is a proposed industry standard that allows
    SCSI block I/O protocols (commands, sequences,
    and attributes) to be sent over a network using
    the popular TCP/IP protocol.
  • A way to access storage across an IP network as
    though it was locally attached.
  • Transports SCSI protocol commands and data across
    an IP network
  • Cisco and IBM co-authored original iSCSI protocol
    draft
  • iSCSI Protocol is a standard maintained by the
    IETF
  • IP Storage (IPS) Working Group
  • RFC 3720

17
iSCSI
18
iSCSI over TCP/IP
SCSI Command
Command
Data
Command
Data
TCP Header
TCP Payload
19
iSCSI Applications
  • Connectivity iSCSI can be used for DAS or SAN
    connections.
  • iSCSI capable devices could be placed on an
    existing LAN (shared with other applications) in
    a similar way to NAS devices.
  • iSCSI capable devices could be attached to a LAN
    which is dedicated to storage I/O (in other words
    an IP SAN), or even on a LAN connected to only
    one processor (like a DAS).

20
iSCSI Protocol Stack
iSCSI TCP Offload Engine (TOE)
iSCSI Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
Software iSCSI
Data
Data
Data
Host Processing
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
iSCSI
iSCSI
TCP
Driver
IP
Driver
iSCSI
TCP
TCP
Adapter Card
Driver
IP
IP
Ethernet
Ethernet
Ethernet
PHY
PHY
PHY
Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
21
iSCSI Performance Consideration
22
iSCSI Benefit
23
Host Bus Adapter (Fibre Channel)
QLogic PCI-EXPRESS 4Gb 1PT Fibre Host Bus Adapter
STD FW   PCI-Express    1 Port (Fibre
Channel)   Data Rate 4Gb   Standard
Firmware Price Quote 951 Source
http//www.cdw.com
11/05/07
23
TDC564-08
24
Host Bus Adapter (iSCSI)
The QLE4060C iSCSI Host Bus Adapter (HBA)
provides connectivity to SANs over Ethernet and
TCP/IP network infrastructures for PCI Express
bus-based servers. Using a widely deployed and
familiar networking technology, iSCSI can lower
the total cost of ownership to better manage and
support storage networking. Source
http//www.cdw.org Price quote 815
10/100/1000BaseT PCI
25
iSCSI Storage
Promise Technology VTrak M-Class iSCSI RAID Price
quote 4,929 Source //www.cdw.com Network
Gigabit Ethernet (2) Protocol TCP/IP,
iSCSI Capacity 16-drive bay (500G 1TB per
drive)
26
iSCSI Application
Data
Data
SCSI
SCSI
SCSI
iSCSI
iSCSI
FCP
FCP
TCP
TCP
FC 0-2
FC 0-2
IP
IP
Storage Device
Layer2
Layer2
iSCSI Gateway
PHY
PHY
Server
Cisco iSCSI Configuration Example
27
Multi-TCP Sessions
28
HBA Multi-Path I/O
LUN Logical Storage Units
29
HBA iSCSI vs. Software iSCSI
  • No performance advantage of using iSCSI HBA
  • Throughput
  • Round trip time
  • Significantly higher cost of iSCSI HBA
  • 800 vs. 100 (Server NIC)
  • What are the advantages of iSCSI HBA?
  • Answer CPU Utilization (off-load)
  • Reference http//download.intel.com/network/conne
    ctivity/products/iSCSIcomp0407.pdf

30
Is IP-SAN similar to NAS?
  • What are the advantages, if any, of IP-SAN vs.
    NAS?

31
Performance Analysis iSCSI vs. NAS(software
based no HBA)
iSCSI
NFS
http//technomagesinc.com/pdf/ip_paper.pdf
32
Sequential Read/Write Tests
  • Conclusion
  • Comparable performance in character read/write
    and block write
  • Significant advantage of iSCSI in block read
    (20-25)

33
Small Files Read/Write
34
IOGen Test (Emulation of Database)
35
FC-SAN vs. iSCSI
  • Since the iSCSI appliance attaches to the
    existing Ethernet network, NAS and iSCSI are very
    similar in network architecture
  • However, the performance would be significantly
    different.
  • Both iSCSI and SAN use Block I/O to transport
    data, whereas NAS uses File I/O.
  • SAN offers better performance (c.f. NAS), but is
    more expensive and requires a higher skill set to
    implement. iSCSI and NAS offer better pricing and
    skills may already be in place to implement them.
  • Both SAN and iSCSI offer the performance benefit
    of Block I/O.

36
Case Study FC-SAN vs. iSCSI
http//www.promise.com/marketing/whitepaper/file/2
_MClass-iSCSI20SCSI20and20Fibre-10-07-05.pdf
37
? 4G bps
38
FC over IP
  • The encapsulation of Fibre Channel frames into IP
    packets and tunneled through an existing TCP/IP
    network infrastructure, in order to connect
    remote islands of FC-based SANs

39
FC Frame Encapsulation (RFC 3643)
  • Describes the common Fibre Channel (FC) frame
    encapsulation format and a procedure for the
    measurement and calculation of frame transit time
    through the IP network

Encapsulation Header
SOF
FC Frame Body
EOF
40
FC Encapsulation Header
Q Why is time stamp needed in the FC
encapsulation header?
41
FC Encapsulation
42
FCIP (RFC 3821)
Fibre Channel Over TCP/IP (FCIP) describes
mechanisms that allow the interconnection of
islands of Fibre Channel storage area networks
over IP-based networks to form a unified storage
area network in a single Fibre Channel fabric
43
FCIP Protocol Stacks
44
FC over IP
an IP tunnel for FC-based SAN Application
interconnect SAN over IP-WAN.
Data
Data
SCSI
SCSI
FCIP
FCP
FCP
FCIP
FCP
FCP
FC 0-2
FC 0-2
TCP
TCP
FC 0-2
FC 0-2
IP
IP
IP
L2
L2
L2
PHY
PHY
PHY
45
FCIP Configuration Example
46
Internet Fiber Channel Protocol (iFCP)
  • iFCP RFC 4172 (Sept. 2005)
  • iFCP is a protocol that uses the FCP over IP
    networks to interconnect FC-based storage
    devices.
  • It is considered a gateway protocol, while FCIP
    is considered a tunnel protocol.

47
iFCP (RFC 4172)
  • iFCP specifies an architecture and a
    gateway-to-gateway protocol for the
    implementation of fibre channel fabric
    functionality over an IP network.
  • This functionality is provided through TCP
    protocols for fibre channel frame transport and
    the distributed fabric services specified by the
    fibre channel standards.
  • The architecture enables internetworking of fibre
    channel devices through gateway-accessed regions
    with the fault isolation properties of autonomous
    systems and the scalability of the IP network

48
iFCP Network Example
49
iFCP (RFC 4172)
F-port
F-port
iFCP GW
iFCP GW
Gateway approach Application interconnect SAN
over IP-WAN.
Data
Data
SCSI
SCSI
FCP
FCP
FCP
FCP
FC 0-2
FC 0-2
FC 0-2
FC 0-2
iFCP
iFCP
TCP
TCP
IP
IP
IP
L2
L2
L2
PHY
PHY
PHY
11/05/07
49
TDC564-08
50
iFCP
51
FCIP vs. iFCP
http//whatis.techtarget.com/magPrintFriendly/0,29
3813,sid35_gci1096482,00.html
52
FCIP vs. iFCP
McDATA
53
SAN Performance Comparison
http//www.netapp.com/library/tr/3423.pdf
54
Summary
  • Needs for large storage continual growth
  • 109 (G) gt 1012 (T) gt 1015 (P) gt 1018 (E) .
  • From dedicated solution to network-based solution
  • DAS gt NAS gt SAN gt IP-SAN
  • Convergence of SAN and IP-LAN/WAN
  • It is an IP world!
  • SCSI is the protocol for block data transmission
  • SCSI over FC
  • SCSI over IP (iSCSI)
  • FC and IP interworking protocols
  • IP over FC
  • FC over IP (FCIP) and iFCP
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