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THE NEW FRONTIER

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Kennedy tried to create an imposing and popular image for his administration The New Frontier Put together a brilliant group of advisors Robert Kennedy, Robert ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE NEW FRONTIER


1
THE NEW FRONTIER
  • Kennedy tried to create an imposing and popular
    image for his administration
  • The New Frontier
  • Put together a brilliant group of advisors
  • Robert Kennedy, Robert McNamara, Dean Rusk,
    McGeorge Bundy, and others
  • the best and the brightest
  • Also emphasized toughness in foreign affairs

2
CASTRO
  • Fidel Castro overthrew Batista dictatorship in
    Cuba in 1959
  • He originally had support within the United
    States but, between 1959 and 1961, he began to
    nationalize foreign-owned businesses in Cuba and
    move the country towards communism
  • Eisenhower administration reacted strongly by
    imposing an embargo against Cuban products
  • Castro responded by linking himself
    diplomatically and economically to the Soviet
    Union

3
BAY OF PIGS
  • By 1960, Eisenhower broke off diplomatic
    relations with Cuba and CIA began to train
    anti-Castro Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and rally
    population to overthrow Castro
  • Kennedy inherited this place and authorized it
    with the understanding U.S. soldiers would not be
    involved.
  • Invasion took place in April 1961
  • Cuban population did not rise up and invaders had
    to surrender

4
REPERCUSSIONS
  • Castro moved even closer to the Soviet Union
  • Convinced that the U.S. would try to invade Cuba
    again
  • Kennedys prestige suffered
  • Attacked by enemies for not actively supporting
    the invasion with U.S. air power
  • Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, became
    convinced that Kennedy was a weak leader and that
    he could exploit that weakness to score a major
    diplomatic victory

5
THE CRISIS BEGINS
  • Khrushchev began to build nuclear missile bases
    in Cuban
  • Would have put 75 of the continental U.S. within
    range of medium-range missiles
  • American spy planes discovered missile sites and
    found them nearly operational

6
KENNEDY TAKES A STAND
  • Kennedy saw missiles as challenge to American
    security and U.S. leadership in Latin America
  • Viewed it as test of his character
  • Opted for public confrontation
  • Announced that U.S. would not tolerate Soviet
    missiles in Cuba
  • Would destroy sites with air strikes if Soviets
    did not remove them
  • Placed U.S. nuclear missiles on red alert
  • Imposed naval blockade around Cuba with orders to
    prevent additional Soviet missiles from reaching
    Cuba
  • Appeared on TV to tell Soviets to remove missiles
    from Cuba

7
CRISIS RESOLVED
  • Nuclear war would have most likely resulted if
    Khrushchev had ignored Kennedys threats
  • But Khrushchev backed down after 6 days of
    tension
  • Ordered ships carrying additional missiles to
    turn back and agreed to remove all nuclear
    weapons from Cuba
  • In exchange for American promise to never invade
    Cuba again

8
MEDIOCRE DOMESTIC RECORD
  • Kennedy revived many of Trumans old Fair Deal
    proposals
  • Aid to education
  • Medicare
  • Extension of Social Security benefits
  • Most died in Congress due to stubborn opposition
    of southern Democrats and Republicans

9
ASSASSINATION
  • Kennedys motorcade was moving through downtown
    Dallas when a volley of shots hit his open-topped
    limosine
  • November 22, 1963
  • Texas governor, John Connally, was seriously
    wounded
  • Kennedy had the top of his head blown off
  • Pronounced dead shortly thereafter
  • Vice-president Lyndon Baines Johnson sworn in

10
LEE HARVEY OSWALD
  • Police arrest Lee Harvey Oswald for Kennedys
    murder
  • Former Marine who had lived in the Soviet Union
    and was married to a Russian woman
  • Oswald shot and killed by Jack Ruby, Dallas
    nightclub owner with ties to organized crime,
    before he could be put on trial

11
WARREN COMMISSION
  • Many questions about assassination
  • Was Oswald part of a bigger conspiracy, perhaps
    organized by Castro?
  • Was Ruby a hit man sent to kill Oswald before he
    could talk?
  • Were the Dallas police, the FBI, or the CIA
    somehow involved?
  • To answer questions, Johnson set up a blue-ribbon
    commission
  • Headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren
  • Worked on project for 10 months
  • Determined that Oswald had acted alone and was
    not part of a larger conspiracy

12
LYNDON BAINES JOHNSON
  • Former senator from Texas
  • Did a good job handling transition from Kennedy
    administration
  • Easily elected president for a full-term in 1964
  • Over Republican Barry Goldwater of Arizona
  • Popularity declined after 1964 due to escalating
    American military involvement in Vietnam

13
GREAT SOCIETY
  • Passed much important legislation
  • Tax Act of 1964
  • Cut taxes and sparked an economic boom
  • Medicaid and Medicare
  • Improved aid to education
  • Civil Rights Act of 1965
  • Creation of Department of Housing and Urban
    Development
  • War on Poverty Program
  • Head Start
  • Work Study
  • Jobs Corps
  • All designed to eliminate poverty in the U.S.

14
CONTINUING STRUGGLE
  • New groups appeared during the late 1950s and
    early 1960s to continue battle for racial
    equality
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  • Headed by Dr. Martin Luther King
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
  • Led by James Farmer
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  • All adopted strategy of nonviolent protest
  • Marches, economic boycotts, and peaceful
    violation of segregation laws

15
KENNEDY
  • Civil Rights leaders initially encouraged by
    election of Kennedy
  • He had criticized Eisenhowers reluctant support
    for integration and had promised to open a new
    frontier for African-Americans
  • Once elected, Kennedy did appoint a number of
    prominent African-Americans to federal jobs and
    supported the passage of a new civil rights act
  • But he also moved more slowly than he had
    promised
  • Hampered by the powerful resistance of
    Southerners in his own party and by blatant lack
    of cooperation from J. Edgar Hoover, chief of the
    FBI

16
FREEDOM RIDES
  • African-American activists seized initiative and
    forced Kennedy administration to follow
  • CORE and SNCC organized freedom rides that
    defied segregation laws on buses and terminals
  • Provoked violence against freedom riders which
    was broadcast on TV
  • Forced Attorney General Robert Kennedy to protect
    freedom riders
  • Also prompted President Kennedy to prohibit
    segregation on all interstate transportation
    vehicles and facilities

17
KINGS NONVIOLENT STRATEGY
  • Faced with hesitancy by federal government, civil
    rights groups would nonviolently break various
    local segregation laws in the South
  • This would usually prompt a violent reaction
    that, publicized by the press, would ultimately
    force the federal government to intervene to
    protect protestors and end they laws they
    challenged
  • Ultimately culminated in passage of the Civil
    Rights Act of 1964
  • Outlawed racial, religious, and sexual
    discrimination in private businesses that served
    the general public

18
TURNING POINT
  • After 1964, strategy of nonviolence was
    increasingly questioned
  • After brutal murder of 3 civil rights workers in
    Mississippi in late 1964
  • And because many African-Americans thought that
    the 1964 Civil Rights Act had not gone far enough
  • Began to demand compensation for years of
    discrimination, economic assistance, and
    increased political power

19
WATTS RIOT
  • In August 1965, a confrontation between a white
    policeman and a black motorist exploded into four
    days of rioting in the Los Angeles ghetto of
    Watts
  • 34 people dead and 20 million in property
    destroyed
  • Touched off several years of urban violence
  • In Newark (NJ), Chicago, and Detroit
  • People wondered why such violence was taking
    place during a period of undeniable racial
    progress

20
THEORY 1 Riots were caused by a small core of
misfits and troublemakers. Riots were not
protests against legitimate grievances but were
simple acts of senseless violence
Government unfortunately adopted the first
theory. It did increase expenditures to help
African-Americans but also increased money to
improve and enlarge local law enforcement
agencies and to train the National guard in riot
control
Several commissions investigated the urban
violence and came up with two opposing theories
THEORY 2 Riots included broad cross section of
black community, not just a few misfits.
Violence was not senseless and aimless, since
rioters avoided attacking black owned businesses
and instead focused on white owned businesses
that traditionally exploited black customers and
employees and on white police who victimized
African-Americans. Riots were protests against
legitimate grievances
Basic problems of poverty, unemployment, police
brutality, hopelessness and lack of meaningful
political power remained untouched
21
MALCOLM X
  • Argued that blacks were superior to whites and
    that white civilization was rotten to the core
  • Therefore African-Americans should strive to
    create their own institutions and civilization
    without whites
  • Although his views were extreme, his ideas did
    help to generate pride among African-Americans in
    being black
  • Many began to see that the goal of the civil
    rights movement should not be to think and act
    like whites but that African-Americans should
    retain and be proud of their own heritage and
    customs
  • Also rejected nonviolence as a strategy

22
BLACK POWER
  • The influence of Malcolm X and the persistence of
    racism and inequality gave birth to the Black
    Power movement of the late 1960s
  • Had various tactics
  • Aimed at promoting a fundamental and sweeping
    transformation of American society
  • One that would redistribute economic and
    political power and permanently alter the
    foundation of the US so that racism would
    disappear forever

23
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1968
  • Last piece of major civil rights legislation
    passed in the 60s
  • Represented a step in the right direction but did
    not initiate the fundamental transformation
    advocated by leaders of Black Power movement
  • Prohibited discrimination in housing and opened
    the door to integration of white neighborhoods in
    cities and suburbs
  • Also contained provision which allowed government
    to harass and arrest black radicals when they
    used interstate facilities to travel and organize

24
SUMMARY (1)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968 summarized the entire
    civil rights movement of the 1960s
  • Much progress had been made, mainly due to the
    initiative of African-Americans themselves
  • Legalized segregation was dead
  • African-Americans guaranteed equal access to both
    public and private facilities
  • All legal obstacles that had been used to prevent
    African-Americans from voting in the South were
    removed
  • African-Americans were now free to live anywhere
    they wanted to

25
SUMMARY (2)
  • However, centuries of brutal treatment and
    discrimination had left African-Americans far
    behind whites in an economic sense
  • African-Americans were economically worse off,
    less educated, and more poorly housed than whites
  • Response of the government was to throw money at
    the problem
  • But never enough of it to make a real difference
  • Refused to take the courageous steps necessary to
    remove the structural obstacles to
    African-American progress and implement programs
    designed and managed by African-Americans
    themselves
  • Moreover, racist stereotypes and ideas remain
    strongly implanted in the minds of many

26
VIETNAM
  • Communist forces of Ho Chi Minh had defeated the
    French and won independence for the northern half
    of Vietnam by 1954
  • But the United States blocked him from also
    liberating the South by placing Ngo Dinh Diem (a
    Roman Catholic and former Japanese collaborator)
    in power there
  • Vain attempt to create viable political
    alternative to Ho
  • But his support was limited to the army and a
    narrow circle of landlords and urban Catholics

27
MILITARY ADVISORS
  • Kennedy and advisors knew of Diems weaknesses
    and Hos strengths
  • But he was also determined to demonstrate
    American power and steadfastness
  • Selected Vietnam as the site to prove that the
    U.S. was willing to keep promises to its allies,
    to be tough, to take risks, get bloodied, and
    hurt the enemy badly
  • He therefore increased the number of military
    advisors in the South to 16,000 by the end of
    1963
  • To keep Diem in power and prevent Ho from seizing
    the South

28
ESCALATION
  • On the basis of a spurious naval clash in the
    Gulf of Tonkin (near North Vietnam), President
    Johnson secured the Gulf of Tonkin from
    Congress
  • Gave him a blank check to conduct the war in
    Vietnam in any way he saw fit
  • Opened the way for a sustained bombing campaign
    against North Vietnam and for the introduction of
    large numbers of U.S. ground troops into the
    conflict
  • Summer 1965

29
SELECTIVE SERVICE
  • The military draft, or selective service, was
    very selective
  • College students initially enjoyed deferments and
    escaped first years of the draft
  • Even if they did end up in the army they usually
    served as officers or in noncombat jobs
  • Poor Americans (white, black, and Hispanic) were
    much more likely to be drafted and assigned to
    combat
  • Draftees represented 88 of infantry riflemen in
    Vietnam and 66 of all combat deaths
  • VA Survey while minority Americans may have
    suffered a disproportionate share of exposure to
    combat and combat fatalities, their suffering was
    the product not of racial discrimination, but of
    discrimination against the poor, the uneducated,
    and the young

30
HIGH TECH WAR?
  • Ever since World War II, the navy and air force
    had dominated American military
  • It was thought that big ships, fast planes, and
    lots of bombs could hold the peace or win a war
  • Vietnam strategy assumed the expensive technology
    and sophisticated organization would substitute
    for the blood and sweat of ground combat
  • Day after day, U.S. bombers piloted by young
    college-educated officers bombed Vietnam, Laos,
    and, after 1970, Cambodia
  • U.S. dropped four times more bombs on Vietnam
    than it had used during all of World War II
  • Mostly on civilian targets

31
GROUND WAR
  • Air war proved unable to stop infiltration of
    personnel and supplies from the North into South
    Vietnam
  • Also did not destroy southern bases of the Viet
    Cong
  • To accomplish these goals, the war had to be
    fought by individual soldiers operating in small
    units in unfamiliar and dangerous jungle terrain

32
SEARCH AND DESTROY
  • After July 1965, U.S. marines began to be used to
    search out the enemy in a series of search and
    destroy operations
  • But it was hard to find and engage the enemy
    because they avoided pitched battles with U.S.
    forces
  • Frustrated military leaders then came to define
    victory not by the capture of territory or even
    the defeat of enemy battalions
  • But simply by the physical annihilation of
    individual enemy soldiers

33
DANGEROUS ATTITUDE
  • War of attrition led to bureaucratic fixation on
    body count
  • Soldiers were soon reporting any Vietnamese
    person killed by U.S. firepower as an enemy
    fatality
  • No distinction made between civilians and
    combatants
  • As a guerilla army, the Viet Cong blended in with
    the population
  • Soldiers could not tell who was an enemy and who
    was not so their attitude became Kill Them All
    and Let God Sort Them Out

34
MY LAI
  • Even though no enemy fire was received, an
    American platoon destroyed village of My Lai with
    grenades and machine gun bursts
  • 1968
  • 350 villagers murdered in one day
  • Only one American casualty
  • A private who shot himself in the foot out of
    disgust at what he was witnessing

35
TET OFFENSIVE
  • At the beginning of January 1968 the Viet Cong
    launched a massive offensive against towns and
    cities across South Vietnam
  • During the holiday of Tet
  • Televised reports of offensive undermined
    Johnsons claim that there was a light at the
    end of the tunnel in Vietnam
  • Revealed to American public the limits of U.S.
    power and the difficulty in achieving victory in
    Vietnam
  • Gave strength to the anti-war movement

36
THE MEDIA TURNS
  • Before Tet, media coverage of the war had been
    largely favorable
  • After Tet, news media greeted official government
    pronouncements with skepticism and gave antiwar
    activity increased coverage and respect
  • Life magazine published cover which had the
    pictures of 247 servicemen killed in fighting one
    week in June 1969

37
JOHNSON IN TROUBLE
  • Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota announced that he
    was going to challenge Johnson for 1968
    Democratic nomination
  • Anti-war platform
  • Prospects seemed marginal until Tet
  • Then media spotlighted his campaign and student
    volunteers pour in the work for him
  • Surprised Johnson with a near upset victory in
    the New Hampshire primary

38
ANOTHER KENNEDY
  • New York senator Robert F. Kennedy sensed Johnson
    was vulnerable and announced his candidacy for
    president
  • Called for halt of bombing of Vietnam and revival
    of the War on Poverty

39
DEMOCRATS MOVE LEFT
  • McCarthy and Kennedy demonstrated that Democratic
    voters would select a candidate committed to
    de-escalation of the war
  • McCarthy was an inept campaigner
  • But his willingness to challenge Johnson won him
    the fierce loyalty of anti-war activists
  • Kennedy was a traditional liberal and a latecomer
    to the anti-war cause
  • But he became a passionate advocate of social
    justice and won the hearts of many Hispanic,
    African-American, and working-class white voters

40
JOHNSON QUITS
  • Powerful lawyers, bankers, and State Department
    officials came to the conclusion that the war
    weakened the nation and sapped Americas global
    strength
  • Urged that we get out of the war
  • As a result of this pressure, Johnson announced
    that he would stop bombing North Vietnam,
    canceled a planned troop increase, and stated
    that he would not run for re-election
  • March 31, 1968

41
GOOD AND BAD
  • The anti-war movement had split the Democratic
    Party and forced a powerful president to
    repudiate his own foreign policy and virtually
    withdraw from office
  • This could have opened the way for America to
    make a decisive turn toward real and meaningful
    change
  • But this didnt happen
  • Because within two months of Johnsons
    announcement both Martin Luther King and Robert
    Kennedy were murdered by assassins and the
    movement for fundamental reform in America
    fragmented

42
DEATH OF MARTIN LUTHER KING
  • King went to Memphis to organize support for
    striking African-American garbage workers
  • Shot by white ex-convict on motel balcony right
    before he was to lead a march on city hall
  • April 4, 1968
  • Black ghettos across the U.S. exploded in riots

43
DEATH OF ROBERT KENNEDY
  • Kennedy won California primary in June 1968
  • Put him in a good position to win Democratic
    nomination for president
  • Shot and killed during victory celebration at Los
    Angeles hotel by Sirhan Sirhan
  • Deranged Jordanian immigrant who was upset about
    Kennedys support for Israel

44
UNREST
  • Murders of King and Kennedy plus campus anti-war
    rebellions at Columbia University and many other
    colleges created sense of confusion and social
    instability in the country
  • Left liberals dazed and confused and created a
    political vacuum that was soon filled by the
    right-wing

45
SUMMER 1968
  • Chicago police beat anti-war demonstrators in
    front of Democratic National headquarters
  • Vice-president Hubert Humphrey gets nomination
  • With solid backing of urban political bosses and
    organized labor
  • But he could not unite Democratic voters because
    he was burdened by national anger over the
    violence in Chicago and his support for an
    unpopular war

46
NIXON REBORN
  • Republicans nominate Richard Nixon
  • Had resurrected himself after 1960 defeat
  • Aimed campaign at white southerners who were
    upset at Democrats for supporting civil rights
    and at the silent majority of forgotten
    Americans, the nonshouters, the nondemonstrators
  • Also declared he had a secret plan to end the
    war in Vietnam

47
GEORGE WALLACE
  • George Wallace was third party candidate in 1968
  • Former governor of Alabama
  • Vietnam hawk and a racist
  • Polls showed him with 21 of the popular vote in
    late September
  • Greatest source of support was among white
    Southerners, the lower middle class, and
    blue-collar workers in the North
  • Attraction of northern workers was due their
    sense of alienation and social resentment

48
Nixons narrow victory set the stage for four
years of political stalemate
On domestic issues, Nixon encouraged the
conservative mood of the electorate. He
nominated conservative judges, escalated the
governments underground war against political
activists and began a series of well-publicized
but unsuccessful prosecutions of prominent
radicals
His secret plan to end the war in Vietnam turned
out to mean 7 more years of war, American-led
invasions of Cambodia and Laos, and a slow
reduction in combat roles for U.S. troops
Also forced to make concessions to liberals
linked Social Security benefits to cost-of-living
index, continued desegregation of southern public
schools, and pioneered occupational health and
safety legislation
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