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Developmental Disabilities

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Developmental Disabilities By: Evelyn W. Stone, RN.,BSN., M.Ed. Developmental Disability refers to disabilities affecting daily functioning in three or more of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Disabilities


1
Developmental Disabilities
  • By Evelyn W. Stone, RN.,BSN., M.Ed.

2
  • Developmental Disability refers to disabilities
    affecting daily functioning in three or more of
    the following areas
  • Capacity for independent living
  • Economic self sufficiency
  • Learning
  • Mobility
  • Receptive and expressive language
  • Self-care
  • Self-direction

3
Causes
  • Brain injury before, during or after birth
  • Growth or nutrition problems
  • Abnormalities of chromosomes or genes
  • Babies born long before the expected birth date
    also called extreme prematurity
  • Poor diet and healthcare
  • Drug misuse during pregnancy, including drug
    intake and smoking
  • Child abuse can also have a severe effect on the
    development of a child, specifically the
    socio-emotional development

4
Mental health issues (dual diagnoses)
  • The high likelihood of encountering traumatic
    events throughout their lifetime
  • Abandonment by loved ones
  • Abuse
  • Bullying and harassment
  • Social restrictions
  • Lack of education
  • Poverty
  • Limited employment opportunities
  • Limited opportunities for fulfilling
    relationships
  • Boredom

5
Abuse
  • Physical abuse
  • Neglect
  • Sexual abuse
  • Psychological or emotional abuse
  • Constraint and restrictive practices
  • Financial abuse
  • Legal or civil abuse
  • Systemic abuse
  • Passive neglect

6
Physical Abuse
  • Physical force that results in injury, pain or
    impairment
  • Violence that may result in bodily harm

7
Physical Indicators of Physical Abuse
  • Injuries
  • Bruises to the arms, legs or other body parts
  • Patterns of indicators unexplained falls
  • Sprains
  • Burns
  • Abrasions on arms, legs, or torso
  • Internal injuries evidenced by pain

8
Behavioral Indicators of Physical Abuse
  • Explanation of the injury do not fit with the
    injury
  • Family members provide different explanation of
    how it happened
  • History of similar injuries
  • Victim is taken to different medical facilities
    for treatment
  • Delay between onset of injury seeking medical
    care

9
Emotional Abuse
  • Infliction of emotional suffering
  • Fear
  • Actions that lead to fear of violence
  • Deprivation
  • Loss of dignity
  • Intimidation
  • Powerlessness

10
Why Emotional Abuse?
  • The perpetrator wants to mold the individual into
    who he or she thinks that individual should be.
  • Turn the victim into who they are

11
Psychological Abuse
  • Willful infliction of mental anguish
  • Humiliation
  • Verbal or nonverbal conduct

12
Behavioral Indicators
  • Isolates themselves from others
  • Problems sleeping
  • Exhibits depression and confusion
  • Exhibits unusual behavior Sucking, biting,
    rocking

13
Sexual Abuse
  • Any form of degradation, manipulation, force or
    control of sex
  • Forced in to having sex with the abuser
  • Goes hand hand with physical abuse
  • Forced to have sex with others

14
Financial Abuse
  • The abuser uses money as a means of controlling
    the victim
  • Uses finances to gain power and dominance over
    the victim
  • Required to do illegal acts for money
  • Victim may be forced to work and perpetrator uses
    the money

15
Financial Abuse (continued)
  • Perpetrator may forbid the victim to work
  • The abuser may put bills in the victims name
  • Perpetrator refuse to work
  • Victims money is used by the perpetrator

16
Challenging Behavior Culturally Abnormal
Behaviors
  • Self Injurious behaviors
  • gt hitting gtbiting gthead
    butting
  • Aggressive behavior
  • gthitting others gtscreaming gtspitting
    gtkicking
  • Inappropriate sexualised behavior
  • gtpublic masturbation gtgroping
  • Behavior directed at property
  • gtthrowing objects gtstealing
  • Stereotyped behaviors
  • gtrepetitive rocking gtecholalia
    gtelective incontinence

17
Causes of Challenging Behavior
  • Biological
  • Social
  • Environmental
  • Psychological

18
Services and Support
  • Education and Training
  • At-home and community support
  • Residential accommodation
  • Employment support
  • Employment support
  • Day services
  • Advocacy

19
Conclusion
  • Remember there are many causes of DD
  • Abuse is an issue for those who are vulnerable
  • Remember the advocacy group if there are
    suspension of neglect or abuse

20
Other Services
  • Nurse Assistant classes
  • Mental Health Hab Tec classes
  • Mental Illness
  • Medication Aide
  • Medication Administration
  • Blood Borne Pathogens
  • Behavior Management
  • Developmental Disabilities

21
Other Services
  • There are more classes available.
  • We have a calendar of Continuing Education for
    the year.
  • Private Consultation for starting a mental health
    facilitator

22
Contact Instructor
  • Evelyn Stone, RN., BSN., M.Ed.
  • 1008-F Big Oak Court
  • Knightdale, NC 27545
  • (919) 266-7051
  • Email stn_vlyn_at_yahoo.com
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