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Chapter 11 The Reproductive System

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Title: Chapter 11 The Reproductive System


1
Chapter 11 The Reproductive System
2
  • gon/o genitals or reproduction
  • The testes and ovaries are gonads and they
    function in the production of spermatazoa (sperm)
    or ova (eggs) as well as secrete hormones

3
  • genit/o genitals
  • Reproductive organs, male and female, internal or
    external are called the genitals or genitalia

4
Female Reproductive System
  • gynec/o female
  • The study of diseases of the female reproductive
    system is gynecology, the specialist is called a
    gynecologist.

5
Word Parts Female
  • vagin/o, colp/o vagina
  • i.e. colposcopy (examination of the vaginal
    mucosa using a low- powered microscope)
  • uter/o, hyster/o uterus
  • i.e. hysteroptosis (prolapse of the uterus)

6
  • cervic/o uterine cervix
  • i.e. cervical polyp (tumor of the cervical
    mucosa)
  • metr/o, metr/i uterine tissue
  • i.e. endometritis (inflammation of the inner
    lining of the uterus)

7
  • ovar/o, oophor/o ovary
  • i.e. oophorectomy (surgical removal of an ovary)
  • salping/o uterine tube, fallopian tube
  • i.e. salpingitis
  • vulv/o vulva (external female genitalia)

8
  • men/o month
  • menstruation sloughing of uterine lining at
    regular intervals, usually once a month. Also
    called menses
  • menopause end of a womans
    reproductive period. Also called climacteric

9
Menstrual Irregularities
  • amenorrhea (a-without. men/o month, rrhea
    discharge) absence of menstrual flow
  • dysmenorrhea (dys-, difficult) painful menses
  • menorrhagia (rrhagia, hemorrhage) excessive flow
  • metrorrhagia (metr/o uterus) abnormal bleeding
    from the uterus not assoc. with menses

10
Diseases and Disorders
  • Endometritis inflammation of the endometrium
  • Endometriosis cond. Where tissue that resembles
    endometrium is found abnormally in other places,
    usually the abd. cavity

11
  • fistula abnormal passage, or tube, between two
    internal organs or from an organ to the body
    surface
  • Cystocele protrusion of the urinary bladder
    through the wall of the vagina
  • oophoritis inflammation of an ovary
  • oophorosalpingitis inflammation of an ovary and
    its uterine tube
  • Salpingitis inflammation of a uterine tube

12
  • premenstrual syndrome (PMS) a syndrome of
    nervous tension, irritability, wt gain, edema,
    HA, painful breasts, sleep disturbances,
    occurring a few days prior to the onset of menses
  • Myoma a common, benign, fibroid tumor of the
    uterine muscle

13
  • pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) infection of
    the internal genital organs
  • uterine cancer any malignancy of the uterus
    including the cervix or endometrium

14
Surgical and Therapeutic Interventions
  • contraception, contraceptive used to prevent
    conception (pregnancy)
  • tubal ligation TL
  • Please see pg 269 for a list of common
    contraceptive methods

15
  • Dilation and curettage DC, a surgical procedure
    that expands the cervical opening (dilation) so
    the uterine wall can be scraped (curettage)
  • laparoscopy direct visualization of abdominal
    contents using a lighted instrument

16
  • colpoplasty plastic surgery of the vagina
  • laparohysterectomy removal of the uterus using a
    laproscope
  • salpingo-oophorectomy removal of an ovary and
    its assoc. tube

17
Pregnancy and Childbirth
  • par/o to bear offspring
  • parturition childbirth
  • antepartum period of time before birth
  • postpartum period of time after birth

18
  • gestation pregnancy
  • expected date of delivery EED (AKA EDC )
    expected date of confinement
  • trimester approx 3 months
  • para a female who has given birth
  • -para I, II, etc. number of pregnancies resulting
    in live births
  • nullipara, unipara, bipara, tripara
  • 0 1 2 3

19
  • gravida pregnant woman
  • Prefix -gravida number of pregnancies
  • primigravida gravida I, meaning first pregnancy
  • gravida II means 2 pregnancies,
  • gravida III means 3 pregnancies, etc.
  • What is, Gravida IV Para III ?
  • 4 pregnancies 3 live births

20
Word Parts Obstetric Terms
  • fet/o fetus (human embryo is called
    fetus after 8 weeks)
  • amni/o amnion (membrane which holds
    amniotic fluid fetus)
  • nat/i birth
  • Neonate new born (up to 1st month of
    life)

21
Fetal Presentations
Cephalic (head down)
Breech (Buttocks, knees or feet first)
Shoulder
22
  • ultrasonography can create a picture of the
    fetus using sound waves (ultrasound)
  • ectopic pregnancy implantation of fertilized
    ovum outside of the uterus
  • vaginal delivery (SVD)
  • cesarean section (C-section)

23
Amniocentesis. Transabdominal puncture of the
amniotic sac is done to remove fluid for study of
the fetal cells.
24
  • placenta membrane through which the fetus
    receives nourishment
  • abruptio placenta separation of the placenta
    from the uterine wall
  • placenta previa placenta implants too low and
    covers some or all of the cervix
  • amniotomy surgical rupture of the amniotic sack

25
Breast Terms
  • mastalgia, mastodynia, mammalgia all mean painful
    breast
  • mastitis inflammation of the breast
  • mastoptosis sagging breasts
  • mastopexy procedure which repairs mastoptosis
  • augmentation mammoplasty
  • reduction mammoplasty

26
Male Reproductive System
  • Spermatozoa mature male sex cell AKA sperm
  • testes (testis, testicle) produce sperm
  • testosterone male hormone responsible for the
    development and maintenance of male sexual
    characteristics

27
Word PartsMale Reproductive System
  • orchid/o, orchi/o testes
  • test/o, testicul/o testes
  • pen/o penis
  • prostat/o prostate
  • scrot/o scrotum, bag

28
  • semin/o semen
  • spermat/o sperm
  • -cidal killing
  • vas/o ductus deferens or vas deferens
    (vessel or duct, allows the passage of sperm from
    the testes to the ejaculatory duct)

29
  • Hydrocele accumulation of fluid around the
    testes, a serous tumor of the testes
  • Torsiontesticular twisting of the spermatic cord
    blood vessels cutting off blood supply to the
    testicle
  • Vasectomy removal or suturing of the vas deferens

30
Surgical Terms
  • prostatectomy removal of all or part of the
    prostate
  • What is transurethral prostatectomy?
  • orchidectomy, orchiectomy removal of a testicle
  • orchiopexy surgical fixation of an undescended
    testicle
  • circumcision surgical removal of he end of the
    foreskin of the penis.

31
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Pages 283 - 285

32
HSC 101 Health Care TerminologyChapter 12
  • The Integumentary System

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32
33
  • Skin
  • Covers the body
  • ? Protects underlying tissues
  • Controls body temperature
  • Receives stimuli from environment
  • Excretes water and salts

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34
EPIDERMIS
DERMIS
SUBCUTANEOUS
The epidermis (1), the thin outer layer, above
the dermis is composed of four to five layers.
Underneath the epidermis is the thicker dermis
(2), which is composed of connective tissue
containing lymphatics, nerves, blood vessels,
hair follicles, sebaceous glands, and sweat
glands.Beneath the dermis is a layer of
subcutaneous adipose tissue (3).
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35
Accessory Structures
  • seb/o
  • sebum oily substance
  • secreted by sebaceous glands

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36
  • pil/o, trich/o
  • hair
  • pilomotor muscle erection
  • goose bumps

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37
  • axill/o axilla, axillary (armpit)
  • follicul/o follicle

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38
  • Primary component of the nonliving cells of the
    outer layer of the epidermis
  • keratin kerat/o
  • Fingernails and toenails also made of keratin

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39
  • onych/o, ungu/o
  • nail

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39
40
Word Parts
  • ichthy/o
  • fish
  • resembling fish like scaly skin

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41
Word Parts
  • xer/o
  • dry
  • xerosis any dry condition

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42
Word Parts (contd)
  • seps/o
  • infection
  • asepsis without infection, germs
  • sterile

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43
Word Parts (contd)
  • sept/o
  • infection or septum

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43
44
Word Parts (contd)
  • bacter/i, bacteri/o bacteria
  • -cidal killing
  • -static keeping stationary

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45
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46
B
A
C
D
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47
  • Secondary lesions of the skin. Atrophy of the
    skin, ulcers, and fissures are deep irregular
    erosions resulting from changes in the initial
    skin lesion.

47
48
Skin Injuries
  • keloid
  • overgrowth and irregular growth of
  • excessive collagen scar tissue formed
  • during tissue repair
  • most often occurs in people of color

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49
IV. Skin Injuries
  • laceration
  • torn, jagged wound

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49
50
IV. Skin Injuries
  • incision
  • smooth edged wound produced by a
  • sharp instrument

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51
IV. Skin Injuries
  • abrasion
  • results when the skin is scraped or
  • rubbed away by friction

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52
Skin Injuries
  • contusion
  • bruise caused by a blow to the body
  • that does not break the skin

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53
  • Burns
  • Burn injuries are categorized according to
  • depth of tissue destruction
  • Superficial partial thickness
  • Deep partial thickness
  • Full thickness
  • Deep full thickness
  • sometimes skin grafting is necessary

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54
V. Skin Disorders
  • dermatitis
  • inflammation of the skin

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55
V. Skin Disorders
  • necrosis
  • death of areas of tissue or bone
  • surrounded by healthy parts

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55
56
V. Skin Disorders
  • ? scleroderma
  • chronic hardening thickening
  • of the skin

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56
57
V. Skin Disorders
  • ? skin cancer
  • highly metastatic (travels to other body
  • parts) pigmented neoplasm of the skin
  • malignant melanoma

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57
58
V. Skin Disorders
  • ? urticaria
  • skin eruption caused by wheals of varying
  • shapes sizes with well defined margins
  • and pale centers.

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59
V. Skin Disorders
  • ? urticaria
  • causes include drugs, foods and insect bites.
    Also called hives.

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60
  • Wheals. This elevated, irregularly shaped lesion
    is seen in urticaria (hives), an allergic skin
    eruption. Notice the irregular shape, which is
    caused by edema.

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61
  • ichthyosis
  • one of several generalized skin disorders
    marked by dryness and scaling resembling fish
    skin

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62
  • ? chronic disorder of the skin named for the
    reddish wolf-like facial rash (butterfly rash) pg
    301
  • lupus erythrmatosus

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63
Disorders of Accessory Skin Structures
  • acne vulgaris
  • skin disease characterized by
  • blackheads (blocked hair follicles)
  • being infected with bacteria),
  • whiteheads and pus filled lesions

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64
A, Petechiae, tiny red/purple spots that appear
on the skin as a result of tiny hemorrhages
beneath the surface.
  • , Psoriasis is characterized by circumscribed
    red patches covered by thick, dry silvery scale.

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65
  • seborrheic dermatitis
  • inflammatory condition of the skin that
  • begins with the scalp but may involve
  • other areas, particularly the eyebrows
  • commonly called dandruff

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66
VI. Disorders of Accessory Skin Structures
  • folliculitis
  • inflammation of a hair follicle

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67
  • ? hidradenitis
  • inflammation of a sweat gland
  • (AKA sudoriferous glands) caused by
  • occlusion of the pores with subsequent
  • bacterial infection of the gland

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68
  • onychomycosis
  • fungal disease of the nails

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69
VI. Disorders of Accessory Skin Structures
  • ? onychopathy
  • any disease of the nails

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70
Disorders of Accessory Skin Structures
  • ? seborrhea
  • excessive production of sebum
  • (skin oil)

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71
VI. Disorders of Accessory Skin Structures
  • ? trichosis
  • abnormal condition of hair growth,
  • including baldness
  • or

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72
VI. Disorders of Accessory Skin Structures
  • ? trichosis
  • excessive abnormal hair growth in an
  • unusual place

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73
VII. Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • liposuction
  • cosmetic procedure to remove or
  • reduce localized areas of fat
  • see pg 304

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74
VII. Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • Cryosurgery
  • using subfreezing temps to
  • destroy tissue

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75
Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • curettage
  • scraping to remove abnormal tissue

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76
  • debridement
  • removal of foreign material dead or
  • damaged tissue, especially from a wound
  • until surrounding healthy tissue is
  • exposed.

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77
Surgical Therapeutic Interventions
  • dermabrasion
  • Rx for the removal of superficial scars
  • on the skin by the use of wire brushes
  • or sandpaper

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78
  • electrolysis
  • destruction of a substance by passing
  • electrical current through it laser Rx
  • sometimes used to destroy hair follicles
  • when hair grows in undesirable places

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79
  • electrosurgery
  • surgery performed with electric
  • instruments that operate on high-
  • frequency electric current and are
  • often used to destroy skin lesions

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80
  • topical medications
  • medications that are applied directly to the
    skin

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