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Cancer-Causing Food Ingredients: Its Prevention and Control

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Title: Cancer-Causing Food Ingredients: Its Prevention and Control


1
Cancer-Causing Food Ingredients Its Prevention
and Control
2
MAGNITUDE OF THE CANCER PROBLEM IN THE
PHILIPPINES
  • 3rd in incidence after communicable
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • 1 out of 1,800 Filipinos has cancer
  • 114103 females males
  • Incidence increases with age

3
MORTALITY FROM CANCER
2005 Phil Cancer Facts Estimates
Leading cancer sites of mortality Females
breast cervix uteri
lung Males lung liver
colon/rectum
4
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5
DEVELOPMENT of CANCER
Aging
Cancer
6
Main Causes Of Cancer
  • 1. SMOKING
  • 2. AGING
  • Affected by lifestyle choices ( stress, lack of
    exercise and sleep) and diet

7
I. Smoking
  • Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of
    cancer
  • Cigarette smoke has enormous amount of oxidants
  • Most people know smoking causes lung cancer
  • Causes a higher risk of esophageal, stomach,
    kidney, bladder, pancreas, cervical, uterine,
    head and neck, tongue
  • Surgeon General of the USA showed that tobacco
    smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals, and at
    least 43 of them cause cancer

8
  • 2. AGING
  • Anyone of any age can get cancer
  • Getting older is one of the biggest risk factors
  • Aging is partly caused by oxidants that can
    damage DNA
  • Antioxidants like vitamins A and C minimize
    damage from oxidants, but most humans don't get
    enough nutrients to ward off cancers

9
Aging
  • Aging From Lack of Physical Activity
  • Gain weight
  • Too little exercise, lack muscles mass, poor bone
    health
  • Being overweight increase the risk for Breast,
    Colon, Kidney, Uterus ,Esophageal Cancers
  • Produce too many hormones that cause cancer to
    grow

10
Aging and Nutrition
  • Aging isn't just the number of years
  • since we were born
  • It is How quickly the parts of our bodies
  • wear out
  • Our bodies age partly because it
  • doesnt get enough of the right nutrients
  • Too much fat and calories
  • Not eating foods that contain antioxidants which
    boost the immune system and fight disease--can
    lead to many forms of cancer.
  • Poor diet is one of the main contributors to
    aging

11
CANCER, FOODS and FOOD INGREDIENTS

12
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13
KEYS to AVOID CANCER-CAUSING FOODS
  • Knowing which ingredients are carcinogens or
    cancer promoters
  • Proper handling and preparation of certain foods
  • Reading food labels to permanently
  • avoid consuming those ingredients

14
Common Cancer Causing Substances in Foods
  • ? Food Additives - BHA, BHT
  • ? Refined Sugar
  • Acrylamides
  • Omega 6 vegetable oils
  • Sodium Nitrite
  • Hydrogenated Oils
  • Spoiled corn peanuts (aflatoxin)

15
Food additives
  • Used to prolong shelf life and preserve flavor
    and color
  • Increases cancer risk and cardiovascular disease

16
Generally Recognized as Safe
  • In 1960 the Color Additive Amendment was passed
    and includes a provision, the Delaney Clause,
    that prohibits any additives shown to cause
    cancer in humans or animals to be added to our
    food
  • This is not being strictly enforced!
  • Artificial colors proven to increase cancer
    risks, hyperactivity in children, and allergies,
    are still found in our food
  • Some additives are listed as natural flavorings
    or colorings but can contain over 40 chemical
    compounds
  • another misleading label

17
BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene)
  • To help protect flavor, retards rancidity in oils
  • Should be avoided by infants, young children,
    pregnant women and those sensitive to aspirin,
    may be toxic to the nervous system, (BHT banned
    in England)
  • BHT is common in potato chips, baked goods,
    cosmetics and other products
  • ? A related substance known as butylated
    hydroxyanisole (BHA) may be used instead of BHT

18
Refined Sugars
  • Cancer develop, in part,
  • by feeding on sugar in the
  • bloodstream
  • Solution to an Anti-Cancer Diet
  • eat a low glycemic diet
  • eat less refined sugars
  • consume more dietary fibers

19
Warburg Effect
  • Warburg reported a fundamental difference between
    normal and cancerous cells to be the ratio of
    glycolysis to respiration
  • "healthy" cells mainly generate energy from
    oxidative breakdown of pyruvate which is an
    end-product of glycolysis, and is oxidized within
    the mitochondria
  • In contrast, cancer cells show signs of
    glycolysis, (the process of sugar breakdown) with
    lactate secretion even in the presence of oxygen
  • Hypothesized that cancer and tumor growth are
    caused by the fact that tumor cells mainly
    generate energy (as e.g. ATP) by non-oxidative
    breakdown of glucose (glycolysis)

20
Pancreatic tumor cells use fructose to divide and
proliferate
  • These findings show that cancer cells can
    readily metabolize fructose to increase
    proliferation
  • Journal of Cancer Research, Dec. 2010
  • They have major significance for cancer patients
    given dietary refined fructose consumption, and
    indicate that efforts to reduce refined fructose
    intake or inhibit fructose-mediated actions may
    disrupt cancer growth.
  • Dr. Anthony Heaney, UCLAs Jonsson Cancer Center

21
Refined Sugars on Labels
  • high-fructose corn syrup
  • sugar
  • sucrose
  • enriched bleached flour
  • white rice
  • white pastas
  • white breads
  • other "white" foods

WHITE
WHEAT
22
Acrylamide
  • Forms from sugars and an amino acid
    (asparagine) during certain types of
    high-temperature cooking
  • Frying, roasting, and baking
  • Mainly in foods made from plants, such as potato
    products, grain products, or coffee
  • Does not form, or at lower levels, in dairy,
    meat, and fish products
  • More likely to accumulate when cooking is done
    for longer periods or at higher temperatures

23
ACRYLAMIDE
24
Excessive Omega 6 fatty acid Intake
A high consumption of omega-6
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), found in
most types of vegetable oil, may increase the
likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop
breast cancer. Similar effect was observed on
prostate cancer.
E.Sonestedt et al, Article 1st published
online 17 July 2008, Intl J Cancer
Chronic excessive production of n-6
eicosanoids is associated with heart attacks,
thrombotic stroke, arrhythmia, arthritis,
osteoporosis, inflammation, mood disorders,
obesity, and cancer. P. Calder, American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 83, No. 6,
S1505-1519S, June 2006
25
Omega 6 fatty acids
  • Four major food oils (palm, soybean, rapeseed,
    and sunflower)
  • Poultry and meat
  • Eggs
  • Nuts
  • Most vegetable oils

26
OMEGA 6 OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID RATIO
Solution is to balance omega 6 intakes with high
omega 3 intakes
27
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28
Omega 3 Fatty Acids
  • Essential fatty acids
  • Omega-3 FAs are thought to play an important
    role in reducing inflammation throughout the body
    -- in the blood vessels, the joints, and
    elsewhere.
  • Rich sources of omega-3 FAs are from cold water
    oily fish, such as salmon, herring, mackerel,
    anchovies, and sardines
  • Recommended Intake for n-3
  • 1.6 gm/day for men and 1.1 gm/day for women

29
Omega 3 Fatty Acids
An increase in the consumption of fish and fish
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in industrialized
countries may contribute to lower breast and
colorectal cancer risks It is concluded that
fish consumption is associated with protection
against the later promotional stages of
colorectal carcinogenesis, but not with the
early initiation stages.
Caygill CP, Hill MJ, , Eur J Cancer Prev. 1995
Aug4(4)329-32. De Deckere, Eur J Cancer Prev.
1999 Jul, 8(3) 213-21
30
  • A recent trend has been to fortify food with n-3
    fatty acid supplements
  • Global food companies have launched
  • n-3 fatty acid fortified bread, mayonnaise,
    pizza, yogurt, orange juice, children's pasta,
    milk, eggs, popcorn, confections, and infant
    formula

31
Hydrogented Oils ( Trans Fats)
  • Helps prolong shelf life but simultaneously
    creates trans fats (causes inflammation in the
    body)
  • Besides being a cancer factor, trans fats promote
    heart disease, interrupt metabolic processes, and
    cause belly fat that crowd the organs and strain
    the heart
  • To avoid listing trans fats, or to claim "trans
    free" on their label, food manufacturers simply
    adjust the serving size until the trans fat
    content falls under 0.5 grams per serving

32
European Prospective Investigation into Cancer
and Nutrition (EPIC STUDY)
  • An increased intake of trans fatty acids may
    raise the risk of breast cancer by 75

Chajes V, et al EPIC Study. Am J Epidemiol , 2008
The American Medical Association supports any
state and federal efforts to ban the use of
artificial trans fats in U.S. restaurants and
bakeries
33
FRENCH FRIES
  • made with hydrogenated oil and fried at high
    temperatures
  • they clog your arteries with saturated fat and
    trans fat, they also contain acrylamides
  • should be called "cancer fries," not French
    fries.

CHIPS, CRACKERS, COOKIES
  • contain white flour and sugar as well as
    trans-fats
  • MSG in yeast extract

34
Sodium Nitrites, Nitrosamines
  • Added to processed meats, hot dogs, bacon, and
    any other meat that needs a reddish color to look
    "fresh
  • Also found in food items that are pickled, fried,
    or smoked in things such as beer, cheese, fish
    byproducts, and tobacco smoke
  • Nitrosamines are extremely carcinogenic

35
HETEROCYCLIC AROMATIC AMINES (HAA)
  • Charred foods, especially meats, cooked at high
    temperatures create carcinogens called
    heterocyclic aromatic amines
  • When organic plant or animal products are burned,
    causing them to become blackened, toxins are
    released and mutagenic byproducts are formed
  • The longer the meat is cooked at high
    temperature, the higher the production of these
    compounds will be.

36
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • Red meat, but not poultry, fish, or dairy
    consumption, is associated with an increased risk
    of developing pancreatic cancer. (Oct. 5, 2005
    JNCI)

37
SUBSTANCES to DELAY NITROSAMINE FORMATION
  • Ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an antioxidant,
    inhibits nitrosamine formation
  • Addition of at least 550 ppm of ascorbic acid is
    required in meats
  • Add antioxidants and spices when marinating meat
    eg. red bell peppers, curry powder, garlic,
    citrus fruits
  • è delays the formation of nitrosamines

38
Hot dogs
Processed Meats, Bacon
  • The Cancer Prevention Coalition recommends that
    children should not eat gt12 hot dogs/month
    because of the risk of cancer.
  • If you must have your hot dog, look for those
    without sodium nitrite

These meats almost always contain the same sodium
nitrite found in hot dogs. Bacon is also high in
saturated fat, which contributes to the risk of
cancers, including breast cancer.
39
TIPS to Prevent Cancer Through Foods
  • Have a diet rich in fruits and vegetables Minimum
    of 5 servings a day
  • Eat healthy proteins Beans, Fish, Tofu
  • Eat healthy carbohydrates brown rice, tubers,
    corn, wheat bread, pasta etc
  • A serving for fruits and vegetables,
    carbohydrates is approximately your fist size
  • A serving of your protein is approximately your
    palm size

40
FOOD PYRAMID
41
Top Cancer Fighting Foods
  • 1. Green tea
  • 2. Curcumin
  • 3. Cruciferous Vegetables
  • 4. Folate Rich Foods
  • 5. Tomatoes
  • 6. Ginger
  • 7. Vitamin D (2,000 IU/day)

42
Green Tea
  • Antioxidant activity
  • two cups of green tea four apples, seven
    glasses of orange juice or 20 glasses of apple
    juice
  • (Paganga, 1999)
  • Green tea (GT) contains many polyphenol
    compounds, with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
    being the most prominent

43
Green Tea and Prostate Cancer
  • EGCG in Green tea have been shown to exhibit a
    chemopreventive effect against prostate cancer,
    with studies showing that it inhibits prostate
    cancer cell growth, induce apoptosis, arrest cell
    cycle progression, decrease PSA production and
    inhibit the development and metastasis
  • (Siddiqui, 2006 Adhami, 2003 Sartor, 2004
    Ren, 2000)

Green Tea and Breast Cancer
  • GT decreased BCA tumor size injected to
    mice(66) and weight (68)
  • Green tea inhibits VEGF growth, and cell
    proliferation and migration
  • ( Experimental Biology 2008 conference. Wei-Gu. )

44
Curcumin
  • Recent studies have shown curcumin to interfere
    with cell-signaling pathways, thus suppressing
    the transformation, proliferation, and invasion
    of cancerous cells
  • In prostate cancer cell lines, curcumin inhibits
    cell growth and induces apoptosis, which is
    programmed cell death (Nakamura, 2002)
  • These observations have been extended to in vivo
    animal models (Dorai, 2001)

45
Cruciferous Vegetables
  • Sources
  • arugula, broccoli, brussels sprouts, bok choy,
    cabbage, canola, cauliflower, collard greens,
    daikon, horseradish, kale, kohlrabi, mustard,
    radish, rutabaga, wasabi and watercress
  • Cancer fighting compound Indole-3-Carbinol (
    13c)
  • Recommendation
  • 1 serving per day reduces risk for breast
    cancer

46
Cruciferous Vegetables and Breast Cancer
  • Findings from a large cohort analysis of more
    than 3000 survivors suggest that higher intake of
    vegetables in women taking TAMOXIFEN reduced new
    or recurrent breast cancer events by as much as
    52
  • This effect was not present for non-tamoxifen
    users
  • Thomson, 2010

47
Folate Rich Foods
  • Sources Wheat bread, Pasta, breakfast Cereals
  • In a large-scale study, researchers evaluated the
    effects of folate on more than 27,000 male
    smokers between ages 50 and 69
  • Men who consumed at least the recommended daily
    allowance of folate -- about 400 micrograms --
    cut by half their risk of developing pancreatic
    cancer

48
Lycopene
  • Men who consumed 2 or gt servings of tomato sauce
    a week over the course of the 12-year study
  • 28 lower risk of developing organ-confined
    prostate cancer, 35 lower risk of developing
    locally advanced disease, 36 lower risk of
    developing metastatic disease
  • (Giovannucci, 2002, Health Professionals
    Follow-Up)
  • Another study found that pre-prostatectomy
    patients who consumed tomato sauce pasta dishes
    for 3 weeks (containing 30 mg of lycopene per
    day) demonstrated decreased PSA counts and lower
    oxidative DNA damage
  • (CHEN, 2001)
  • A similar study showed increased apoptosis in
    prostatectomy specimens after consuming 3 weeks
    of tomato sauce pasta dishes
  • (Kim, 2003)
  • )

49
Ginger
  • Researchers discovered ginger's ability to
    kill cancer cells in two ways
  • In apoptosis, the cancer cells essentially commit
    suicide without harming surrounding cells
  • In autophagy, "the cells are tricked into
    digesting themselves"

J. Rebecca Liu, the University of Michigan in Ann
Arbor
50
Vitamin D
  • Link between increased vitamin D intake
  • reduced breast cancer risk by 50 (AACR)
  • Improved survival rates among lung cancer
    patients (Harvard study,2005)
  • Lung Cancer surgery survival rate
  • Surgery during summer 56 5yr SR
  • Surgery during winter 23 5yr SR
  • Recommended dose is 2000 IU per day
  • Good sources Fish ( tuna, mackerel, herring)
  • Eel, egg, fortified dairy foods
  • Sunlight exposure before 10 am and after 4pm for
    10 minutes a day

51
Lifestyle Modification Tips on Preventing Cancer
  • Drink green tea
  • - 2-3 cups per day
  • green tea is protective against
  • breast and prostate cancer risk
  • Drink red wine instead of beer
  • daily allowance 1 glass/day
  • for women, 2 glasses/daymen
  • Exercise 30 minutes a day
  • Sleep 7-8 hours a day
  • Manage your stress levels

52
  • Thanks for Listening
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