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Title: The American South

The American South
  • Made by Zhanna Travkina

Geographical position
Modern definition
The states in dark red are almost always included
in modern day definitions of the South, while
those in medium red are usually included. Some
sources classify Maryland and Missouri as
Southern, with Delaware only rarely grouped
within the region. West Virginia is often
considered Southern, because it was once part of
Historic Southern U.S.
The states in red were in the Confederacy and
have historically been regarded as forming "the
South." Those in stripes were considered "Border"
states, and gave varying degrees of support to
the Southern cause although they remained in the
Union. (This image depicts the original,
trans-Allegheny borders of Virginia, and so does
not show West Virginia separately. See image
below for post-1863 Virginia and West Virginia
borders.) While Oklahoma was aligned with the
Confederacy, it is not shaded because at the
time, the region was Indian Territory, and thus
not a state.
Sub regions of the South
  • As defined by the United States Census Bureau,
    the Southern region of the United States includes
    sixteen states
  • The South Atlantic States Florida, Georgia,
    Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina,
    Virginia, West Virginia, and Delaware
  • The East South Central States Alabama, Kentucky,
    Mississippi and Tennessee
  • The West South Central States Arkansas,
    Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas

  • The New South usually including the South
    Atlantic States.
  • The Solid South region controlled by the
    Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964.
  • Southern Appalachia mainly refers to areas
    situated in the Southern Appalachian Mountains,
    namely Eastern Kentucky, East Tennessee, Western
    North Carolina, Western Maryland, West Virginia,
    Southwest Virginia, North Georgia, and
    Northwestern South Carolina.
  • Southeastern United States usually including the
    Carolinas, Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West
    Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and
  • The Deep South various definitions, usually
    including Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi,
    Georgia, and South Carolina.
  • The Old South is usually defined in opposition
    to the Deep South including Alabama, Louisiana,
    Georgia and Mississippi, and it is also further
    differentiated from the inland border states such
    as Kentucky and West Virginia and the peripheral
    southern states of Florida and Texas.
  • The Gulf South usually includes Gulf coasts of
    Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas and
  • The Upper South Kentucky, Virginia, West
    Virginia, Tennessee, and North Carolina.
  • Dixie associated with the 11 states of the Old
  • The Mid-South defined by the Census as the South
    Central United States
  • Border South Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and
    Delaware were states on the outer rim of the
    Confederacy that did not secede from the United
    States, but did have significant numbers of
    residents who joined the Confederate armed

The Belts
  • The Sun Belt or Spanish Belt is a region of the
    United States generally considered to stretch
    across the South and Southwest
  • The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of
    the United States in which socially conservative
    evangelical Protestantism is a significant part
    of the culture and Christian church attendance
    across the denominations is extremely high.
  • The Black Belt is a region of the Southern United
    States. Although the term originally describes
    the prairies and dark soil of central Alabama and
    northeast Mississippi, it has long been used to
    describe a broad region in the American South
    characterized by a high percentage of black

The Sun belt
The Sun Belt comprises the southern tier of the
United States and is usually considered to
include at least the states of Alabama, Arizona,
Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana,
Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina,
Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
roughly half of California, southern Nevada, and
southern Virginia more expansively, Colorado and
Utah (and all of California and Nevada) are
sometimes considered as Sun Belt states. The term
"Sun Belt" became synonymous with the southern
third of the nation in the early 1970s. There was
a shift in this period from the previously
economically and politically important northeast
to the south and west. Events such as the huge
migration of immigrant workers from neighboring
Mexico, warmer climate, and a boom in the
agriculture industry allowed for the southern
third of the U.S.A. to grow by leaps and bounds
economically. Industries such as aerospace,
defense and oil boomed in the Sun Belt as
companies took advantage of the low involvement
of labor unions in the south. The three largest
metropolitan areas in the Sun Belt are the
Greater Los Angeles Area, the San Francisco Bay
Area, and the Dallas Fort Worth Metroplex.
The Bible Belt
The Bible Belt consists of much of the Southern
United States. During the colonial period
(16071776), the South was a stronghold of the
Anglican church. Its transition to a stronghold
of non-Anglican Protestantism occurred gradually
over the next century, as a series of religious
revival movements, many associated with the
Baptist denomination, gained great popularity in
the region. The term Bible Belt is used
informally by journalists and by its detractors,
who suggest that religious people allow religion
to influence politics, science, and education. In
fact there has been research that links
evangelical Protestantism with social
conservatism. In presidential elections, the
Bible Belt states of Alabama, Mississippi,
Kansas, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas have
voted for the Republican candidate in all
elections since 1980. Other Bible Belt states
have voted for the Republican presidential
candidate in the majority of elections since
1980, but have gone to the Democratic candidate
either once or twice since then.
The Black Belt
Black Belt is still used in the physiographic
sense, to describe a crescent-shaped region about
300 miles (480 km) long and up to 25 miles (40
km) wide, extending from southwest Tennessee to
east-central Mississippi and then east through
Alabama to the border with Georgia. Black Belt
is characterized of high percentage of black
people. They were originally enslaved laborers on
the region's cotton plantations and many stayed
as rural workers, tenant farmers and
sharecroppers after the American Civil
War. Because of the decline of family farms, the
rural communities in the Black Belt commonly face
acute poverty, rural exodus, inadequate education
programs, low educational attainment, poor health
care, substandard housing, and high levels of
crime and unemployment. While African-American
residents are disproportionately affected, these
problems apply broadly to all ethnic groups in
the Black Belt. There are various definitions of
the region and its boundaries, but it is
generally considered a band through the center of
the Deep South, although stretching from as far
north as Delaware to as far west as eastern Texas.
The South Atlantic States Florida
  • Nickname The Sunshine State because of its
    generally warm climate
  • Governor Charlie Crist
  • Florida was admitted as the 27th U.S. state in
  • Area 65,755 square miles (170,305 km2
  • The state population was 18,537,969 in 2009,
    ranking Florida as the fourth most populous state
    in the U.S.
  • Tallahassee is the state capital Jacksonville is
    the largest city
  • Universities The State University System of
    Florida was founded in 1905. Florida has many
    large and small private institutions.

Florida Tallahassee
Mayor John Marks Population 172,574 Places of
interest Alfred B. Maclay Gardens State Park,
Challenger Learning Center, Doak Campbell
Stadium, Florida State Capitol, Foster Tanner
Fine Arts Gallery at Florida AM University,
Goodwood Museum and Gardens, John G. Riley
Center/Museum of African American History
Culture (Riley Museum), Lake Ella, Lake
Henrietta, Lake Jackson, Lake Jackson Mounds
Archaeological State Park, Lake Munson, LeMoyne
Center for the Visual Arts, Mary Brogan Museum of
Art and Science (MOAS), Mission San Luis de
Apalachee, Museum of Fine Arts at Florida State
University, Museum of Florida History, Myers
Park, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory,
North Florida Fairgrounds, Railroad Square,
Tallahassee Automobile Museum, Tallahassee
Museum, Young Actors Theatre Festivals and
events Downtown Getdown, First Friday festivals
at Railroad Square, Greek Food Festival, Red
Hills Horse Trials, Seven Days of Opening Nights,
Southern Shakespeare Festival, Springtime
Tallahassee, Tallahassee Film Festival,
Tallahassee Wine and Food Festival, Winter
The South Atlantic States Georgia
  • Nickname Peach State, Empire State of the South
  • Governor Sonny Perdue
  • Georgia was established in 1732, it was one of
    the original seven Confederate states.
  • Area 59,425 sq mi (153,909 km2)
  • Population 9,829,211 (2009)
  • The capital and the largest city is Atlanta
  • Georgia has almost 70 public colleges,
    universities, and technical colleges in addition
    to over 45 private institutes of higher learning.

Georgia Atlanta
  • Mayor Kasim Reed
  • As of 2009 Atlanta had an estimated population of
    about 540,922 people. The Atlanta metropolitan
    area, with more than 5.4 million people, is the
    second largest in the Southeastern United States
    and the ninth largest in the country.
  • Places of interest Atlanta Symphony Orchestra,
    Atlanta Opera, Atlanta Ballet, The Fox Theatre,
    Art Institute of Atlanta, the Museum of
    Contemporary Art of Georgia, Center for Puppetry
    Arts, Seven Stages Theater, The Horizon Theater
    Company, the Margaret Mitchell House and Museum,
    Georgia Aquarium, Georgia Dome, Georgia World
    Congress, Center, Grant Park, National Museum of
  • Festivals and events Atlanta Dogwood Festival,
    Screen on the Green, Atlanta Jazz Festival, Sweet
    Auburn SpringFest, Virginia-Highlands Summerfest,
    Georgia Renaissance Festival

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The South Atlantic States Maryland
  • Nickname Old Line State Free State Little
    America America in Miniature
  • Governor Martin O'Malley
  • The history of Maryland included only Native
    Americans until Europeans, starting with John
    Cabot in 1498, began exploring the area. The
    first settlements came in 1634 when the English
    arrived in significant numbers and created a
    permanent colony. In 1776, during the American
    Revolution, Maryland became a state in the United
  • Area 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km2)
  • Population 5,699,478 (2009 est.)
  • Capital Annapolis
  • The largest city Baltimore
  • Universities Maryland has several historic and
    renowned private colleges and universities, the
    most prominent of which is Johns Hopkins
    University, founded in 1876 with a grant from
    Baltimore entrepreneur Johns Hopkins. The first
    public university in the state is the University
    of Maryland, Baltimore was founded in 1807.
    Baltimore is home to the Maryland Institute
    College of Art.
  • According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Maryland has
    the highest median household income of any state,
    with a median income of 70,545.

Maryland Annapolis
  • Mayor Joshua J. Cohen
  • It has a population of 36,524 (July 2008 est.)
  • Places of interest The Maryland State House, The
    United States Naval Academy, Annapolis Summer
    Garden Theatre, The Banneker-Douglass Museum,
    Hammond-Harwood House, The Kunta Kinte- Alex
    Haley memorial

The South Atlantic States North Carolina
Nicknames Tar Heel State Old North
State Governor Bev Perdue Spanish colonial
forces made a short-lived permanent settlement in
1567, which was soon wiped out by the natives.
North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen
Colonies, and was originally known as Province of
Carolina. Originally settled by small farmers,
sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented
toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked
cities or even towns. Area 53,819 sq mi (139,581
km2) Population 9,380,884 (2009 est.) Capital
Raleigh The largest city Charlotte Universities
In 1795, North Carolina opened the first public
university in the United Statesthe University of
North Carolina. More than 200 years later, the
University of North Carolina system encompasses
17 public universities including UNC-Chapel Hill,
North Carolina State University, East Carolina
University, Western Carolina University, UNC
Asheville, UNC Charlotte, UNC Greensboro, UNC
Pembroke, UNC Wilmington, UNC School of the Arts,
and Appalachian State University. The system also
supports several well-known historically
African-American colleges and universities such
as North Carolina AT State University, North
Carolina Central University, Winston-Salem State
University, Elizabeth City State University, and
Fayetteville State University. Along with its
public universities, North Carolina has 58 public
community colleges in its community college
North Carolina Raleigh
  • Mayor Charles Meeker
  • Population 405,791 (2009)
  • Places of interest there are a lot of historical
    buildings such as the Sir Walter Raleigh Hotel
    built in the early 20th century, the restored
    City Market, the Fayetteville Street downtown
    business district, the Cameron Village midtown
    business district, as well as the North Carolina
    Museum of History, North Carolina Museum of
    Natural Sciences, North Carolina State Capitol,
    Peace College, the Raleigh City Museum, Raleigh
    Convention Center, RBC Plaza, Shaw University,
    and St. Augustine's College. Famous museums
    African American Cultural Complex, Contemporary
    Art Museum, Gregg Museum of Art Design at
    NCSU, Haywood Hall House Gardens, North
    Carolina Museum of Art, North Carolina Museum of
    Natural Sciences, North Carolina Museum of
    History, North Carolina Sports Hall of Fame,
    Raleigh City Museum, Marbles Kids Museum, J. C.
    Raulston Arboretum, Joel Lane House, Mordecai
    House, Montfort Hall, Pope House Museum

The South Atlantic States South Carolina
  • Nicknames The Palmetto State
  • Governor Mark Sanford
  • The proprietary colony of Carolina was first
    settled at Charles Town (modern day Charleston)
    in 1670, mostly by immigrants from the British
    colony of Barbados in the Caribbean. There was
    discontent with the Lords Proprietors from the
    earliest years of the colony. Colonists overthrew
    the proprietors after the Yamasee War of
    1715-1717. In 1719 the colony was officially made
    a crown colony, although the Lords Proprietors
    held their rights until 1729. South Carolina
    declared independence from Great Britain and set
    up its own government on March 15, 1776. It
    joined the United States by signing the
    Declaration of Independence.
  • Area 32,020 sq mi (82,931. km2)
  • Population 4,561,242 (2009 est.)
  • Capital and the largest city is Columbia
  • Universities South Carolina hosts a diverse
    cohort of institutions of higher education, from
    large state-funded research universities to small
    colleges that cultivate a liberal arts, religious
    or military tradition. Founded in 1770 and
    chartered in 1785, the College of Charleston is
    the oldest institution of higher learning in
    South Carolina, the 13th oldest in the United

South Carolina Columbia
  • Mayor Steve Benjamin
  • Population 129,333 (2009)
  • Places of interest Town Theatre, Trustus
    Theatre, The Nickelodeon Theatre, Columbia
    Marionette Theatre,Workshop Theatre of South
    Carolina, The Imperfect Theater Company, The
    South Carolina State Museum, The Columbia Museum
    of Art, EdVenture, McKissick Museum, The
    Confederate Relic Room and Military Museum, The
    Richland County Public Library, The South
    Carolina State Library, The South Carolina
    Philharmonic Orchestra, The Columbia City Jazz
    Dance Company, Finlay Park, Memorial Park, Granby
    Park, Martin Luther King Jr. Park, Riverbanks Zoo
    Garden, Congaree National Park,
    Sesquicentennial State Park, Riverfront Park
  • Festivals and events The South Carolina State
    Fair, St. Patricks Day Festival, Riverfest
    Celebration, Earth Day at Finlay Park, South
    Carolina Gay Lesbian Pride, Artista Vista, Viva
    La Vista, The Greek Festival, The Irmo Okra
    Strut, Main Street Jazz, Vista Lights, Urban
    Tour, Southeastern Piano Festival, Finlay Park
    Summer Concert Series

The South Atlantic States Virginia
  • Nicknsmes Old Dominion Mother of Presidents
  • Governor Bob McDonnell
  • The History of Virginia began with settlement of
    the geographic region now known as the
    Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States
    thousands of years ago by Native Americans.
    Permanent European settlement began with the
    establishment of Jamestown in 1607, by English
    colonists. As tobacco emerged as a profitable
    export, Virginia imported more African laborers
    to cultivate it. Virginia leaders had a major
    role in the road to winning independence, with
    Thomas Jefferson's writing the Declaration of
    Independence and George Washington's commanding
    the American army. In 1861, Virginia was a slave
    state but refused to join the cotton states in
    the new Confederacy until Lincoln called for
    troops to "repossess federal property" in
    seceding states, which did not include Virginia.
  • Area 42,774.2 sq mi (110,785.67 km2)
  • Population 8,001,024
  • Capital is Richmond and the largest city is
    Virginia Beach
  • Universities Virginia's educational system
    consistently ranks in the top ten states on the
    U.S. Department of Education's National
    Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia
    students outperforming the average in all subject
    areas and grade levels tested. As of 2010, there
    are 167 colleges and universities in Virginia.
    The most famous are the University of Virginia,
    The College of William Mary, James Madison
    University, Virginia Commonwealth University, The
    Virginia Military Institute, George Mason

Virginia Richmond
Mayor Dwight Clinton Jones Population
204,451 Places of interest the Virginia Museum
of Fine Arts, The Science Museum of Virginia, The
Museum of the Confederacy, the American Civil War
Center at Historic Tredegar, St. John's Church,
the Virginia Holocaust Museum, Barksdale Theatre,
Richmond Symphony, Virginia Opera, Classic
Amphitheatre at Strawberry Hill. Richmond is home
to many significant structures, including some
designed by notable architects. The city contains
diverse styles, including Greek Revival, Roman
Revival, Romanesque, Georgian, Gothic, Tudor,
Egyptian Revival, Art Deco, Art Nouveau,
Modernist, International, and Postmodern
buildings. The city operates one of the oldest
municipal park systems in the country (Monroe
Park, Joseph Bryan Park Azalea Garden, Forest
Hill Park, Lewis Ginter Botanical Garden)
The South Atlantic States West Virginia
  • Nickname Mountain State
  • Governor Earl Ray Tomblin
  • West Virginia is one of only two American states
    formed during the American Civil War (18611865),
    along with Nevada, and is the only state to form
    by seceding from a Confederate state. It was
    originally part of the British Virginia Colony
    (16071776) and the western part of the state of
    Virginia (17761863), whose population became
    sharply divided over the issue of secession from
    the Union and in the separation from Virginia,
    formalized by admittance to the Union as a new
    state in 1863. West Virginia was one of the Civil
    War Border states.
  • Area 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km2)
  • Population 1,819,777 (2009 est.)
  • Capital and the largest city is Charleston
  • Universities AldersonBroaddus College,
    Appalachian Bible College, Bethany College,
    Bluefield State College, Blue Ridge Community and
    Technical College, Bridgemont Community and
    Technical College, Concord University, Davis and
    Elkins College, Eastern West Virginia Community
    and Technical College, Marshall University,
    Mountain State University, Mountwest Community
    and Technical College, New River Community and
    Technical College, Shepherd University,
    University of Charleston, West Virginia University

West Virginia Charleston
  • Mayor Danny Jones
  • Population 50,267 (2009)
  • Places of interest Charleston possesses a number
    of older buildings which represent a variety of
    historical architectural styles. About fifty
    places in Charleston are included on the National
    Register of Historic Places (Avampato Discovery
    Museum, Sunrise Museum, West Virginia State
    Museum, South Charleston Museum, St. George
    Orthodox Cathedral, founded in 1892 St. Marks
    United Methodist Church, The Capitol Theater.
    There are also a great amount of parks and
    outdoor attractions Appalachian Power Park, Cato
    Park, Daniel Boone Park, Danner Meadow Park,
    Kanawha State Forest, Magic Island, Davis Park,
    Haddad Riverfront Park, Ruffner Park, Shawnee
  • Festivals and events The West Virginia Dance
    Festival, Symphony Sunday, West Virginia
    International Film Festival, the Daily Mail
    Kanawha County Majorette and Band Festival, the
    Kanawha Kordsmen Barbershop Chorus, FestivALL,
    the Vandalia Gathering

The South Atlantic States Delaware
  • Nicknames The First State The Small Wonder
    Blue Hen State The Diamond State
  • Governor Jack A. Markell
  • The history of Delaware is the story of a small
    American state, in the middle of the original
    colonies, and yet until recently often overlooked
    by outsiders. Still, because of its geographic
    location and settlement pattern, its population
    has often been evenly divided on key issues in
    American history, so that it has seemed to
    represent the United States in miniature.
    Delaware is made up of three counties established
    since 1680, before the time of William Penn. Each
    had its own settlement history. Their early
    inhabitants tended to identify more closely with
    the county than the colony or state. Large parts
    of southern and western Delaware were thought to
    have been in Maryland until 1767. All of the
    state has existed in the wide economic and
    political circle of Philadelphia.
  • Area 2,490 sq mi (6,452 km2)
  • Population 885,122 (2009 est.)
  • The capital is Dover and the largest city is
  • Universities Delaware College of Art and
    Design, Delaware State University, Delaware
    Technical Community College, Drexel University
    at Wilmington, Goldey-Beacom College, University
    of Delaware, Wesley College, Widener University
    School of Law, Wilmington University

Delaware Dover
Mayor Carleton Carey Population 35,811 (2008
Estimate) Places of interest the Schwartz Center
for the Arts, The Delaware State Library,
Delaware State Museum, and the Delaware State
Archives, the Sewell C. Biggs Museum of American
The East South Central States Alabama
  • Nicknames Yellowhammer State Heart of Dixie
    Cotton State
  • Governor Robert R. Riley
  • Alabama became a state of the United States of
    America on December 14, 1819. After the Indian
    wars and removals of the early 19th century
    forced most Native Americans out of the state,
    white settlers arrived in large numbers. Wealthy
    planters created large cotton plantations based
    in the fertile central Black Belt, which depended
    on the labor of enslaved African Americans. Tens
    of thousands of slaves were transported to and
    sold in the state by slave traders who purchased
    them in the Upper South. Elsewhere in Alabama,
    poorer whites practiced subsistence farming. By
    1860 African Americans comprised 45 of the
    state's population of 964,201
  • Area 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km2)
  • Population 4,661,900 (2008 est.)
  • The capital is Montgomery and the largest city is
  • Universities Alabama's programs of higher
    education include 14 four-year public
    universities, two-year community colleges, and 17
    private, undergraduate and graduate universities.
    The most popular universities are University of
    Alabama at Birmingham, University of South
    Alabama, (University of Alabama at Birmingham,
    University of Alabama School of Law, Birmingham
    School of Law, Cumberland School of Law

Alabama Montgomery
Mayor Todd Strange Population 224,119 Places
of interest Wynton M. Blount Cultural Park, the
Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, The Hank Williams
Museum, Montgomery Zoo, the Alabama Shakespeare
Festival's Carolyn Blount Theatre, Alabama Dance
Theatre, the F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald Museum
The East South Central States Kentucky
  • Nickname Bluegrass State
  • Governor Steve Beshear
  • Although inhabited by Native Americans from at
    least 1000 BCE to about 1650 CE, when European
    and colonial explorers and settlers began
    entering Kentucky in greater number in the
    mid-18th century, there were no major Native
    American settlements in the region. After the
    American Revolution, the counties of Virginia
    beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as
    Kentucky County. On June 1, 1792, Kentucky became
    the fifteenth state to be admitted to the union.
    Kentucky was a border state during the American
    Civil War.
  • Area 40,409 sq mi (104,659 km2)
  • Population 4,314,113 (2009 est.)
  • The capital is Frankfort and the largest city is
  • Universities Kentucky maintains eight public
    four-year universities. There are two general
    tiers major research institutions (the
    University of Kentucky and the University of
    Louisville) and regional universities, which
    encompasses the remaining 6 schools.

Kentucky Frankfort
Mayor Gippy Graham Population 27,741 Places of
interest Kentucky's Capitol building, Kentucky
Governor's Mansion, A floral clock near the
Capitol building, Church of the Ascension
Episcopal Church, Good Shepherd Roman Catholic
The East South Central States Mississippi
  • Nicknames The Magnolia State The Hospitality
  • Governor Haley Barbour
  • The State of Mississippi's history goes back
    beyond American statehood to Ancient Native
    American times. The first major European
    expedition into the territory that became
    Mississippi was that of Hernando de Soto, who
    passed through in 1540. The French, in April
    1699, established the first European settlement.
    Through the next decades, the area was ruled by
    Spanish, British and French colonial governments.
    After the American Revolution, this area became
    part of the new United States of America. The
    Mississippi Territory was organized on April 7,
    1798, from territory ceded by Georgia and South
  • Area 48,430 sq mi (125,443 km2)
  • Population 2,938,618 (2008 est.)
  • The capital and the largest city is Jackson
  • Universities Until the Civil War era,
    Mississippi had a small number of schools and no
    educational institutions for black people. The
    first school for black people was established in
    1862. During Reconstruction in 1870, black and
    white Republicans were the first to establish a
    system of public education in the state. Now the
    most popular universities are Alcorn State
    University, Jackson State University,
    Mississippi State University, The University of
    Southern Mississippi

Mississippi Jackson
Mayor Harvey Johnson, Jr. Population
175,021 Places of interest Jackson Zoo,
Mississippi Museum of Art, Mississippi Opera,
Mississippi Symphony Orchestra, Municipal Art
Gallery, Mynelle Gardens, New Stage Theatre,
Russell C. Davis Planetarium
The East South Central States Tennessee
  • Nickname The Volunteer State
  • Governor Phil Bredesen
  • The first recorded European excursions into what
    is now called Tennessee were three expeditions
    led by Spanish explorers, namely Hernando de Soto
    in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo
    in 1567. Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from
    a local Indian village, which may have evolved to
    the state's current name. The first British
    settlement in what is now Tennessee was Fort
    Loudoun, near present-day Vonore. Tennessee was
    admitted to the Union in 1796 as the 16th state.
    It was the first state created from territory
    under the jurisdiction of the United States
    federal government.
  • Area 42,143 sq mi (109,247 km2)
  • Population 6,214,888 (2008 est.)
  • The capital is Nashville and the largest city is
  • University American Baptist College, The Art
    Institute of Tennessee- Nashville, East Tennessee
    State University, Lincoln Memorial University,
    Lipscomb University, Martin Methodist College,
    Memphis College of Art, Middle Tennessee State
    University, Milligan College, Motlow State
    Community College, Nashville School of Law, Union
    University, University of Memphis

Tennessee Nashville
  • Mayor Karl Dean
  • Population 635,710
  • Places of interest Warner Parks, the Vanderbilt
    Sailing Club, Fort Nashborough, The Tennessee
    Performing Arts Center, the Schermerhorn Symphony
    Center, Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum,
    Belcourt Theatre, Frist Center for the Visual
    Arts, Cheekwood Botanical Garden and Museum of
  • Festivals and events the CMA Music Festival,
    Nashville Film Festival, Country Music Marathon,
    Tomato Art Festival, African Street Festival,
    ICE! and SNOW!

The West South Central States Arkansas
  • Nickname The Natural State (current), The Land
    of Opportunity (former)
  • Governor Mike Beebe
  • The first European to reach Arkansas was the
    Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto, a veteran of
    Pizarro's conquest of Peru who died near Lake
    Village on the Mississippi River in 1542 after
    almost a year traversing the southern part of the
    state in search of gold and a passage to China.
    Arkansas is one of several U.S. states formed
    from the territory purchased from Napoleon
    Bonaparte in the Louisiana Purchase. The
    Territory of Arkansas was organized on July 4,
    1819. On June 15, 1836, the State of Arkansas was
    admitted to the Union as the 25th state and the
    13th slave state. Arkansas refused to join the
    Confederate States of America until after United
    States President Abraham Lincoln called for
    troops to respond to the Confederate attack upon
    Fort Sumter, South Carolina. The State of
    Arkansas declared its secession from the Union on
    May 6, 1861. While not often cited in historical
    accounts, the state was the scene of numerous
    small-scale battles during the American Civil
  • Area 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km2)
  • Population 2,855,390 (2008 est.)
  • The capital and the largest city is Little Rock
  • Universities Arkansas State University,
    Arkansas Tech University, Henderson State
    University, John Brown University, Southern
    Arkansas University

Arkansas Little Rock
  • Mayor Mark Stodola
  • Population 685,488
  • Places of interest The Arkansas Arts Center, The
    Arkansas Museum of Discovery, The Old State House
    Museum, Aerospace Education Center, Arkansas
    Repertory Theatre, Robinson Center Music Hall,
    Wildwood Park for the Arts, Pinnacle Mountain
    State Park

The West South Central States Louisiana
  • Nickname Bayou State, Child of the Mississippi,
    Creole State, Pelican State (official),
    Sportsman's Paradise, Sugar State
  • Governor Bobby Jindal
  • The first European explorers to visit Louisiana
    came in 1528 when a Spanish expedition led by
    Panfilo de Narváez located the mouth of the
    Mississippi River. In 1682, the French explorer
    Robert Cavelier de La Salle named the region
    Louisiana to honor France's King Louis XIV. The
    first permanent settlement, Fort Maurepas (at
    what is now Ocean Springs, Mississippi, near
    Biloxi), was founded by Pierre Le Moyne
    d'Iberville, a French military officer from
    Canada, in 1699.
  • Area 51,843 sq mi (135,382 km2)
  • Population 4,533,372 (2010 est.)
  • The capital is Baton Rouge and the largest city
    is New Orleans
  • Universities Louisiana State University,
    Southern University, Louisiana Technical College
    (40 campuses), Elaine P. Nunez Community
    College, River Parishes Community College

Louisiana Baton Rouge
  • Mayor Melvin "Kip" Holden
  • Population 229,553 (2007)
  • Places of interest Shaw Center for the Arts,
    Baton Rouge Gallery, Baton Rouge River Center,
    Baton Rouge Symphony Orchestra, Baton Rouge Zoo
  • Festivals and events Mardi Gras, Festival of
    Lights, Greater Baton Rouge Christmas Parade, Red
    Stick International Animation Festival

The West South Central States Oklahoma
  • Nickname Sooner State
  • Governor C. Brad Henry
  • Spaniard Francisco Vásquez de Coronado traveled
    through the state in 1541, but French explorers
    claimed the area in the 1700s and it remained
    under French rule until 1803, when all the French
    territory west of the Mississippi River was
    purchased by the United States in the Louisiana
    Purchase. During the 19th century, thousands of
    Native Americans were expelled from their
    ancestral homelands from across North America and
    transported to the area including and surrounding
    present-day Oklahoma.
  • Area 69,898 sq mi (181,195 km2)
  • Population 3,751,351 (2010 Census Estimate)
  • The capital and the largest city is Oklahoma
  • Universities Cameron University, East Central
    University, Langston University, Northeastern
    State University, Oklahoma State University,
    Southwestern Oklahoma State University

Oklahoma Oklahoma City
  • Mayor Mick Cornett
  • Population 560,333 (2009 est.)
  • Places of interest Oklahoma City Museum of Art,
    Civic Center Music Hall, Lyric Theatre, Jewel Box
    Theatre, Science Museum Oklahoma, National Cowboy
    Western Heritage Museum, The American Indian
    Cultural Center and Museum, National Memorial
    Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, Myriad
    Botanical Gardens, Oklahoma City Zoological Park

The West South Central States Texas
  • Nickname The Lone Star State
  • Governor Rick Perry
  • The first European base was established in 1682,
    when René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
    established a French colony, Fort Saint Louis,
    near Matagorda Bay. When Mexico won its
    independence from Spain in 1821, Mexican Texas
    was part of the new nation. The slaves in Mexico
    were primarily held by the Anglo immigrants, who
    were thus most affected when the slaves were
    freed throughout Mexico in 1830. Angry at the
    government in Mexico City, the Texian forces
    fought and won the Texas Revolution in 183536.
    Texas now became an independent nation, the
    Republic of Texas. Attracted by the rich cotton
    lands and ranch lands, tens of thousands of
    immigrants arrived from the U.S. (bringing
    slaves) and from Germany as well. In 1845, Texas
    joined the United States, becoming the 28th
    state. Determined to protect slavery, Texas
    declared its secession from the United States in
    1861 to join the Confederate States of America.
  • Area 268,581 sq mi (696,241 km2)
  • Population 25,145,561 (2010 est.)
  • The capital is Austin and the largest city is
  • Universities University of Houston, University
    of North Texas, Texas AM University, Baylor
    University, University of Mary HardinBaylor, and
    Southwestern University, Texas Christian

Texas Austin
  • Mayor Lee Leffingwell
  • Population 786,386 (2009 est.)
  • Places of interest Zachary Scott Theatre Center,
    Vortex Repertory Company, Salvage Vanguard
    Theater, Rude Mechanicals, Scottish Rite
    Children's Theater, Hyde Park Theatre, The
    Paramount Theatre, Austin Lyric Opera
  • Festivals and events Austin Aqua Festival,
    Austin City Limits Music Festival, Austin Film
    Festival, Butt-Numb-A-Thon, Carnaval Brasileiro,
    Fantastic Fest, Fun Fun Fun Fest, Old Settler's
    Music Festival, South by Southwest

Southern people
  • The predominant culture of the South has its
    origins in the settlement of the region by
    British colonists. In the 17th century, most were
    of Southern English origins, mostly from regions
    such as Kent, East Anglia and the West Country
    who settled mostly on the coast regions of the
    South but pushed as far inland as the Appalachian
    mountains by the 18th century.
  • In the 18th century, large groups of Scots
    lowlanders, Northern English and Ulster-Scots
    (later called the Scots-Irish) settled in
    Appalachia and the Piedmont. They were often
    called "crackers" by the upper classes a name
    that suggested they were great boasters.
  • The other primary population group in the South
    is made that of African American descendants of
    the slaves brought into the South. African
    Americans comprise the United States'
    second-largest racial minority, accounting for
    12.1 percent of the total population according to
    the 2000 census. Despite Jim Crow era outflow to
    the North, the majority of the black population
    has remained concentrated in the southern states,
    and blacks have been returning to the South in
    large numbers since the end of formal
    segregation. African Americans in the South have
    transmitted their foods, music , art, and
    charismatic brand of Christianity to white
    Southerners, and the rest of the nation.

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Southern dialect
  • The Southern dialects make up the largest accent
    group in the United States.
  • Few generalizations can be made about Southern
    pronunciation as there is great variation between
    the regions of the South, between older and
    younger people, and between people of different
    ethnic backgrounds.

As an important feature of Southern culture, the
cuisine of the South is often described as one of
its most distinctive traits. Popular sayings
include "Food is Love" and "If it ain't fried it
ain't cooked". Southern culinary culture has
readily adopted Native American influences. Corn
meal mush, cornfritters, hominy, cornbread and
brunswick stew are a few of the more common
examples of foods adopted directly from
southeastern Indians. Nevertheless, a great many
regional varieties have also developed.
Traditional African American Southern food is
often called soul food. While not being spicy as
is cajun food, it does tend to use lots of herbs,
flour, and can also be called stick-to your ribs
food. Of course, most Southern cities and even
some smaller towns now offer a wide variety of
cuisines of other origins such as Chinese,
Italian, French, Middle Eastern, as well as
restaurants still serving primarily Southern
specialties, so-called "home cooking"
establishments. Some notable "home cooking" meals
include fried chicken, corn on the cob, pot
liquor, vegetable stew, chicken and dumplings,
and chicken fried steak.
Literature Early and Antebellum Literature
  • During the 17th and 18th centuries, English
    colonists in the Southern part of the American
    colonies produced a number of notable works
    (Captain John Smith's account of the founding of
    Jamestown in the 1610s and 1620s, and William
    Byrd II's secret plantation diary, kept in the
    early 18th century).
  • After American independence, in the early 19th
    century, the expansion of cotton planting and
    slavery began to distinguish Southern society and
    culture more clearly from the rest of the young
    republic. The lawyer and essayist Hugh Swinton
    Legare, the poets Paul Hamilton Hayne and Henry
    Timrod, and the novelist William Gilmore Simms
    composed some of the most important works in
    antebellum Southern literature.
  • In the Chesapeake region antebellum authors of
    enduring interest include John Pendleton Kennedy,
    whose novel Swallow Barn offered a colorful
    sketch of Virginia plantation life and Nathaniel
    Beverley Tucker, whose 1836 work The Partisan
    Leader foretold the secession of the Southern
    states, and imagined a guerrilla war in Virginia
    between federal and secessionist armies.
  • Not all noteworthy Southern authors during this
    period were white. Frederick Douglass's Narrative
    is perhaps the most famous first-person account
    of black slavery in the antebellum South. Harriet
    Jacobs, meanwhile, recounted her experiences in
    bondage in North Carolina in Incidents in the
    Life of a Slave Girl. And another Southern-born
    ex-slave, William Wells Brown, wrote Clotel or,
    The President's Daughter -- widely believed to be
    the first novel ever published by an
    African-American. The book depicts the life of
    its title character, a daughter of Thomas
    Jefferson and his black mistress, and struggle
    against slavery.

Literature The "Lost Cause" years
  • In the second half of the 19th century, the South
    lost the Civil War and suffered through what many
    white southerners considered a harsh occupation
    (called Reconstruction). In place of the Anti-Tom
    literature came poetry and novels about the "Lost
    Cause of the Confederacy." These writers
    idealized the defeated South and its lost
    culture. Prominent writers with this point of
    view included poets Henry Timrod, Daniel B.
    Lucas, Abram Joseph Ryan, and Sidney Lanier and
    fiction writer Thomas Nelson Page.
  • In 1884, Mark Twain published what is arguably
    the most influential southern novel of the 19th
    century, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.
  • Kate Chopin was another central figure in
    post-Civil War Southern literature. Focusing her
    writing largely on the Acadian/Cajun communities
    of Louisiana, Chopin established her literary
    reputation with the short story collections Bayou
    Folk (1894), A Night in Acadie (1897) and The
    Awakening (1899)
  • During the first half of the 20th Century, the
    lawyer, politician, minister, orator, actor, and
    author Thomas Dixon, Jr. wrote a number of
    novels, plays, sermons, and non-fiction pieces
    which were quite popular with the general public
    all over the USA.

Literature The Southern Renaissance
  • In the 1920s and 1930s, a renaissance in Southern
    literature began with the appearance of writers
    such as William Faulkner, Katherine Anne Porter,
    Caroline Gordon, Allen Tate, Thomas Wolfe, Robert
    Penn Warren, and Tennessee Williams, among
    others. Because of the distance the Southern
    Renaissance authors had from the American Civil
    War and slavery, they were more objective in
    their writings about the South.
  • The late 1930s also saw the publication of one of
    the best-known Southern novels, Gone with the
    Wind by Margaret Mitchell. The novel, published
    in 1936, quickly became a bestseller. It won the
    1937 Pulitzer Prize and in 1939 an equally famous
    movie of the novel premiered.
  • From the 1940s onward, Southern literature grew
    thematically as it embraced the social and
    cultural changes in the South resulting from the
    American Civil Rights Movement ( Zora Neale
    Hurston, Sterling Allen Brown, Eudora Welty,
    Flannery O'Connor, Ellen Glasgow, Carson
    McCullers, Katherine Anne Porter, and Shirley Ann
    Grau). Other well-known Southern writers of this
    period include Reynolds Price, James Dickey,
    William Price Fox, Davis Grubb, Walker Percy, and
    William Styron.. One of the most highly praised
    Southern novels of the 20th century, To Kill a
    Mockingbird by Harper Lee, won the Pulitzer Prize
    when it was published in 1960. Another famous
    novel of the 1960s is A Confederacy of Dunces,
    written by New Orleans native John Kennedy Toole
    in the 1960s but not published until 1980. It won
    the Pulitzer Prize in 1981 and has since become a
    cult classic.

Literature Southern Literature today
  • Today the American South is undergoing a number
    of cultural and social changes, including rapid
    industrialization and an influx of immigrants.
    Truman Capote, born and raised in the Deep South,
    is best known for his novel In Cold Blood, a
    piece with none of the characteristics associated
    with "southern writing." Other southern writers,
    such as popular author John Grisham, rarely write
    about traditional southern literary issues. John
    Berendt, who wrote the popular Midnight in the
    Garden of Good and Evil, is not a Southerner.
  • Among today's prominent southern writers are Tim
    Gautreaux, William Gay, Padgett Powell, Pat
    Conroy, Fannie Flagg, Randall Kenan, Ernest
    Gaines, John Grisham, Mary Hood, Lee Smith, Tom
    Robbins, Tom Wolfe, Wendell Berry, Cormac
    McCarthy, Ron Rash, Anne Rice, Edward P. Jones,
    Barbara Kingsolver, Margaret Maron,, R.B. Morris,
    Anne Tyler, Larry Brown, Allan Gurganus, Clyde
    Edgerton, Daniel Wallace, Kaye Gibbons, Nicholas
    Sparks, Winston Groom, Lewis Nordan, Richard
    Ford, Ferrol Sams, and Olympia Vernon.

Southern Music
  • The musical heritage of the South was developed
    by both whites and blacks, both influencing each
    other directly and indirectly.
  • The South's musical history actually starts
    before the Civil War, with the songs of the
    African slaves and the traditional folk music
    brought from England and Northern Ireland. Blues
    was developed in the rural South by African
    Americans at the beginning of the 20th century.
    In addition, gospel music, spirituals, country
    music, rhythm and blues, soul music, funk, rock
    and roll, beach music, bluegrass, jazz (including
    ragtime, popularized by Southerner Scott Joplin),
    zydeco, and Appalachian folk music were either
    born in the South or developed in the region.
  • Famous singers Buddy Holly, Little Richard, Fats
    Domino, Bo Diddley, Elvis Presley, Ray Charles,
    James Brown, Otis Redding, Carl Perkins, Jerry
    Lee Lewis, Hank Williams, Willie Nelson, Waylon
    Jennings Johnny Cash.
  • Famous bands Deicide, Morbid Angel, Six Feet
    Under, Cannibal Corpse, Pantera, Hellyeah, Lamb
    of God, and Mastodon.

  • The South has had a number of Super Bowl winning
    National Football League teams (such as the
    Dallas Cowboys, the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, the
    Miami Dolphins, and the New Orleans Saints).
  • The region is noted for the intensity with which
    people follow high school and college football
    teams, especially the Southeastern Conference and
    in Texas where high school football, especially
    in smaller communities, is a dominating activity.
  • Baseball became popular in the South, with spring
    training in Florida from the 1920s, and Major
    League Baseball teams like the Atlanta Braves and
    Florida Marlins being recent World Series
  • The South is also the birthplace of NASCAR auto
  • Other popular sports in the South include golf,
    fishing, soccer and the hunting of wild game such
    as deer, birds, and raccoons.

  • These films could show us the background of the
  • Gone with the Wind (1939)
  • Song of the South (1946)
  • All the King's Men (1949)
  • A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)
  • The Miracle Worker (1962)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird (1962)
  • Deliverance (1972)
  • The Color Purple (1985)
  • Mississippi Burning (1988)
  • Driving Miss Daisy (1989)
  • Fried Green Tomatoes (1991)
  • Forrest Gump (1994)
  • Ghosts of Mississippi (1996)
  • Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil (1997)
  • O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000)
  • Big Fish (2003)
  • The Notebook (2004)
  • Ray (2004)

Southern Art
The region has been the home of many artists.
Outstanding collections of Southern art can be
found at the Ogden Museum of Southern Art in New
Orleans and the Morris Museum of Southern Art in
Augusta. Southern expressionism and folk art are
types of art generally considered to be part of
Southern art. The Southern Arts Federation
maintains a registry of contemporary Southern
artists (including visual artists, performing
artists, media artists and writers) who have been
recognized by their state arts councils based on
the outstanding quality of their work. Some
famous folk artists from the American South
include Howard Finster and Chris Flesher.
Mona Lisa (Howard Finster)
Southern Stereotypes
1. Backwards, racist (if white) and clinging to
the confederacy. 2. Very ignorant farmer-types,
backwoods rednecks and hillbillies, behind in
times and quite inbred. 3. Like chili and country
music. 4. Made fun of for their "Southern
Drawls", mostly for the use of "ya'll" and
"ain't". 5. Die-hard Protestants, represent the
Bible Belt. 6. Bad tippers. They are usually
really friendly and compliment wait staff on
their great service but leave a ten percent tip.
In Midwest, for example, you leave 20 percent if
you are satisfied. 7. More courteous and great at
holding the door for a lady than northerners. 8.
Famous for their "Southern hospitality". 9. Eat
hot dishes, that is anything with carbs
(noodles, rice, or potatoes), meat and cheese,
made in one pan and baked. Usually there is
enough to feed an army, and usually it's
something unhealthy. Here food is always
plentiful at funerals, births, weddings, etc.,
and if someone is sick, fifty women show up with
chicken spaghetti. 10. Breeding Southerners
Southern women pretty much stay barefoot and
pregnant. 11. "Southern belles" get their hair
and nails done and wear a full face of make up
all the time. 12. Say sweetie and hon to
Death penalty
Abortion map
Red states and blue states
Same-sex marriage map
The federal government of the United States does
not recognize the marriages of same-sex couples
and is prohibited from doing so by the Defense of
Marriage Act. Nationwide, same-sex marriage is
legal in three states as a result of a court
ruling and in two others plus a district through
a vote in their respective legislatures. Five
state governments offer same-sex marriage
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, and
New Hampshire.
  • Same-sex marriage
  • Unions granting rights similar to marriage
  • Legislation granting limited/enumerated rights
  • Same-sex marriages performed elsewhere recognized
  • No specific prohibition or recognition of
    same-sex marriages or unions
  • Statute bans same-sex marriage
  • Constitution bans same-sex marriage
  • Constitution bans same-sex marriage and some or
    all other kinds of same-sex unions

Gun control
  • An Unrestricted jurisdiction is one in which no
    permit is required to carry a concealed handgun.
    Among U.S. states, only Alaska, Vermont, and
    Arizona allow residents to carry a concealed
    firearm without a permit.
  • A Shall-Issue jurisdiction is one that requires a
    permit to carry a concealed handgun, but where
    the granting of such permits is subject only to
    meeting certain criteria laid out in the law.
    Typical permit requirements include residency,
    minimum age, submitting fingerprints, passing a
    computerized instant background check, attending
    a certified handgun/firearm safety class, and
    paying a required fee.
  • A May-Issue jurisdiction is one that requires a
    permit to carry a concealed handgun, and where
    the granting of such permits is partially at the
    discretion of local authorities (frequently the
    sheriff's department or police). The law
    typically states that a granting authority may
    issue a permit if various criteria are met.
  • A No-Issue jurisdiction is one that does not
    allow any private citizen to carry a concealed
    handgun. The term refers to the fact that no
    concealed carry permits will be issued (or
    recognized).Illinois, Wisconsin, and the District
    of Columbia are No-Issue jurisdictions. While
    technically May-Issue under state law, Hawaii is
    also a No-Issue jurisdiction in practice.