Critical Infrastructure for Sustainable Communities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Critical Infrastructure for Sustainable Communities PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3f69a2-YzE2N


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Critical Infrastructure for Sustainable Communities


Critical Infrastructure for Sustainable Communities Chris Ling Ann Dale: Canada Research Chair in Sustainable Communities Royal Roads University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:458
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 53
Provided by: JoeSm8


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Critical Infrastructure for Sustainable Communities

Critical Infrastructure for Sustainable
Chris Ling Ann Dale Canada Research Chair in
Sustainable Communities Royal Roads University
What is Infrastructure?
The set of structural elements that supports the
day to day function and influences the direction
of society
What is Sustainable Infrastructure?
The designing, building, and operating of these
structural elements in ways that do not do not
diminish the social, economic and ecological
processes required to maintain human equity,
diversity and the functionality of natural
Why do we need it?
The importance of sustainable infrastructure to a
community and its capacity for innovation is
similar to the foundation the human skeleton
plays in the overall structuring, functioning and
health of the body.
The Ecological Imperative
  • Meeting the challenges of Climate Change
  • Retrofitting buildings with standard technology
    30 GHG saving
  • Retrofitting with leading-edge technology
    60 GHG saving
  • Could save up to 1/5 of current energy consumption

The Social Imperative
  • Liveability and Quality of Life
  • Impact of the built environment on health and

The Economic Imperative
  • Lower maintenance costs
  • Lower energy costs
  • Lower health care costs
  • Drive for innovation
  • Competitive edge

Source Evan Hill (2005)
The Research
  • Trans-disciplinary team
  • Public and private sector
  • Expertise in economics, planning, forestry,
    systems dynamics, community participation and
  • Additional expertise bought from practitioners,
    decision-makers, researchers and from civil
  • Case studies from infrastructure innovation in
  • Survey of planners
  • 6 E-dialogues

  • A website to enhance literacy for public
  • 20 case studies dynamic and interactive
  • Database of innovators
  • Integrated Community Sustainability Planning Tool
  • Series of community checklists for Sustainable

Website http//
Case studies
  • Sectors
  • Energy
  • Transportation
  • Waste Management
  • Land Use Planning
  • Governance
  • Demonstrating
  • Integrated Planning
  • Transformation and Innovation
  • Transferability

Sustainable Infrastructure Case Studies
Land Use Planning Livability as Part of
Sustainable Development Long Term Planning

Transportation Mass Transit as a Tool to
Encourage Sustainable Communities New Mobility
HUBs in Toronto Transit-oriented Residential
Development at Mt. St. Hillaire Waste Green Bin
Programs Storm Water Management
Sustainable Infrastructure Case Studies
Energy A Microgeneration Strategy for Canada Deep
Water Cooling Municipally Sponsored Use of Energy
Performance Contracting Renewable Energy on
PEI Wolfe Island Wind Power, Kingston

Governance Ecoperth Quest Food Exchange The Use
of Mid-term Objectives and Implementation
mechanisms United we Can community initiative
  • Key findings
  • Recommendations
  • Community Checklists
  • ICSP Tool

Key findings
  • 19th and 20th Century governance structures are
    not suitable for 21st Century imperatives.
  • Fundamental gridlock in almost all Canadian
  • Disconnect between federal, provincial and local
    government between large, medium and small
    communities between business and research
    communities between the planning system and
    on-the-ground implementation
  • Lack of vision - particularly at the Federal
  • The legal system does not best serve sustainable
  • Planning usually far too short term needs to be
    100 years
  • Champion based progress lack of institutional

The problem of lock-in
  • Magnitude of investment in current infrastructure
    is huge e.g. Ottawa 112 Billion
  • One unsustainable historical infrastructure
    choice is intrinsically tied and has led to
    others e.g. a 1950s suburb is a complex
    relationship between lot sizes, storm pipes,
    sewers, roads, parks etc etc a change in one
    means a change in all.
  • Current planning process are also part of this
  • The cost of change of each individual component
    is likely modest the cost to change all, is
  • With short-term perspectives this is not
    affordable for most communities.

Key findings the positive
  • 700 decision makers Something must be done!
  • Near unanimous agreement investment in
    sustainable infrastructure is a necessary and
    sufficient condition for the ecological, social
    and economic well being of out communities.
  • There are many examples of Canadian innovative
    sustainable infrastructure choices, in all
    sectors of infrastructure.
  • The problem is not one of example, technology or
    even cost, the problem is one of planning and

Infrastructure Learning
Linear Solutions (strong centre, strong
edges) Reduce, reuse, recycle Cost/benefit
analyses Prototypes
Cross domain connections (weak centre, strong
edges) Worldview linkages Sustainability _at_ CAS???
Waste Management Energy Transportation Land Use
Planning Governance
No patterns, no relationships (weak centre, weak
edges) Crisis challenges all knowns, knowables,
complexities Emergencies _at_ emergents
Entrenched Silos (strong centre weak
edges) Barriers Best Practices / Case Studies
Un-supportive system
Sustainable solutions
Locked in technology and processes
Flexible sustainable processes
Isolated innovations and innovators
A variety of local solutions appropriate to local
conditions supported by processes
Using market mechanisms to stimulate greater
innovation and adoption
Without the internalization of environmental
costs sustainable infrastructure will never be a
political priority
Recommendation Municipal government implement
comprehensive water pricing Provincial and
Federal governments implement a carbon pricing
system Money raised invested in sustainable
Necessity of Innovative Financing
The investment required is too pricy for a
tax-based system, private financing must be
sought to support communities and spread the risk
of innovation
Recommendation Governments implement programs to
explore and disseminate the knowledge of
alternative financing techniques
Reducing uncertainty and risk
Most communities in Canada are so far from being
sustainable, fairly radical changes are required,
needing state-of-the-art and the innovative. But
most communities so not have the capacity to
manage this risk
Recommendation The federal government lead and
broker partnerships for continuing pilot projects
for leading edge solutions Mechanisms to
alleviate risks are considered e.g. subsidized
Reducing uncertainty and risk
Most communities in Canada are so far from being
sustainable fairly radical changes are required.
But most communities so not have the capacity to
manage this risk
Recommendation The federal government lead and
broker partnerships for continuing pilot projects
for leading edge solutions Mechanisms to
alleviate risks are considered e.g. subsidized
Reducing uncertainty and risk
Most communities in Canada are so far from being
sustainable fairly radical changes are required,
needing state-of-the-art and the innovative. But
most communities so not have the capacity to
manage this risk
Recommendation All levels of government should
implement asset management, life-cycle analysis
and full cost accounting with ongoing periodic
reviews of sustainable infrastructure
investments. Regulatory regimes provide lee-way
for investors willing to incur risks by moving to
leading edge and proven state of the art
technology investments
Policy congruence and alignment
Policies, codes, and standards for sustainable
infrastructure development vary enormously across
and between governments, and often are simply
inconsistent. Initiatives at community levels are
often stymied. Planning is disconnected from
actual implementation.
Recommendation Infrastructure Canada convene a
series of regional planning round tables to
identify inconsistencies, and to begin
comprehensive policy congruence and realignment
between municipal, provincial and federal levels.
Comprehensive Planning Techniques
Comprehensive long term planning for
sustainability in Canadian communities is not
common, and when in place, rarely linked to
decision-making bodies and governance structures.
Present planning at best only touches on the
costs associated with sustainable development.
Recommendation The Government of Canada
disseminate knowledge on sustainable
infrastructure innovations and planning
techniques including techniques to enhance the
sociological and economic and environmental
attributes of sustainability and cost forecasting.
Innovative Financing Techniques
Innovative financing options are a key for
communities trying to redirect less sustainable
infrastructure choices to more sustainable ones
The encouragement of e.g.
  • Recommendation
  • Energy performance contracting
  • Utilities provide funds to businesses to
    implement improvement, reclaiming funds with
    on-bill surcharging.
  • Built/Own/Operate/Transfer public/private/partners
    hips to finance sustainable larger infrastructure

Innovative Financing Techniques
Innovative financing options are a key for
communities trying to redirect less sustainable
infrastructure choices to more sustainable ones.
Recommendation Federal and Provincial
governments encourage municipalities to sponsor
the wide-spread use of energy performance
contracting to finance improvements in energy and
water use of buildings.
Community Checklists
For each of the five infrastructure sectors, what
are the questions that a community needs to ask?
  • Energy focus on energy savings
  • Waste focus on composting and storm water
  • Transport focus on Transit Hubs
  • Land use planning - focus on long-term and limits
    to growth
  • Governance policy alignment

Energy savings
Basic Information and Initial Decisions
  • Is there support within your community for energy
    saving investments, and how is this support being
  • Are you aware of how much can be achieved through
    planning for energy savings?
  • Have you examined case studies and best practices
    to get a feel for what can be done?
  • Have you undertaken an energy audit of your
  • Do you intend to undertake energy-savings
    investments in-house or are you going to contract
  • Are your plans for energy savings linked to a
    broader sustainability plan?

Energy savings
  • Do you have a list of reputable energy-savings
  • For energy saving, are you aware that employee
    and tenant awareness programs may be just as
    important as investment in equipment?
  • Has consideration been given to green building
    standards in the planning and construction of new

Basic Information and Initial Decisions
  • Have you prepared an inventory of your
    guidelines, regulations, standards, bylaws,
    zoning requirements?
  • Is your municipality aware of any overlap and
    duplication between local, provincial and federal
    responsibilities that may affect the development
    of sustainable infrastructure?
  • What are the barriers to concrete implementation
    of sustainable infrastructure?
  • Have you assessed your communitys engagement to
    climate change and sustainability?
  • What are other communities doing, and who are the
    leading edge communities in planning and
    implementing novel plans for governance?
  • What is the most appropriate planning timeframe
    for implementing sustainable community

  • Have you considered how to address the whole
    issue of sustainability and how to govern it?
  • Do you have a template or plan to introduce
    sustainability within your community, and
    appropriately govern it?
  • Have you aligned policies, zoning, bylaws,
    regulations and standards to achieve optimal
    sustainable infrastructure implementation?
  • Do you have readily available material describing
    the long term advantages of pursing
    sustainability within your community?
  • Have you developed a process to ensure community
    engagement, and political commitment and support?

Integrated Community Sustainability Plans for
Canadian Municipalities
The development of a template to support
integrated community sustainability planning
I believe many planners, certainly those
properly credentialed, have been practicing the
planning approach that is advocated in this
tool for many years... Whether the
decision-making frameworks have embraced these is
another matter.
I think the biggest barrier is that we generally
do not have good processes or structures in place
in our communities that allow us to develop
community visions or plans in a systematic way.
We have separated humans from other beings and
from nature.
What is it about?
Sustainability, I believe, is not an end state.
Consequently, a static plan cannot purport to
provide the ultimate prescription for
What is the template about?
  • Engagement

Tools and Techniques
planning at too large a scale often bogs down
because of differences in interest OR if you have
a common interest but no authority. Planning at
too small a scale often means that the plan is
great but the power/authority to implement change
is lacking.
at what level do we decide to plan, on the scale
of a neighbourhood or a region, and in reality,
are not cities just a system of embedded
neighbourhoods if diversity is respected
  • Integration linking sustainability and planning

Scale moving beyond municipal boundaries and
short term policies
Governance proactive planning rather than
reactive planning
Inclusion early and full engagement of the
Please don't encourage people not to be
visionary or utopian --how else will be move out
of our present predicament.
The approach
I think that the base planning would be done at
a 100 year time scale, at a geographic scale that
included a city and it's hinterland.
The stepwise approach
Engage with the community
Understanding the place
Creating a plan
Looking at the embedded links in the Integrated
Community Sustainability Planning tool all
attempt to engage the whole community in the
planning process -- as a first step of
Planning strategies can begin with a single
building, say a houseFrom house to street to
block to neighbourhood similar themes can be
developedwith synergy kicking in to support
the district.
Engaging the communitygetting people involved
Representation who is the community what are
the stakeholders?
Principles of engagement to engender a open,
collaborative and inclusive process
Use of tools many existing resources to help the
Learning from others use the experience of other
We are trying to create a structure plan whereby
density increases and forms are connected to
transportation infrastructure, energy
opportunities, amenities (existing or potential)
etclike streets that function as parks, like
parks that function like farms, etc.
but what about protecting agricultural land and
natural spaces from the development/growth
Mapping the communityunderstanding the place
Green and community mapping what matters, and
Land use and landscape planning how to manage
growth and change
Systems approach making space for natural
systems and developing within the carrying
capacity of the region
we cannot create community until we first
envision it
As we ponder scale of place -- what about time
scale? These days we are taking up more place
space but seem to have less and less time to
allocate to whole systems thinking and planning
it is just urgent -- no time for importance.
Creating a planframeworks for development and
What is the community vision?
Timeframe long-term vision linked to short term
cycles and goals
Scale links to neighbouring jurisdictions,
nested systems
I have observed over the years that much good
work is done at the community or OCP planning
level only to be completely ignored at the
implementation phase
in my area. . . people are wanting to create
rural co-housing, small eco-villages etc and are
running smack into zoning regulations that were
designed for a large extended family that
farmed the land . . . times have changed but
underlying thinking has not
Creating a planframeworks for development and
Institutional needs is the municipality in a
position to deliver on the plan?
Identify strategic areas what does the plan need
to focus on?
Commitments and outcomes what are the resource
and reporting implications of the plan?
The recently completed regional plan placed a
moratorium on development while policies were
established and now the document itself is poised
for implementation.
a large barrier to integrated planning is the
weak position of Planning relative to the larger
power of the politicians, Engineering Dept and
Parks Depts (and the even weaker positions of
environmental planning or social planning
sections if they exist at all)
Implementing the planThe ICSP needs to be the
primary operating document for the municipality
Policies bylaws and regulations do these line up
behind the ICSP or are they contradictory?
Legal authority Is the plan enforceable by law?
Monitoring is there a robust cycle of evaluation
to ensure that short term action move the
community towards the long term vision?
The tool is an excellent guide for communities
to pursue sustainability. It offers many
worthwhile, essential even, suggestions for
communities to undertake Integrated Community
Sustainability Planning.
a static plan cannot purport to provide the
ultimate prescription for sustainability