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Title: From typology to usage to cognition:


1
From typology to usage to cognition
  • How to explain crosslinguistic differences in
    descriptions of motion events
  • Dan I. Slobin
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • slobin_at_berkeley.edu

2
COGNITION
LANGUAGE/ CULTURE
PSYCHO- LINGUISTIC RESOURCES
LANGUAGE USE


DISCOURSE
3
COGNITION
linguistic structures
LANGUAGE/ CULTURE
PSYCHO- LINGUISTIC RESOURCES
LANGUAGE USE
anthropological linguistic preferences


DISCOURSE
4

COGNITION
thinking for speaking receiving for
understanding
accessible form-function mappings
linguistic structures
LANGUAGE/ CULTURE
PSYCHO- LINGUISTIC RESOURCES
LANGUAGE USE
anthropological linguistic preferences


DISCOURSE
5
habitual attention and
perception

COGNITION
thinking for speaking receiving for
understanding
accessible form-function mappings
linguistic structures
dominant discourse patterns
LANGUAGE/ CULTURE
PSYCHO- LINGUISTIC RESOURCES
LANGUAGE USE
anthropological linguistic preferences


DISCOURSE
6
PART ONE LINGUISTICS OF MANNER
SALIENCE LANGUAGE/ CULTURE
COGNITION
PSYCHO- LINGUISTIC RESOURCES
LANGUAGE USE


DISCOURSE MANNER SALIENCE
7
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8
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9
Is the same motion event reported
differently in different languages?
10
Washington Post April 1, 2003
  • Near Karbala, Iraq As the unidentified
    four-wheel drive vehicle came barreling toward an
    intersection Capt. Ronny Johnson grew
    increasingly alarmed.

11
Washington Post April 1, 2003
  • Near Karbala, Iraq As the unidentified
    four-wheel drive vehicle came barreling toward an
    intersection Capt. Ronny Johnson grew
    increasingly alarmed.

12
  • DUTCH Johnson zag hoe een terreinwagen kwam
    aanscheuren naar het kruispunt
  • Johnson saw a landcruiser come tearing up
    to the intersection

    (NRC Handelsblad,
    April 1, 2003)
  •  
  • SPANISH Johnson había visto la llegada del
    vehículo a una intersección
  • Johnson had seen the approach of the vehicle
    to an intersection


    (El Universal, April 1, 2003)

13
The frog story story
14
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15
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16
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17
The owls exit in four languages using path
verbs
  • Spanish sale un buho
  • exits an owl
  • Japanese fukuroo ga dete-kite
  • owl come out
  • Turkish oradan bir baykus çikiyor
  • from there an owl exits
  • Hebrew yaca mitox haxor yanšuf
  • exits from-inside the-hole owl

18
The owls exit in four languages using
manner-of-motion verbs
  • English an owl popped out
  • German weil da eine Eule rausflattert
  • because there an owl out-flutters
  • Russian tam vy-skocila sova
  • there out-jumps owl
  • Mandarin fei1 chu1 lai2 yi1 zhi1
    mao1tou2ying1 fly exit come one owl

19
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
20
Manner Salience
  • Preliminary operational definition
  • the proportion of motion event descriptions,
    in representative texts, that include a manner of
    motion verb

21
Languages with low manner salience in frog
stories
  • Romance French, Galician, Italian, Portuguese,
    Spanish
  • Semitic Moroccan Arabic, Hebrew
  • Turkic Turkish
  • Inuit West Greenlandic
  • Mayan Tzeltal
  • Japanese
  • Basque

22
Languages with low manner salience in frog
stories
  • Romance French, Galician, Italian, Portuguese,
    Spanish
  • Semitic Moroccan Arabic, Hebrew
  • Turkic Turkish
  • Inuit West Greenlandic
  • Mayan Tzeltal
  • Japanese
  • Basque

23
Languages with high manner salience in frog
stories
  • Germanic Dutch, English, German, Icelandic,
    Swedish, Yiddish
  • Slavic Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian
  • Finno-Ugric Hungarian
  • Sino-Tibetan Mandarin Chinese
  • Tai-Kadai Thai
  • Austronesian Tsou

24
COGNITION
LANGUAGE/ CULTURE
PSYCHO- LINGUISTIC RESOURCES
LANGUAGE USE


DISCOURSE
25
LANGUAGE / CULTURE
  • typology of lexicalization patterns
  • available expressive devices
  • linguistic constraints
  • available morphosyntactic options
  • cultural preferences

26
Hi-Mlanguages (High Manner salience) versus Lo-M
languages (Low Manner salience)
  • additional data
  • creative writing (novels)
  • conversations
  • lexical accessibility

27
Motion verbs in novels
  • Three languages
  • Spanish (Lo-Mlanguage)
  • Turkish (Lo-Mlanguage)
  • English (Hi-Mlanguage)
  • Nine novels in each language
  • Twenty trajectories in each novel

28
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29
English novels
  • monomorphemic verbs (51 types) bolt, brush,
    bump, burst, climb, crawl, creep, cut, dart, dip,
    dive, drift, drop, edge, flee, glide, grope,
    hasten, hurry, jump, leap, limp, loiter, march,
    plod, plunge, race, roll, run, rush, rustle,
    scramble, skitter, slide, slip, sneak, spring,
    sprint, step, stride, stroll, struggle, stumble,
    thread, tiptoe, tramp, trip, wade, walk, wander,
    work
  • phrasal verbs (11 types) drag oneself, edge
    one's way, grope one's way, hurl oneself, make
    one's way, pick one's way, push one's way, strike
    a path, take a step, thread one's way, work one's
    way

30
Russian novels
  • monomorphemic verbs (47 types) begat/bežat,
    bresti, brodit, brositsja, dobralatsja,
    guljat karabkatsja, katitsja, kinutsja,
    krastsja, letet, lezt, lomitsja, marširovat,
    maxnut, matnutsja, nabivatsja, nestis
    nositsja, nyrnut, pljuxnutsja, plyt, polzti,
    pripustit, probiratsja, probivatsja,
    prokladyvat, proryvatsja, protisnutsja,
    prygat/prygnut, ruxnut, rvanutsja,
    šagat/šagnut, šarkat, šatatsja, šmygnut,
    skakat/skocit/skakyvat, spešit,
    stupat/stupit, tašcitsja, tolknutsja,
    tronutsja, valitsja, vygružatsja, vyporxnut,
    zabratsja
  • phrasal verbs (1 type) medlit/pribavit/sbavit
    šag

31
Spanish novels
  • individual verbs (23 types) andar, arrastrarse,
    atropellarse, caminar, chocar, cojear, correr,
    deslizarse, echarse, escabullirse, escapar,
    flotar, gatear, huir, irrumpir, lanzarse, pasear,
    pedalear, pisar, rodar, saltar, trepar, tropezar
  • go, walk, drag oneself, hurry, bump, limp, run,
    slip, creep, throw-oneself, scurry, roll, escape,
    float, climb, crawl-on-all-fours, flee, burst-in,
    promenade, pedal-bicycle, step, jump, stumble
  • phrasal verbs (4 types) abrirse paso, apretar
    el paso, correr en puntas de pie, estar al galope
  • force ones way, increase the pace, run on
    tiptoe, be at a gallop

32
Turkish novels
  • individual verbs (15 types) atilmak, atlamak,
    çarpmak, dalmak, dolanmak, dolasmak, emeklemek,
    firlamak, kaçmak, kosmak, saldirmak, siçramak,
    sürüklemek, tirmanmak, yürümek
  • leap, jump, bump, plunge, wander, crawl, rush,
    flee, run, charge-at, drag-oneself, climb, walk
  • phrasal verbs (5 types) adim atmak, at kendini,
    ayaklari ayaklarina dolanmak, ayaklarini uçlarina
    basmak, hamle yapmak
  • take a step, throw oneself, wander about on
    foot, tread on tiptoe, make a great leap forward
  •  
  •  
  •  

33
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34
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35
Manner of motion verbs in about two hours of
British and American conversation (Hi-M)
  • 34 types
  • clamber, climb, crawl, dash, dive, drag oneself,
    drift, drive, flee, float, flop, fly, glide,
    hike, jump, leap, march, poke, plunge, run, rush,
    slide, sneak, stagger, step, swim, tread, trip,
    trot, trudge, walk, wander

36
Motion verbs in about two hours of Spanish
conversation (Lo-M) (Colombian women)
  • 9 types of path verbs (97 of tokens)
  • ir, venir, alcanzar, bajar, entrar, llegar,
    pasar,
  • salir, volver
  • go, come, reach, descend, enter, arrive, pass,
    exit, return
  • 2 types of manner verbs (3 of tokens)
  • caminar, pasear
  • walk

37
Motion verbs in about two hours of Turkish
conversation (Lo-M) (students)
  • 5 types of path verbs (98 of tokens)
  • gitmek, gelmek, çikmak, dönmek, geçmek
  • go, come, exit/ascend, return, cross/pass
  • 1 type of manner verb (2 of tokens)
  • yürümek
    walk

38
Why should languages differ systematically in
manner salience?
  • Linguistic typology may facilitate regular
    encoding of a domain
  • lexicalization patterns
  • construction types
  • Diachronically, patterns of expression become
    entrenched languages have habitual styles of
    expression.

39
Talmys binary typology
  • lexicalization pattern
  • Path verb MOTION DIRECTION
    enter, exit, ascend, descend, etc.
  • Path satellite MOTION DIRECTION in, out,
    up, down, etc.
  • Manner verb MOTION MANNER
    walk, run, crawl, sprint, etc.

40
Expression of path of motion in the two types of
languages
  • construction type
  • Verb-framed
    MAIN VERB NOUN
    enter the house
  • Satellite-framed
    MAIN VERB SATELLITE PREP.PHRASE
    go in-to the house

41
Expression of manner of motion in the two types
of languages
  • VERB-framed languages
  • Manner is expressed in a construction associated
    with the main verb
  • enter running
  • exit on the tips of the toes
  • SATELLITE-framed languages
  • Manner is expressed in the main verb
  • run in
  • tiptoe out

42
Examples of the two types of languages
  • VERB-FRAMED
  • Romance
  • Semitic
  • Turkic
  • Japanese
  • Korean
  • Basque
  • SATELLITE-FRAMED
  • Germanic
  • Slavic
  • Finno-Ugric
  • Sino-Tibetan
  • Tai-Kadai

43
Examples of the two types of languages
Lo-M
Hi-M
  • VERB-FRAMED
  • Romance
  • Semitic
  • Turkic
  • Korean
  • Japanese
  • Basque
  • SATELLITE-FRAMED
  • Germanic
  • Slavic
  • Finno-Ugric
  • Sino-Tibetan
  • Tai-Kadai

44
Examples of the two types of languages
Lo-M
Hi-M
  • VERB-FRAMED
  • Romance
  • Semitic
  • Turkic
  • Korean
  • Japanese
  • Basque
  • SATELLITE-FRAMED
  • Germanic
  • Slavic
  • Finno-Ugric
  • Sino-Tibetan
  • Tai-Kadai

45
Does Talmys typology match up with Lo-M
and Hi-Mlanguages?
46
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
47
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
verb-framed
48
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
verb-framed
satellite-framed
49
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
serial-verb
verb-framed
satellite-framed
satellite-framed
50
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
bipartite-verb
serial-verb
verb-framed
satellite-framed
satellite-framed
51
The two additional lexicalization patterns
  • serial verb constructions
  • Mandarin fei1 chu1 lai2 yi1 zhi1
    mao1tou2ying1 fly exit come one owl
  • bipartite verbs
  • Malay (Austronesian)
  • ter-keluar abruptly exit
  • ter-masuk abruptly enter
  • Klamath (Penutian)
  • kol-hi run inside
  • kci-Lii crawl inside

52
Typology and manner salience
  • Lo-Mlanguages that are Verb-framed Romance,
    Semitic, Turkic, Inuit, Mayan, Japanese, Basque
  • Hi-Mlanguages that are satellite-framed
    Germanic, Slavic, Finno-Ugric
  • Hi-Mlanguages that dont fit the typology
    Mandarin, Thai, Tsou

53
From a dichotomy to a trichotomy
  • Verb-framed languages
    PATH VERB SUBORDINATE MANNER
    VERB
  • Satellite-framed languages
    MANNER VERB PATH SATELLITE
  • Equipollently-framed languages
    MANNER VERBAL PATH VERBAL

54
Types of equipollently-framed languages
  • serial verb languages Niger-Congo, Hmong-Mien,
    Sino-Tibetan, Tai-Kadai, Mon-Khmer, some
    Austronesian
  • bipartite verb languages Algonquian,
    Athabaskan, Hokan, Klamath-Takelman, some
    Austronesian (Tsou)
  • generic verb languages Jaminjungan

55
Jaminjungan (Eva Schultze-Berndt)
  • closed class of 30 generic verbs (obligatory
    inflectional morphology)
  • large open class of uninflecting coverbs (manner,
    path, posture, configuration, contact, transfer,
    social interaction, perception)

56
five verbs of locomotion
  • -iyga GO
  • -ruma COME
  • -unga LEAVE
  • -arrga APPROACH
  • -wardagarra FOLLOW

57
  • some coverbs of path
  • burduj MOVE UPWARDS
  • jid MOVE DOWNWARDS
  • malang CROSS
  • wurlurlu ENTER 3D CONTAINER
  • some coverbs of manner of motion
  • warlnginy WALK
  • yugung RUN
  • mingib CRAWL
  • digurrgba LIMP

58
Codability of manner a processing proposal
  • Various factors act to make manner highly
    codable in Hi-Mlanguages.
  • Expression by
  • a finite rather than nonfinite verb (e.g.,
    English vs. Spanish)
  • an uninflected coverb (e.g., Jaminjung vs.
    Turkish)
  • a single morpheme rather than a phrase
    or clause (e.g., Mandarin vs. French)
  • a fixed syntactic position (e.g., English vs.
    Spanish)

59
LANGUAGE / CULTURE
  • typology of lexicalization patterns
  • available expressive devices
  • linguistic constraints on typological realization
  • available morphosyntactic options
  • cultural preferences

60
Beyond typology ideophones
  • Basque
    isil-isilik there how start
    ground-ABLATIVE (start to walk quietly along
    the ground)
  • Japanese
    doya-doya enter come
    (come in noisily)

61
Manner lexicons of ideophones?
  • Zulu gulukudu rush in headlong
  • Ewe minyaminya stealthily
  • Emai kítíkítí at-a-stomp
  • Ilocano widawid swinging the arms while
    walking
  • Japanese tyoko-maka moving around in small
    steps

62
Yo Matsumoto
  • Languages such as Japanese tend to have a small
    set of manner verbs and to make such finer manner
    distinctions in adverbials, especially in
    onomatopoeic or semi-onomatopoeic terms.
  • Some languages such as English are
    manner-in-verb languages, in which verbs tend to
    make rich manner distinctions, while languages
    like Japanese are manner-in-adverb languages, in
    which manner distinctions are primarily made by
    adverbials.

63
Manner expressed by posture verbs
  • Tzeltal Mayan (Penny Brown) V-language with
    rich lexicon of posture verbs, e.g. (picture of
    dog in frog story, limping away after having been
    stung by bees)
  • xpejkunaj xben hilel
  • He looks like hes low-crouching walking

64
LANGUAGE / CULTURE
  • typology of lexicalization patterns
  • available expressive devices
  • linguistic constraints on typological realization
  • available morphosyntactic options
  • cultural preferences

65
Qualifications to Talmys typology Constraints
on the expression of manner
  • Boundary-crossing Constraint (Aske,
    Slobin Hoiting)
  • Unique Vector Constraint (Bohnemeyer)
  • Lexical and morphosyntactic constraints

66
Boundary-crossing constraint (Aske,
Slobin Hoiting)
  • Satellite-framed language
  • run toward house
  • run into house
  • Equipollently-framed language
  • run approach house
  • run enter house
  • Verb-framed language
  • run toward house
  • running enter house

67
  • No speaker of a verb-framed language ever said
    that the owl exited flying.

68
Unique Vector Constraint
  • Bohnemeyer All direction specifications in a
    single simple clause referring to a single
    continuous motion event must denote the same
    direction vector

69
2 vectors
  • ENGLISH She ran downstairs and to
    the door.
  • SPANISH Ella bajó la escalera y
    corrió a la puerta.
    She
    descended the staircase and ran
    to the door.

70
Translation from Hi-M to Lo-M
  • Salí por la puerta de la cocina (I exited the
    kitchen door)
  • pasé por los corrales (passed by the animal
    pens)
  • y me dirigí a casa de Jasón (and directed
    myself to Jasóns house)
  • I ran out the kitchen door,
  • past the animal pens,
  • towards Jasóns house.

71
LANGUAGE / CULTURE
  • typology of lexicalization patterns
  • available expressive devices
  • linguistic constraints on typological realization
  • available morphosyntactic options
  • cultural preferences

72
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
73
OWL'S EXIT PERCENTAGE OF NARRATORS USING A
MANNER-OF-MOTION VERB
Russian
satellite-framed
English Dutch German
74
Manner, Path, Deixis
  • Germanic
  • the owl flew out
  • the owl came out
  • Slavic
  • the owl out-flew ????????
  • the owl hither-flew ?????????

75
Stretching the constraints language contact
76
Stretching the constraints language contact
V E R B F R A M E D
S A T E L L I T E F R A M ED
77
Restructuring of Romance directional adverbs on
the model of Germanic satellites
  • Northern Italian
  • correr su run up (lt hinauf-rennen)
  • sgusciare via wriggle out (lt weg-schleichen)
  • Swiss French
  • choir bas fall down (lt herunter-fallen)
  • cesi fioe chase out (lt hinaus-jagen)
  • Belgian French
  • sauter bas jump down (lt neer-springen)
  • entrer dedans enter inside come in (lt
    in-gaan )

78
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79
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80
LANGUAGE / CULTURE
  • typology of lexicalization patterns
  • available expressive devices
  • linguistic constraints on typological realization
  • available morphosyntactic options
  • cultural preferences

81
Differential use of resources (frog stories)
  • Japanese frequent use of multiverb constructions
    including manner (Sugiyama)
  • te-forms, e.g., mai-ori-te-kuru
    flutter-descend-and-come (fly down to)
  • i-forms, e.g., nori-koeru ride-cross (ride
    across)
  • main verb secondary verb, e.g., tobi-tsuku
    jump-attach (jump onto)
  • Korean infrequent use of comparable
    constructions (Oh)

82
Western Austronesian (Huang Tanangkingsing) w
eak V-languages?
  • Saisiyat, Squliq
  • MANNER and PATH verbs in series in a single
    clause
  • more frequent manner expressions in frog stories
  • Tagalog, Cebuano
  • dispreference for multiple verbs in a clause
  • less frequent manner expressions in frog stories

83
Oral cultures (Berthele)
  • Unwritten Swiss dialects spoken by small
  • face-to-face groups (frog story data)
  • German (S-lg), Romansch (V-lg?)
  • preference for semantically empty motion verbs
    (go come)
  • limited diversity of manner verbs
  • preference for ellipsis
  • preference for redundant path expression
  • REDUCED MANNER SALIENCE

84
Manner Salience
  • Preliminary operational definition
  • the proportion of motion event descriptions,
    in representative texts, that include a
    manner of motion verb

85
Manner Salience
  • Preliminary operational definition
  • the proportion of motion event descriptions,
    in representative texts, that include a
    manner of motion verb
  • Revised operational definition the
    proportion of motion event descriptions, in
    representative texts, that provide explicit
    information about manner of motion

86
Methodological question What are the proper data?
  • Linguistic judgments
  • Dont provide evidence for manner salience as
    defined.
  • Dont provide frequency data.
  • Narrative discourse (oral, written) (fiction,
    news reporting)
  • Provides consistent, quantifiable evidence for
    determining a languages manner salience.
  • Conversation
  • Provides corroborative, quantitative usage
    evidence.
  • But other types of discourse may increase
    demands for specification of manner (e.g.,
    precise description of behavior).

87
An example French child language transcript of
child age 23 (CHILDES)
  • father to child remonte sur le lit, comme ça
  • re-ascend on your bed, like this
  • mother to child qu estçe tu fais?
  • what are you doing?
  • child je monte I ascend
  • transcribers note philippe grimpe dans son
    lit
  • philippe climbs in his bed

88
And context may allow constraints to be lifted
  • An example Boundary-crossing with a manner
    verb in contexts where boundary-crossing is
    expected (Stringer 2003, from Beavers, Levin,
    Tham 2004)
  • mother shouting from inside house to children to
    come inside
    Allez, courons dans la maison!
  • Go on, lets run in the house!

89
PART TWO SOME COGNITIVE CONSEQUENCES LANGUAGE/
CULTURE
COGNITION
PSYCHO- LINGUISTIC RESOURCES
LANGUAGE USE


DISCOURSE MANNER SALIENCE
90
From linguistics to cognition
  • lexical expansion and granularity of conception
    of the manner domain thinking for speaking
  • constructing semantic space in acquisition
  • attending for understanding
  • mental imagery
  • memory for detail

91
Thinking for speaking
92
Cognitive consequence granularity of
semantic space
  • Languages differ in how finely they divide up the
    domain of manner of movement.
  • Therefore learners face different tasks in
    constructing mental representations of manner of
    movement.

93
ENGLISH walk, stroll pace SPANISH
pasear walk pasear walk
94
  • slouch
  • mope saunter
  • lumber swagger
  • trudge limp
  • step
  • stride hobble
  • walk shuffle
  • pace stroll

95
Consequences for acquisition
  • Children are trained by their language to
    attend to particular event dimensions (Bowerman,
    Choi, et al.)

96

97
  • English-speaking preschool children use at least
    32 types of manner-of-motion verbs
  • bump,chase, climb, crawl, creep, dance, float,
    flop, fly, hike, hop, jog, jump, march, paddle,
    pounce, race, roll, run, rush, scoot, skip,
    slide, slip, sneak, step, swim, tread, trip,
    trot, walk, wiggle

98
  • French-speaking preschool children use as few as
    6 types courir, faire du ski, glisser, nager,
    sauter, voler run,
    ski, slip, swim, jump, fly
  • Spanish-speaking preschool children use as few as
    8 types bailar, caer(se), correr, chocar(se),
    escaparse, nadar, saltar, volar
    dance, fall, run,
    crash, escape, swim, jump, fly

99
American preschoolers are trained to experience
manner-of-motion verbs in their bodies
  • In preschool activities and in gymnastics, there
    are lessons in acting out manner-of-motion verbs.

100
A Berkeley teacher shows children how to do a
lot of different walks
  • Hop on one foot forward, backward.
  • Lets prance lift up those knees!
  • Do a stomp walk. I wanna hear your feet big
    heavy feet.
  • Tiptoe. Shh! Dont let your heels touch.
  • Crawl forward. Crawl back.

101
A Berkeley gymnastics instructor drills
preschoolers on types of motion
  • Hop to me. Remember hopping is on
    one foot.
  • Now lets crawl.
  • Jump along a line and land on your feet.

102
Attending for understanding
103
Listening and reading Embodied language evokes
embodied concepts
  • EMBODIED BODY
  • LANGUAGE IMAGE-SCHEMA
  • IN MESSAGE OF EVENT

104
The same event
  • English come barreling toward
  • Dutch come tearing up to
  • Spanish approach

105
A proposal
  • News reports that are read or listened to in
    Hi-Manner Salient languages produce more dynamic
    mental images than reports of the same events in
    Lo-Manner Salient languages.

106
Computational consequences machine
comprehension of texts
  • Srini Narayanan
  • 1997 PhD Dissertation
  • International Computer Science Institute
  • Berkeley
  • Embodiment in language understanding
  • Perceptuo-motor representations in metaphoric
    reasoning about event descriptions

107
Stumbling leads to falling Falling is failure
  • In 1991, in response to World Bank pressure,
    India boldly set out on a path of liberalization.
    The government loosened its strangle-hold on
    business, and removed obstacles to international
    trade. While great strides were made in the
    first few years, the Government is currently
    stumbling in its efforts to implement the
    liberalization plan.

108
  • A computational Metaphor Reasoning System,
    with capacity to model human motor patterns in
    interaction with features of the physical
    terrain, can successfully interpret news reports
    on economics from the Wall Street Journal, the
    Economist, and the New York Times.

109
Consequences for the study of metaphor
  • There are crosslinguistic commonalities in
    metaphorical structuring of domains, but
    differences in nuances provided by manner verbs.

110
Seyda Özçaliskan PhD Dissertation 2002 Psychology,
Berkeley
  • Metaphor meets typology Ways of moving
    metaphorically in English and Turkish

111
Examples from novels
  • English manner She had the impression now that
    he had clambered back inside himself and shut the
    door.
  • Turkish path Istanbulu dinliyorum, diye
    geçirdi içinden.
    Im listening to Istanbul, he let it pass
    from his inside.

112
Examples from newspapers
  • English manner The economy continues to steam
    ahead and inflation continues to lie on the
    floor
    (Dallas Morning News, 1999)
  • Turkish path Gelmez denen ekonomik kriz vurdu
    geçti.
    The economic crisis that was thought as not
    coming, hit and passed.
    (Hürriyet, 1999)

113
Consequences for translation
  • The perspective of the target language dominates.
  • The dominance of the target language is most
    evident when source language and target language
    represent opposite types.

114
Translation from Hi-M to Lo-M
  • I ran out the kitchen door,
  • past the animal pens,
  • towards Jasóns house.
  • Salí por la puerta de la cocina (I exited the
    kitchen door)
  • pasé por los corrales (passed by the animal
    pens)
  • y me dirigí a casa de Jasón (and directed
    myself to Jasóns house)

115
Hi-Mlg Lo-Mlg
  • Attention to manner-of-motion is
    diminished.
  • MANNER VERBS KEPT
  • English to Spanish 62
  • English to Turkish 68

116
Lo-Mlg Hi-Mlg
  • Attention to manner-of-motion is
    maintained.
  • MANNER VERBS KEPT
  • Spanish to English 95
  • Turkish to English 80

117
Hi-Mlg Lo-Mlg
  • English
  • He stomped from
  • the trim house.
  • Spanish
  • Salió de la pulcra casa.
  • He exited from the trim house.

118
  • German
  • Eine Stunde schlich ich noch um das Haus herum
  • For another hour I crept around the house
  • French
  • Une heure durant, je
  • fis le tour de la maison
  • For an hour, I
  • made a circuit of the house

119
Lo-Mlg Hi-Mlg
  • Spanish
  • luego de diez minutos de asfixia y empujones,
    llegamos al pasillo de la entrada.
  • after ten minutes of asphyxiation and pushes,
    we arrived at
  • the exit.
  • English
  • after ten minutes of nearly being smothered or
    crushed to death, we finally fought our way to
    the exit.

120
Mental imagery evoked by event descriptions A
pilot experiment
  • Task Read a passage from a novel and report
    mental imagery.
  • Texts Event descriptions drawn from Spanish
    novels, with inferable manner of motion.
  • Subjects and conditions
  • English monolinguals read exact translation
  • Spanish monolinguals read original
  • Spanish-English bilinguals read each version

121
Sample text English version from Isabel
Allendes House of the Spirits
  • He got off the train at the station of San
    Lucas. It was a wretched place. From there, one
    could see the whole valley through an impalpable
    mist that rose from the earth the night rain had
    soaked. He combed the landscape for the town of
    San Lucas, but was only able to make out a far
    off hamlet that was faded in the dampness of the
    morning. He picked up his bags and started to
    walk through the mud and stones of a path that
    led to the town. He walked for more than ten
    minutes, grateful that it was not raining,
    because it was only with great difficulty that he
    was able to advance along the path with his heavy
    suitcases, and he realized that the rain would
    have converted it in a few seconds into an
    impassable mudhole.

122
Sample English reports of mental imagery (95 of
subjects)
  • dodge occasional hazards in the trail
  • move clumsily
  • rock from side to side
  • stagger, trudge
  • slow, sluggish movement, stumbling over the rocks
    on the path
  • walk apprehensively / at a slow pace / slowly
    hobbling / slowly and arduously a very jerky
    process
  •  

123
Spanish monolinguals report little or no imagery
  • Chilean No lo imagino bajándose del tren sino
    parado en el andén y no lo veo recorriendo un
    trajecto muy largo para llegar al pueblo más
    bien lo veo a una distancia ya del mismo,
    mirándolo. Reitero que no lo observo moverse en
    dirección al pueblo sino como imágines estáticas,
    más como fotografías.
  • I don't picture him getting down from the train
    but rather standing still on the platform and I
    don't see him going along a very long trajectory
    in order to arrive at the village rather I see
    him at a distance from it, looking at it. I
    repeat that I don't observe him moving in the
    direction of the village but rather as static
    images, more like photographs.
  •  

124
Spanish-English bilinguals follow the
languagesomewhat
  • Mexican-American in Spanish (first report, from
    Spanish text) Pareciera que se mueve, camina,
    pero no miro ninguna clase de acción detallada de
    parta de él. Se que camina y debe de lastimarse
    los pies con pedregal pero miro más las piedras y
    el camino que la manera en que camina. ...
    Pareciera que flotara por veces como si estuviera
    sentado en un carro."
  • It would seem that he moves, walks, but I don't
    see any sort of detailed action on his part. I
    know that he walks and must have his feet
    burdened with the stony ground but I see the
    stones and the path more than the manner in which
    he walks. ... It would seem that he were floating
    at times as if he were seated in a cart.

125
  • Mexican-American in English (second report, from
    English test) I'm still seeing very little
    manner of movement but I see more concrete
    walking and I can sort of make out a pace. I see
    less of the surroundings. The story feels
    different. There is less detail in regards to the
    scenery.
  •  

126
Mexican-American in English
(first report, from English text)
  • Trudgingly, sighing with great
    difficulty. Lugging his things, stumbling
    through the muddy path. Not quickly, dragging.
  •  
  • Mexican-American in English
    (second report, from Spanish text)
  • Still pictures he's here, then there. No
    movement image.
  •  

127
Memory for details of manner of
motion
  • Kyung-ju Oh PhD Dissertation 2003 Department
    of Psychology, Berkeley
  • Language, cognition, and development
    Motion events in English and Korean

128
(No Transcript)
129

(Non-Manner Information)
  •  1.  In this clip, where was the person walking?
  • 1) Into the building 2) away
    from the camera 3) Out of the
    building
  • 2. What was the person carrying?
  • 1) A backpack 2)
    A shopping bag 3) Nothing
  •  
  • 3. What was the color of shirt (and/or the
    jacket) the person was wearing?
  • 1) Black or dark gray 2)
    Light blue or white 3) Red or
    orange

130
(Manner Information)
  • In this clip, the person was walking
    _____________ he was in the normal pace clip.

    1) faster
    than 2) at
    the same speed as 3)
    slower than
  •  
  • In this clip, the persons steps were
    _____________ his steps in the normal pace
    clip.
  • 1) wider than
    2) same as
    3) narrower than
  •  
  • In this clip, the persons arms were swinging
    _____________ they were in the normal pace
    clip.
  • 1) wider than
    2) to the same degree as
    3) narrower than
  •  
  • In this clip, the person was exerting
    _____________ he was in the normal walk clip.
  • 1) more energy than
    2) about the same level of energy as

    3) less energy than
  •  
  •  

131
(No Transcript)
132
Differential Sensitivity to Manner of Motion in
Adult English and Spanish Speakers (Society for
Research in Child Development, 2003)
  • Alan W. Kersten1 Christian A. Meissner2
  • Bennett L. Schwartz2 Mireya Rivera1
  • 1Florida Atlantic University
  • 2Florida International University

133
Experiment 1
  • Examined attention to novel manners of motion by
    English and Spanish speakers in a
    category-learning task
  • Participants were presented with a number of
    animated events, each involving two novel,
    bug-like creatures
  • Were asked to indicate in which of four
    categories they thought each event belonged

134
(No Transcript)
135
Path Condition
  • The four categories were distinguished on the
    basis of the path of the moving creature with
    respect to the stationary creature
  • Included to rule out the hypothesis that any
    differences between the two groups on the manner
    discrimination were a result of general
    performance differences (e.g., motivation,
    intelligence)

136
Results Path Discrimination
137
Manner of Motion Condition
  • The four categories could only be distinguished
    on the basis of the manner of motion of the
    moving creature in each event
  • Each creature moved its legs in one of four
    different ways with respect to its body

138
Results - Manner Discrimination
139
Experiment 1 Conclusions
  • English speakers performed better than Spanish
    speakers on a manner of motion category
    discrimination
  • Manners of motion were novel, thus precluding a
    conscious labeling strategy
  • These results provide evidence that people learn
    to attend to attributes that are prominently
    marked in their native language

140
General conclusion attending for understanding
  • Speakers of satellite-framed languages appear to
    build up richer mental images of manner of motion
    while experiencing events.
  • This seems to be true whether events are
    experienced through verbal report or direct
    perception.

141
Broader consequence Eyewitness testimony
  • Linguistic forms contribute to the creation of
    mental images.
  • Mental images remain in memory and can be further
    shaped by language.
  • Evaluation relies on memory.
  • Eyewitness testimony can be shaped by lexical
    forms of interrogation.

142
(No Transcript)
143
  • View film clip of accident.
  • Answer question about speed estimate How fast
    were the cars going when they ______ each other?
  • smashed into
  • collided with
  • bumped
  • hit
  • contacted

144
(No Transcript)
145
one week later
  • Did you see any broken glass?
  • (There was no broken glass in the film clip of
    the accident.)

146
(No Transcript)
147
Conclusions
  • Each language provides preferred perspectives for
    encoding dimensions of events.
  • Perspectives must be adjusted in translating
    between languages.

148
  • Acquisition of a new language provides new
    perspectives.
  • Contrastive analysis is essential in foreign
    language teaching, and it should be sensitive to
    typological contrasts between the learners first
    language and the new language being acquired.

149
ADDENDUM 1 What does gesture add?
  • Study in progress
  • with Susan Duncan David McNeill, University of
    Chicago
  • with Berkeley undergraduates
  • Task Videotape of mental imagery report to
    naïve listener.
  • Subjects Spanish-English bilinguals
  • Hypothesis Spanish speakers will use gesture to
    enrich verbalization.

150
Sample event Struggling against the storm, I
climbed to the upper story along a window
grating. Then I walked along the terrace until
finding a door. I went into the inner
corridor
  • English he climbed up TWO HANDS MOVE
    UPWARD IN GRASPING MOTION
  • found some places to hold TWO HANDS
    MAKE GRASPING MOTION
  • he climbed up INDEX FINGER OF RIGHT HAND
    MOVES DIAGONALLY UPWARD WHILE SAYING up

151
Sample event Luchando con la tormenta, trepé
hasta la planta alta por la reja de una ventana.
Luego, caminé por la terraza hasta encontrar una
puerta. Entré a la galería interior
  • Spanish se sube al segundo piso he
    ascends to the second floor INDEX
    FINGER OF RIGHT HAND MOVES DIRECTLY UPWARD
  • entra enters
    INDEX FINGER TRACES ASCENDING S-CURVE

152
ADDENDUM 2 Consequences for translation Typologi
cal effects vary by domain
  • With regard to pronouns of address,
  • translators must adjust English you to
  • the perspectives on status and solidarity
  • are lexicalized in the target language.

153
  • English
  • Doctor to poor man and wife When do you think
    you can pay this bill?
  • Poor man TomorrowI will pay you.
  • Spanish
  • Cuándo creéis que podréis pagarme estas
    visitas?
  • 2nd pers. pl. fam.
  • Mañanale pagaré.
  • 2nd pers. sg. polite

154
  • With regard to distinctions of tense
  • and aspect, translators must take the
  • perspectives offered by the target
  • language.

155
back to the frog story
  • aspect-rich languages
  • Spanish
  • English
  • Turkish
  • aspect-poor languages
  • German
  • Hebrew

156
(No Transcript)
157
Some temporal perspectives on run and fall
  • English The dog was running from the bees and
    the boy fell down from the tree.
  • Spanish El niño se cayó. Corría el perro.
    The boy fell-PFV. The dog ran-IPFV.
  • German Er fiel runter und dann lief der Hund
    davon.
  • He fell down and then the dog ran away.

158
Availability of temporal contrasts
  • Spanish run-PROGRESSIVE / IMPERFECTIVE
  • fall-PERFECTIVE PAST/PERF/PRES
  • English run-PROGRESSIVE
  • fall-NON-PROGESSIVE
    PAST/PERF/PRES
  • Turkish run-PROGRESSIVE
  • fall-NON-PROG PAST/PRES
  • German PAST/PERF/PRES
  • Hebrew PAST/PRES

159
(No Transcript)
160
Typological grouping varies by domain
  • Lo-manner Hi-manner
  • Spanish, Hebrew, English, German,
  • Turkish Russian, Mandarin
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ----------
  • Pronoun choice Single pronoun
  • Spanish, German, English, Mandarin
  • Russian, Hebrew, Turkish
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • Rich aspect Poor aspect
  • Spanish, English, German, Hebrew,
  • Russian, Turkish Mandarin
  • --------------------------------------------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ----------

161
ADDENDUM 3 Broadening the question of
manner Attention to manner across domains
  • Manner of speaking chatter, gibber, jabber,
    splutter, whisper, murmur, mutter, shout, scream,
    shriek, yell, bellow
  • Manner of object destruction cut, rip, shred,
    tear, smash, shatter, crumple, crumble, crunch

162
Applying the same research tools
  • Types of speech act verbs in Swedish frog
    stories written by adults
    (Åsa Nordqvist, 2001)
  • fräsa hiss, hoa hoot, hojta shout,
    morra growl, muttra mutter, pipa
    squeak, skrika yell, skrocka
    chuckle, viska whisper

163
Newspaper reports
  • The crowd roared as he denounced President
    Clinton New York Times
  • He reeled off a list of fundamental questions
    Washington Post
  • We are not concerned about the world criticism
    of this Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, droned
    the mullah into a portable amplifier that echoed
    his voice through the stadium. San Francisco
    Chronicle

164
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165
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