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Title: Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension,


1
Literature Survey, Literature Comprehension,
Literature Review
2
Thesis Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction
3
Thesis Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Literature Review
4
Thesis Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Literature Review
Chapter 3. Design
5
Thesis Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Literature Review
Chapter 3. Design
Chapter 4. Development
6
Thesis Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Literature Review
Chapter 5. Evaluation
Chapter 3. Design
Chapter 4. Development
7
Thesis Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work
Chapter 2. Literature Review
Chapter 5. Evaluation
Chapter 3. Design
Chapter 4. Development
8
Thesis Structure
  • Consider these as logical chapters, that is to
    say they might represent a number of physical
    chapters or a single section
  • For example, Chapter 2, the Literature Review
    chapter might consist of a chapter on Knowledge
    Management, a separate chapter on Knowledge
    Elicitation
  • Or for example, Chapter 5, the Evaluation
    Chapter might just exist as a section in the
    Conclusions and Future Work chapter.

9
Thesis Structure
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work
Chapter 2. Literature Review
Chapter 5. Evaluation
Chapter 3. Design
Chapter 4. Development
10
Mirroring of Chapters
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work
Chapter 2. Literature Review
Chapter 5. Evaluation
Chapter 3. Design
Chapter 4. Development
11
Mirroring of Chapters
  • All of the main points raised in the Introduction
    chapter should be addressed in the Conclusions
    chapter.
  • All of the main sections in the Research Method
    (or Design) chapter should appear in the Data
    Analysis (or Experiment) chapter.
  • All of the main sections in the Literature Review
    chapter should be re-discussed in the Data
    Findings (or Reflections) chapter.

12
Introduction to Literature
13
Introduction
  • Finding out what is happening in your area of
    research is a vital step along your journey to
    discovery, to find and understand how leading
    researchers in your field have tackled similar
    problems and the results they obtained,
    shortcomings they observed and methodologies they
    employed are the goals of the literature review
    process.

14
Introduction
  • Additionally the literature reviews serves other
    purposes
  • It shares the reader with other studies closely
    related to your work
  • It relates your work to the larger, ongoing
    dialogue in the literature
  • It shows how your study is filling in gaps and
    extending prior studies.
  • It provides a framework for establishing the
    importance of your study
  • It provides a benchmark for comparing the results
    of your study with other findings

15
Introduction
  • ...in other words...

16
Introduction
  • ...the literature review...

17
Introduction
  • ...is really, really important.

18
2D Analysis
  • The objective of this process is to
    systematically analyse the existing research and
    classify it in one of two dimensions.
  • The breadth of the review is concerned with
    setting the scene, in terms of describing the
    foundational research in this particular domain,
    there will be research mentioned from each of the
    areas you have included in your spider diagram.
  • The depth of the research concerns itself with
    the particular topic work that your research will
    be built upon. There should be approximately the
    same number of research papers covered in the
    depth and breath of the research review.

19
Examples
  • Lets look at three examples
  • Knowledge Management
  • Information Technology
  • Assistive Technology

20
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
Depth of Research
21
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
22
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
23
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Web 2.0
Knowledge Sharing
Agile Methods
Elicitation
Knowledge Maps
Decision Support
24
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Web 2.0
Knowledge Sharing
Agile Methods
Elicitation
Knowledge Maps
Decision Support
Breadth of Domain
25
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Web 2.0
Knowledge Sharing
Agile Methods
Elicitation
Knowledge Maps
Decision Support
Breadth of Domain
Indicate your awareness of the broader field, and
you know where your specific topic fits into the
domain
26
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Probst
Nonaka
Ruggles
Bhatt
Davenport
Eppler
Wiig
Prusak
Gurteen
27
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
Depth of Research
28
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Web 2.0
29
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Probst
Nonaka
Ruggles
Bhatt
Davenport
Eppler
Wiig
Prusak
Gurteen
Web 2.0
30
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Probst
Nonaka
Ruggles
Bhatt
Davenport
Eppler
Wiig
Prusak
Gurteen
OReilly
McAfee
Miller
Web 2.0
Eggers
Knorr
Grossman
31
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Web 2.0
32
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Knowledge Sharing
33
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Knowledge Maps
34
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Elicitation
35
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Agile Methods
36
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Decision Support
37
Knowledge Management Example
Knowledge Management
Web 2.0
Knowledge Sharing
Agile Methods
Elicitation
Knowledge Maps
Decision Support
38
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
39
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
40
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Databases
Computer Architecture
Networks
Assistive Technology
Image Synthesis
Agent Development
41
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Databases
Computer Architecture
Networks
Assistive Technology
Image Synthesis
Agent Development
Breadth of Domain
42
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Databases
Computer Architecture
Networks
Assistive Technology
Image Synthesis
Agent Development
Breadth of Domain
Indicate your awareness of the broader field, and
you know where your specific topic fits into the
domain
43
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Knuth
Wirth
Hoare
Naur
von Neumann
Dijkstra
Turing
Moore
Boehm
44
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Databases
45
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Knuth
Wirth
Hoare
Naur
von Neumann
Dijkstra
Turing
Moore
Boehm
Databases
46
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Knuth
Wirth
Hoare
Naur
von Neumann
Dijkstra
Turing
Moore
Boehm
Date
Codd
Gray
Databases
Boyce
Pipes
Epstein
47
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Databases
48
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Image Synthesis
49
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Networks
50
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Agent Development
51
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Comp Architecture
52
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Assistive Tech
53
Information Technology Example
Information Technology
Databases
Comp Architecture
Networks
Assistive Tech
Image Synthesis
Agent Development
54
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
55
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
56
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Universal Design
Accessibility
Usability
AAC
Hardware
MPT
57
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Universal Design
Accessibility
Usability
AAC
Hardware
MPT
Breadth of Domain
58
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Universal Design
Accessibility
Usability
AAC
Hardware
MPT
Breadth of Domain
Indicate your awareness of the broader field, and
you know where your specific topic fits into the
domain
59
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Schaff
Lahm
Meyer
Lee
Scherer
Rose
Cain
Swann
Adlam
60
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Universal Design
61
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Schaff
Lahm
Meyer
Lee
Scherer
Rose
Cain
Swann
Adlam
Universal Design
62
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Schaff
Lahm
Meyer
Lee
Scherer
Rose
Cain
Swann
Adlam
Mace
Story
Ostroff
Universal Design
Mueller
Dolan
Preiser
63
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Universal Design
64
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Hardware
65
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Usability
66
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
MPT
67
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Accessibility
68
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
AAC
69
Assistive Technology Example
Assistive Technology
Universal Design
Accessibility
Usability
AAC
Hardware
MPT
70
The Literature Review
  • To made things clear, we divide the Literature
    Review into three parts

71
The Literature Review
  • To made things clear, we divide the Literature
    Review into three parts

Literature Survey
72
The Literature Review
  • To made things clear, we divide the Literature
    Review into three parts

Literature Survey
Literature Comprehension
73
The Literature Review
  • To made things clear, we divide the Literature
    Review into three parts

Literature Survey
Literature Comprehension
Literature Review
74
The Literature Review
  • To made things clear, we divide the Literature
    Review into three parts

Literature Survey
Collecting the literature
Literature Comprehension
Literature Review
75
The Literature Review
  • To made things clear, we divide the Literature
    Review into three parts

Literature Survey
Collecting the literature
Literature Comprehension
Understanding the literature
Literature Review
76
The Literature Review
  • To made things clear, we divide the Literature
    Review into three parts

Literature Survey
Collecting the literature
Literature Comprehension
Understanding the literature
Literature Review
Reviewing the literature
77
The Literature Survey
78
Literature Survey
  • The literature survey is the process of
    identifying and acquiring the research papers,
    textbooks, web-sites, theses, etc. that you will
    require to get a comprehensive overview of the
    research that has been done in the area that you
    are investigating.
  • A focused survey technique is recommended to
    ensure you hit the ground running and using
    this technique you are almost immediately in a
    position to implement experiments.

79
Literature Survey
  • Recording the papers you have found and read is
    also of vital importance, and techniques and
    software available for these tasks are also
    covered in this section.
  • If you know the exact domain of your research it
    makes sense to initially focus your search on
    papers that relate (almost) exactly to your own
    research, rather than spending a great deal of
    time reading every paper under the sun that seems
    remotely relevant.

80
Literature Survey
  • A vital step is to identify

KEYWORDS
81
Literature Survey
  • e.g. you are doing research on Communities of
    practice
  • What other keywords do we need to look out for?

82
Literature Survey
  • e.g. you are doing research on Communities of
    practice
  • What other keywords do we need to look out for?
  • Network of practice
  • Virtual community
  • Virtual Ethnography
  • Virtual team
  • Community-driven knowledge management

83
Literature Survey
  • You need to get a notebook that you carry with
    you, and list all the keywords in there.
  • Use that to record ideas you have about your
    research.
  • Use it to record details of meetings with your
    supervisor.
  • Insert any useful newspaper articles, pictures,
    etc. that help.

84
Literature Survey
  • Using these keywords, go to the library and go
    online and look for journal papers, books,
    conference papers, etc. that are relevant.
  • Just using Google is insufficient, you need to
    search in the real world as well.

85
Literature Survey
  • What does peer-reviewed mean?
  • When you submit a research paper, a number of
    people will read the paper and give
    feedback/corrections on it.
  • The people who review it will be as expert as you
    are in the field of research (and as such are
    your peers).
  • Some conferences only get one person to review a
    paper, others get two, others more the more
    people that review conference papers, the more
    prestigious the conference is, since the papers
    in it are bound to be of very quality.
  • Journal papers are normally reviewed by several
    people, and are considered very credible.

86
Good Sources ?
  • Journal Papers
  • Conference Papers
  • Textbooks
  • Other Books
  • Company Whitepapers
  • Company Websites
  • Blogs
  • Wikis

Credibility
87
Literature Survey
  • What are some good journals?

88
Who are ACM ?
  • The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM,
    is a learned society for computing. It was
    founded in 1947 as the world's first scientific
    and educational computing society. Its membership
    is more than 92,000 as of 2009. ACM is organized
    into over 170 local chapters and 35 Special
    Interest Groups (SIGs), through which it conducts
    most of its activities. Many of the SIGs, like
    SIGGRAPH, SIGPLAN, SIGCSE and SIGCOMM, sponsor
    regular conferences which have become famous as
    the dominant venue for presenting new innovations
    in certain fields. The groups also publish a
    large number of specialized journals, magazines,
    and newsletters.

89
ACM SIGs
  • SIGACCESS - Accessible Computing
  • SIGACT - Algorithms and Computation Theory
  • SIGAda - Ada Programming Language
  • SIGAPP - Applied Computing
  • SIGARCH - Computer Architecture
  • SIGART - Artificial Intelligence
  • SIGBED - Embedded Systems
  • SIGCAS - Computers and Society
  • SIGCHI - Computer-Human Interaction
  • SIGCOMM - Data Communication
  • SIGCSE - Computer Science Education
  • SIGDA - Design Automation
  • SIGDOC - Design of Communication
  • SIGecom - Electronic Commerce
  • SIGEVO - Genetic and Evolutionary Computation
  • SIGGRAPH - Computer Graphics and Interactive
    Techniques
  • SIGIR - Information Retrieval
  • SIGITE - Information Technology Education
  • SIGKDD - Knowledge Discovery in Data
  • SIGMETRICS - Measurement and Evaluation
  • SIGMICRO - Microarchitecture
  • SIGMIS - Management Information Systems
  • SIGMM - Multimedia
  • SIGMOBILE - Mobility of Systems, Users, Data and
    Computing
  • SIGMOD - Management of Data
  • SIGOPS - Operating Systems
  • SIGPLAN - Programming Languages
  • SIGSAC - Security, Audit and Control
  • SIGSAM - Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation
  • SIGSIM - Simulation and Modeling
  • SIGSOFT - Software Engineering
  • SIGSPATIAL - SIGSPATIAL
  • SIGUCCS - University and College Computing
    Services
  • SIGWEB - Hypertext, Hypermedia and Web

90
Who else ?
  • Another significant group are IEEE
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics
    Engineers) called eye-triple-e is a
    professional organization for the advancement of
    technology, it also publishes a number journals,
  • including IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data
    Engineering

91
IEEE Transactions
  • IEEE Computational intelligence and AI
  • IEEE Transactions on Computers
  • IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure
    Computing
  • IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data
    Engineering
  • IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed
    Systems
  • IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
    Intelligence
  • IEEE Transactions on Services Computing
  • IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
  • IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer
    Graphics
  • IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing
  • IEEE Transactions on Haptics
  • IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in
    Biomedicine
  • IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
  • IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
  • IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
  • IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
  • IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration
    (VLSI) Systems
  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology
    and Bioinformatics
  • IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking

92
Literature Survey
  • And any good research sites ?

93
Google Scholar
94
http//arxiv.org/archive/cs
95
WebLenshttp//www.weblens.org/scholar.html
96
INFOMINE
97
DBLP
98
Gartner
99
Literature Survey
  • Searching the Web

100
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106
Literature Survey
  • But remember
  • If you just search for Community of practice
    you will miss out on
  • Network of practice
  • Virtual community
  • Virtual Ethnography
  • Virtual team
  • Community-driven knowledge management

107
acronyms
single-concept principle
pseudo-synonyms, or false synonyms
antonyms
hyponyms
neologisms
phraseologism
PROBLEMS WITH USING A SEARCH ENGINE AS THE SOLE
SOURCE OF INFORMATION
quasi-synonyms, or near-synonyms
hypernyms
Cross- references
collocation
monosemy
synonyms
tautonyms
polysemy
abbreviations
108
Finding Research online
  • Effective Searching
  • Let us consider searching for information
    relating to 'Project-Based Learning'
  • The Hyphen
  • The first thing to note is the hyphen between the
    words 'Project' and 'Based', will every web-page
    relating to this subject have the hyphen in it,
    or will some just leave it out. If you just leave
    it out the search engines will find the phrase
    with or without the hyphen.

109
Finding Research online
  • So the first search to try is
  • "Project Based Learning"
  • if this returns 10,000 links then try
  • "Project Based Learning" "PhD Thesis"
  • "Project Based Learning" "Masters Thesis
  • Project Based Learning Masters Thesis
    Declaration
  • this may return PhD or Masters thesis on the
    subject you require information on.

110
Finding Research online
  • To find other 'good' pages relating to your
    subject matter, try
  • "Project Based Learning Link"
  • for "PBL Links" or "PBL Link Page"
  • "Project Based Learning Portal"
  • for "PBL Portal" or "PBL Portal Page"
  • "Project Based Learning Webring"
  • for "PBL Webring" or "PBL Webrings"
  • "Project Based Learning FAQ"
  • for "PBL FAQ"or "PBL FAQs" or "PBL FAQL"or "PBL
    FAQLs"

111
Finding Research online
  • If you are looking for papers relating to
    "Project Based Learning", try
  • "Project Based Learning" Bibliography
  • "Project Based Learning" Literature Review
  • "Project Based Learning" Literature Survey
  • "Project Based Learning" Overview
  • "Project Based Learning" A Roadmap
  • Unlike the previous section where we were looking
    for 'good' pages and put the entire phrase in
    double quotes, in this section we are only
    putting the subject matter we are investigating
    in quotes and the rest of the terms are free
    text, in this way we can find pages which may not
    be titled, for example, "Project Based Learning
    Bibliography", but may be a bibliography which
    contain references to Project Based Learning.

112
Finding Research online
  • If you are looking for a more specific topic, for
    example, "The Impact of the Web on Project Based
    Learning", try
  • "Impact of the Web on Project Based Learning"
    (unlikely)
  • "Project Based Learning" overview web
  • "Project Based Learning" survey web
  • "Project Based Learning" review web
  • "Project Based Learning" assessment web

113
Finding Research online
  • Also consider web-sites which will be using the
    acronym for "Project Based Learning"
  • so try
  • "PBL"
  • "P.B.L."
  • Consider the acronym for "Virtual Learning
    Environments", it could be "VLE"or "VLEs"or
    "V.L.E."or "V.L.E.s"or "V.L.Es", so try
  • "VLE"
  • "V.L.E"

114
Literature Survey
  • Here is a good tip

115
Literature Survey
  • Find an up-to-date thesis that is closely related
    to your research question (your supervisor should
    be able to help you with this, if not, search the
    web) and use this as a launch pad to your
    research This is a very useful starting point
    since it will give you an immediate overview of
    your research field.

116
Some Considerations When Using A Thesis As A
Starting Point
  • Regional Variations Different countries,
    different regions and even different universities
    have differing standards for their dissertations,
    so, whilst the dissertation is a useful starting
    point, it can only be considered as such, and is
    not a template for your own work.
  • Correspondence of Research The dissertation
    that you are using should have a significant
    overlap with your own research, but there are
    bound to be differences, therefore, your own
    literature review will be very different to the
    one you have found, since yours is aimed at
    highlighting the gap that you wish to address.
  • Quality of Research The quality of the
    dissertation is something you will need to
    consider, how comprehensive is this persons work
    ? Have they missed any important papers or major
    blocks of research ?

117
Literature Survey
  • Bibliography Software

118
Zotero
Free
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BibTeX
Free
122
Pybliographer
Free
123
Biblioscape
124
EndNote
EndNote web is free.
125
Mendeley
126
Qiqqa
127
Reference Manager
128
Literature Survey
  • When have you found enough papers?

129
Literature Survey
  • When have you found enough papers?
  • There is no hard-and-fast rule, but my own
    suggestion is about 50 papers you dont have to
    review them yet, just have them printed out in a
    pile.

130
Literature Comprehension
131
Literature Comprehension
  • The literature comprehension is the process of
    reading and understanding the research found in
    the survey process.

132
Literature Comprehension
  • Youve found 50 papers, now what are you going to
    do with them ?

133
Literature Comprehension
  • Youve found 50 papers, now what are you going to
    do with them ?
  • The first thing to do is to divide them into
    piles based on sub-topics within your research,
    so some papers might be about the overall themes
    and others might be about specific issues.

134
Literature Comprehension
  • Now start to read them, I suggest ten sittings,
    reading five papers in each sitting.

135
Literature Comprehension
  • You will be freaked out after reading the first
    five papers, you will be deluged with new
    terminology, models and approaches.
  • The important thing is to hang in there, dont
    get overwhelmed by it all, just read them, and
    make a note of all new terms, models and
    approaches

136
Literature Comprehension
  • in your notebook

137
Literature Comprehension
  • Dont get overwhelmed by it all, the more papers
    you read, the less new terms you will be
    encountering, the more of an expert you will
    become.
  • You are also adding to your keyword search list.

138
Literature Comprehension
  • The first ten papers are the worst, once you are
    over that hurdle, you will find the rest much
    easier.
  • Also in your notebook write down any nice phrases
    used in the papers, any interesting approaches to
    the experiments and any nice display of results.

139
Literature Comprehension
  • Also dont be afraid to ask for help from your
    supervisor or other people.
  • The process of reading and trying to understand
    complex research can sometimes be a discouraging
    one, but a systematic approach to tackling this
    is best.

140
Literature Comprehension
  • Part of the process might be that you have to do
    a simple replica of an experiment described in
    the research to fully understand it.
  • Thats alright, because with all the simulation
    and prototyping software now available, thats
    not as hard as it used to be.

141
Literature Comprehension
  • Active Reading
  • It is very important to read new research in an
    active manner, you shouldnt just skim read the
    material, but understand what you are reading, as
    you are reading it.
  • It may be necessary to re-read a sentence, one
    phrase at a time, or one word at a time until the
    meaning is evident.
  • It may be the case that you will have to consult
    some reference source to confirm the meaning of
    terminology, this being the case, it is only
    logical to keep reference material close to hand
    (textbooks, the internet, dictionaries, etc.)

142
Literature Comprehension
  • To help you in this process, Ive created a
    checksheet with some friends that have questions
    you should consider after reading a paper
  • http//www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/CheckSheets/Science
    ArticleCheckSheet.doc

143
Literature Comprehension
  • THE QUESTIONS ARE
  • What type of article is it?
  • What is the main issue/problem being discussed?
  • Skim read what could your dissertation gain by
    including this article?
  • What is the articles contribution to knowledge?
  • How can this information be integrated into your
    review?
  • Compare and contrast to similar articles for or
    against/ or an extension of the literature?
  • Are there recommendations for further research?
  • Where is the article placed in your field? Famous
    author?
  • Is the article well written, interesting and easy
    to read?
  • Is there a clear research question can it be
    tested?
  • What methods are used to carry out research
  • Is the design appropriate for testing the stated
    hypothesis?
  • What are the limitations of the design/research
    methods?
  • Are there aspects of the design that could be
    applied to your work?
  • Are the results well displayed and clear?
  • Are the results in keeping with the design?
  • Are the implications of the study clear?
  • Have the results been appropriately discussed?

144
Literature Review
Research Question

Experiment
Results
Also for each paper consider the relationship
between the Research Question, the Experiment,
and the Results.
145
Literature Comprehension
  • A typical research paper (from a conference or
    journal) consists of the following parts
  • Title,
  • Abstract,
  • Introduction,
  • Methodology,
  • Results and
  • Bibliography.

146
Literature Comprehension
  • Literature Map
  • You are going to have to put some structure on
    the literature, one suggestion is to create a
    literature map.
  • Write the title of your research on top, and the
    main topics relevant to your research underneath,
    now associate the papers you are reading with
    each of the topics.

147
Literature Map
148
Literature Map
149
Literature Review
150
Literature Review
  • The literature review is the process of
    consolidating the various strands of past
    research into a single narrative describing the
    evolution of the research domain.

151
Literature Review
  • There are checklists provided to assist you in
    this task, one that deals with the evaluation of
    a research paper we ave already seen, and the
    other which deals with questions to reflect upon
    regarding the overall structure of the literature
    review chapter in a dissertation.

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Literature Review
  • Literature Review Chapter
  • http//www.comp.dit.ie/dgordon/CheckSheets/LitRevi
    ewCheckSheet.doc

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Literature Review
  • The questions of this checksheet are
  • Has the student laid the foundations for his/her
    work why it is important that they pursue their
    topic?
  • Have they been able to show a gap in the
    literature (more important for PhDs but still a
    good idea)?
  • Is the nature/type of the research clear?
  • Is the work well written, interesting and easy to
    read?
  • Does the literature review read like a list of
    studies or does it build their point/arguments.
  • Is the work simply a repeat or cut and paste of
    others work?
  • Are key researchers and important works included?
  • Examples of other good literature surveys?
  • Have they set out orthogonal issues?
  • Has research been examined for both content and
    methods?
  • Have studies been compared and contrasted? Has
    the literature been extended?
  • Has the student been critical in all areas of the
    research (design) and not just examined the
    results?
  • Is it a students literature review aimed at
    supporting their research, rather than just being
    a review of the literature?
  • Is each section important? Do they explain how
    that topic contributes to building a cohesive
    argument/point
  • Has the work explored what methods are used to
    carry out research in other studies?
  • Are the limitations of the design/research
    methods discussed?
  • Are there recommendations for further research?

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Literature Review
  • The underlying (or hidden) theme of the narrative
    is to show that there is a gap in the existing
    research and how your work will address this
    problem.

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Literature Review
  • The review itself is the final piece of the
    puzzle, it is a matter of tying together all the
    previous research that you have found and
    reviewed, and producing an artifact that is not
    just all those reviews put together, but a
    coherent and cohesive narrative of the research
    to date, and a narrative that points to a gap
    in the research that your work intends to fill.
    It also contextualises the work in the broader
    research scope.

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Literature Review
  • The first step in this process is to consider
    each article that you have reviewed, is it
    significant enough to go into the review ?
  • How do you evaluate that ?
  • The answer is simple does it help build towards
    the gap in the research you are identifying ?
    or to put it another way, could you take this
    article out and it wouldnt make any difference ?

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Literature Review
  • The articles should group together into research
    trends so you should list the articles by this
    grouping and see which ones are important.
  • Your literature map will help with identifying
    the key themes.
  • The review does not have to be in chronological
    order, but rather in the order the most clearly
    shows the trends in this field.

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Literature Review
  • Remember that writing is not necessarily a linear
    process, write what sections you know about, when
    you know about them.
  • As with all of the writing that you will be doing
    for you dissertation, there will be many drafts
    of the literature review chapter, so it is best
    to write far too much first and then you can cut
    down, therefore you should include many of the
    questions for each article in the first draft of
    your work and chip away at it a piece at a time.

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Literature Review
Five by five
  • I recommend a 5 by 5 approach.
  • Read five papers, and the accompanying
    checksheets, now write five lines about each
    paper (note not five sentences, five lines of
    font size 12 text).
  • Do this ten times.

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Literature Review
  • The research should be seen as the zenith of the
    cumulative process of the scientific research
    that has already been done.
  • Then the process becomes a matter of making these
    disparate stories into one single narrative, with
    one theme there is something missing in the
    research to date that you are going to address.

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Literature Review
  • The structure of the literature review will be
    the same as that of any document, it has a
  • beginning,
  • middle and
  • end.

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Literature Review
  • The beginning or introduction will introduce the
    main research topics and provide definitions for
    key concepts that are important to your research
    definitions that support your approach taken in
    the research.

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Literature Review
  • The end or conclusion will be that there has been
    a great deal of work done in this area, but there
    is a gap in the work that your research will
    address.

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Literature Review
  • The middle part of the literature review, can be
    presented in a number of ways, depending on your
    personal preferences, the main research trends
    must be discussed, key researchers must be
    identified, and the work must spiral from its
    research beginnings towards the research gap that
    you are going to fill.

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Literature Review
  • The general research topics you discuss must lead
    logically to the specific research that you are
    undertaking.
  • So if we go back to the T-Shaped structure

166
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
Depth of Research
167
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
Depth of Research
168
2D Analysis
Breadth of Research
Finding your eye of the storm
Depth of Research
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Literature Review
  • It may be the case that the trends in the
    research in your domain fall into two opposing
    camps, the for-and-against type paradigm, This
    being the case, whichever side your work is on,
    make sure that you present the merits of each
    side, this gives your readers a balanced view of
    the domain, and gives them the impression of a
    researcher who can take a sophisticated
    perspective on matters.

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Literature Review
  • Lets look at a simple example

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Literature Review
  • TEXT Although little research has been done on
    the influence of movies on the public perception
    of hacking, researchers have investigated other
    topics in computer science, for example, Bartneck
    (2004) looks at how movies represent robots and
    robotics and in particular how these movies help
    contribute to the general publics behaviours to
    real-life robots. Similarly Schmitz et al. (2008)
    look at models of computer interfaces presented
    in movies, and considers the viability of such
    interfaces in real-life. Also, Fisher (2001)
    looks at how artificial intelligence has been
    represented in the movies and how this may impact
    on the public perception of artificial
    intelligences. In general the public perception
    of computer science is strongly influenced by
    movie representations.
  • REFERENCES
  • Bartneck, C. (2004). From Fiction to Science - A
    Cultural Reflection on Social Robots" in
    proceedings of the CHI2004 Workshop on Shaping
    Human-Robot Interaction, Vienna.
  • Fisher, R. (2001) AI and Cinema - Does
    Artificial Insanity Rule?, Twelfth Irish
    Conference on Artificial Intelligence and
    Cognitive Science, National University of Ireland
    (NUI), Maynooth, Ireland.
  • Schmitz, M., Endres, C., Butz, A. (2008) "A
    Survey of Human-Computer Interaction Design in
    Science Fiction Movies", Second International
    Conference on Intelligent Technologies for
    Interactive Entertainment (ICST INTETAIN 08).
    January 8-10, 2008, Cancun, Mexico.

172
Literature Review
  • TEXT Although little research has been done on
    the influence of movies on the public perception
    of hacking, researchers have investigated other
    topics in computer science, for example, Bartneck
    (2004) looks at how movies represent robots and
    robotics and in particular how these movies help
    contribute to the general publics behaviours to
    real-life robots. Similarly Schmitz et al. (2008)
    look at models of computer interfaces presented
    in movies, and considers the viability of such
    interfaces in real-life. Also, Fisher (2001)
    looks at how artificial intelligence has been
    represented in the movies and how this may impact
    on the public perception of artificial
    intelligences. In general the public perception
    of computer science is strongly influenced by
    movie representations.
  • REFERENCES
  • Bartneck, C. (2004). From Fiction to Science - A
    Cultural Reflection on Social Robots" in
    proceedings of the CHI2004 Workshop on Shaping
    Human-Robot Interaction, Vienna.
  • Fisher, R. (2001) AI and Cinema - Does
    Artificial Insanity Rule?, Twelfth Irish
    Conference on Artificial Intelligence and
    Cognitive Science, National University of Ireland
    (NUI), Maynooth, Ireland.
  • Schmitz, M., Endres, C., Butz, A. (2008) "A
    Survey of Human-Computer Interaction Design in
    Science Fiction Movies", Second International
    Conference on Intelligent Technologies for
    Interactive Entertainment (ICST INTETAIN 08).
    January 8-10, 2008, Cancun, Mexico.

Citations
173
Literature Review
  • TEXT Although little research has been done the
    influence of movies on the public perception of
    hacking, researchers have investigated other
    topics in computer science, for example, Bartneck
    (2004) looks at how movies represent robots and
    robotics and in particular how these movies help
    contribute to the general publics behaviours to
    real-life robots. Similarly Schmitz et al. (2008)
    look at models of computer interfaces presented
    in movies, and considers the viability of such
    interfaces in real-life. Also, Fisher (2001)
    looks at how artificial intelligence has been
    represented in the movies and how this may impact
    on the public perception of artificial
    intelligences. In general the public perception
    of computer science is strongly influenced by
    movie representations.
  • REFERENCES
  • Bartneck, C. (2004). From Fiction to Science - A
    Cultural Reflection on Social Robots" in
    proceedings of the CHI2004 Workshop on Shaping
    Human-Robot Interaction, Vienna.
  • Fisher, R. (2001) AI and Cinema - Does
    Artificial Insanity Rule?, Twelfth Irish
    Conference on Artificial Intelligence and
    Cognitive Science, National University of Ireland
    (NUI), Maynooth, Ireland.
  • Schmitz, M., Endres, C., Butz, A. (2008) "A
    Survey of Human-Computer Interaction Design in
    Science Fiction Movies", Second International
    Conference on Intelligent Technologies for
    Interactive Entertainment (ICST INTETAIN 08).
    January 8-10, 2008, Cancun, Mexico.

Citations
References
174
How to cite
  • The correct way to cite
  • one author is (Smith, 2005)
  • two authors is (Smith and Jones, 2005)
  • multiple authors is (Smith et al., 2005)
  • Please note
  • Since et al. is an abbreviation of the phrase
    et alia the full stop is necessary.
    Additionally as it is a foreign phrase it must
    always be in italics.

175
How to cite
  • Allow me to repeat that last bit, since no one
    seems to do it correctly
  • Please note
  • Since et al. is an abbreviation of the phrase
    et alia the full stop is necessary.
    Additionally as it is a foreign phrase it must
    always be in italics.

176
et al.
177
Literature Review
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