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The Environmental Impacts of Tourism

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More responsible tourism practice Greater consumer awareness National waste management initiative International awareness Long-term vision Questions & Comments The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Environmental Impacts of Tourism


1
The Environmental Impacts of Tourism
  • The Heritage Environmental Rating Programme

2
  • any person that spends more than one night
    away from their place of residence.
  • UN World Tourism Organisation

3
The Types of Impact from Tourism
  • Environmental
  • Socio Cultural
  • Economic

4
Environmental Impacts
5
The Global Eco-Impacts of Tourism
  • Loss of Biological Diversity
  • Excessive land use leads to impacts on
    vegetation wildlife mountain, marine and
    coastal environments.
  • Introduction of exotic species
  • Depletion of the Ozone Layer
  • Refrigerants propellants air travel
  • By 2015, half of annual Ozone destruction will be
    from air travel
  • Climate Change
  • Tourism accounts for 50 of traffic movements
    worldwide
  • Air traffic accounts for 2.5 of CO² production
  • 594 million travelers in 1996 1.6 billion by
    2020

6
National Eco-Impacts of Tourism
  • Depletion of Natural Resources-
  • Water Resources
  • Local Resources
  • Land degradation
  • Pollution-
  • Air pollution and noise
  • Solid waste and littering
  • Sewage
  • Aesthetic pollution
  • Physical Impacts-
  • Construction and Infrastructure Development
  • Deforestation and unsustainable use of land
  • Marina developments

7
South African Tourism Statistics
  • Tourism arrivals 2005/6 7.2 million
  • Tourism growth expectations 8.25 p.a.
  • Main tourist attractions
  • Cape Town and Robben Island
  • Garden Route
  • Johannesburg
  • Kruger National Park
  • Average stay per visitor in 2006 2.6 days
  • Number of accommodation establishments 23 000

8
Significant Sites and Locations
  • World Heritage Sites
  • Cradle of Mankind Gauteng
  • Greater St Lucia Wetland Park KZN
  • Robben Island Western Cape
  • Drakensberg Park KZN
  • Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape Limpopo
  • Cape Floral Kingdom Western Cape
  • Vredefort Dome Free State
  • Other Sites of Significance in South Africa
  • Bo-Kaap Tsitsikama Route Namaqualand Aliwal
    Shoal Wild Coast Pondoland Kalahari National
    Park Lowveld Escarpment SA National Parks

9
South Africa and Mass Tourism
  • Robben Island A Case Study
  • Visitor numbers increased from 9000 in 1996 to
    over 360 000 in 2003
  • Environmental degradation included
  • Collapse of sewage and water systems
  • Species destruction from uncontrolled access
  • Waste and litter increase
  • Energy consumption and resultant contamination
  • Poor environmental control and introduction of
    alien species
  • Infrastructure development in conflict with EIA

10
The Hidden Cost of Tourism
  • Every visitor uses or creates
  • 450 litres of water
  • 75 kw of power
  • 4kg of waste
  • 120kg of CO²
  • Every Day

The Hidden Cost of tourism to South Africa in
2005/6 R1,82 billion
11
Emissions
  • High Altitude Emissions
  • Less than 30 of arrivals are by air.
  • Internal air travel 47
  • Vehicle and Fossil Fuel Impacts
  • Energy-related impacts per person of 75kg CO²
  • Travel-related impacts of 120kg o CO² per day
  • Other Impacts
  • Coal fires braais heating food preparation etc

12
Resources
  • Water
  • Increased consumption from visitors to areas
  • Increased use for aesthetic purposes
  • Higher wastage through operational activities
  • Land
  • Land-use changes affecting agricultural
    performance
  • Restriction on movement
  • Alienation
  • Solid Waste
  • Higher waste levels from operational activities
  • Unrestricted and mismanaged dumping
  • Groundwater contamination
  • Sewage

13
Physical Impacts
  • Construction and Infrastructure Development
  • Deforestation and Unsustainable Use
  • Marina and Jetty Development
  • Other
  • Trampling
  • Anchoring and marine activities
  • Ecosystem change

14
South Africa 2010
  • An estimated 400 000 fans
  • Direct Impacts
  • 2.5 billion litres of water
  • 420 000 megawatts of power
  • 23 000 tons of waste
  • 180 000 tons of CO² through travel
  • National Long-term Impacts
  • Winter period of high domestic demand
  • Long-term ecological and environmental impacts
  • Community and heritage impacts?

15
The Future?
  • More responsible tourism practice
  • Greater consumer awareness
  • National waste management initiative
  • International awareness
  • Long-term vision

16
Questions Comments
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