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Cultural Competency


Cultural Competency Finding Information Using Alumni Medical Library Resources * Other Useful Databases MEDLINE is the primary resource for biomedical journal ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cultural Competency

Cultural Competency
  • Finding Information Using 
  • Alumni Medical Library Resources

Subject Guide Pages
  • Healthcare Disparities Subject Page
  • Minority Health Subject Page

Subject Guide Pages
  • Each Subject Guide page contains links to
  • Library catalog searches
  • E-texts
  • Databases
  • E-journals
  • Recommended websites
  • All of these can be good starting places for an
    information search.

Print Materials Library Catalog
  • Search the library catalog for books on a topic.
  • There are three main ways it may be helpful to
  • search the catalog by Keyword, by Subject,
  • and using MeSH (Medical Subject Headings)

Searching the Catalog Keywords
  • A keyword search looks for the terms you enter
  • in the title or description of the item.
  • Here, you can use cultural competen (the
    serves as a wild card to retrieve cultural
    competence, culturally competent, etc.)

Searching the Catalog Subject
  • Choose Advanced Search option

Searching the Catalog Subject
  • Select Subject
  • from menu
  • Subject terms to try
  • Cultural Pluralism
  • Multiculturalism

Searching the Catalog MeSH
  • MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) is the vocabulary
  • used to index articles in PubMed. You can also
  • the library catalog using these terms. 
  • The next slides show MeSH terms that may be
    useful in
  • locating print information on Cultural

MeSH Terms People
  • Population Groups
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • American Native Continental Ancestry Group
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Oceanic Ancestry Group
  • Ethnic Groups
  • African Americans
  • Arabs
  • Asians
  • Gypsies
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Inuits
  • Jews

MeSH Terms Specific Issues
  • Cultural Diversity
  • Culture
  • Disabled Persons
  • Homosexuality
  • Religion and Medicine

Searching for Journal Articles
  • Often you will not find a print book on your
    topic, and will wish to search one or more of the
    library's databases to locate useful journal
  • The premier database for biomedical journal
    literature is the National Library of Medicine's
    MEDLINE, accessible through PubMed.
  • PubMed uses the MeSH vocabulary.

MEDLINE Overview
  • Millions of citations to articles in biomedical
  • Sign in through the Medical Library homepage to
    get full-text access to articles in journals to
    which the library subscribes.

MeSH Notes
  • Many more MeSH terms are useful for article
    searches in PubMed than are likely to be used for
    print items in the library catalog.
  • Cultural Competency is a broad and varied topic
    with many potentially relevant terms, so you may
    need to try different combinations of
    headings depending on exactly what you're looking
  • It is almost always a good idea to use a
    controlled vocabulary (like MeSH) if one is
    available, since a human is responsible for
    assigning these terms.

MeSH in PubMed
  • To take advantage of the MeSH terms once you are
    on the PubMed site, click on MeSH Database under
    More Resources.

Locating MeSH Terms
  • Enter search terms one at a time and click Go.
    The system will suggest MeSH terms related to
    your concept. 
  • The next slide shows MeSH terms that may be
    helpful for locating materials on Medical
  • Choose those that seem most promising for your

MeSH for Cultural Competency
  • Relevant terms new in 2008 (so only for recent
  • Cultural Competency
  • Healthcare Disparities
  • Health Status Disparities
  • Minority Health
  • Many population and ethnic groups are MeSH terms
    (next slide). It may be helpful to combine these
  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Cultural Diversity
  • Culture
  • Population Characteristics

MeSH Terms Groups of People
  • Population Groups
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • -African Americans
  • American Native Continental Ancestry Group
  • -Indians, Central American
  • -Indians, North American
  • -Indians, South American
  • -Inuits
  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • -Asian Americans
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Oceanic Ancestry Group
  • Ethnic Groups
  • African Americans
  • Arabs
  • Asian Americans
  • Gypsies
  • Hispanic Americans
  • -Mexican Americans
  • Inuits
  • Jews

MeSH Terms Specific Issues
  • Communication Barriers
  • Disabled Persons
  •    -Hearing Disabled Persons    -Mentally
    Disabled Persons   -Mentally Ill Persons  
    -Visually Disabled Persons
  • Educational Status
  • Homosexuality
  • Language
  • Religion
  •      -"Religion and Medicine"

Searching with MeSH Terms
  • If more than one term is suggested, check the box
    beside the one that looks most useful.
  • You can also click on a term for more information
    and to select subheadings.

  • MeSH terms may be associated with one or more
    subheadings, which narrow the search to specific
    aspects of a topic for example, only
    educational aspects of Cultural Competency.
  • If you do not specifically want to limit the
    search to a particular aspect, leave these boxes
    unchecked to include all subheadings.

Searching PubMed with MeSH
  • Once you have checked off a search term, you will
    tell PubMed to search for it.
  • Click Send To and select Search Box with AND.

Searching, Continued
  • This creates a search box in which you will build
    your PubMed search.
  • You can either click to Search PubMed
    immediately, or add more terms to your search in
    the same way you added the first one, using AND
    or OR to combine.

  • When you have the search terms you want, click
    Search PubMed to see results.
  • Review articles and articles available in free
    full text will be sorted out for you.
  • Note that Free Full Text in this context means
    free to anyone you may have full text access to
    more than these articles through BUs

Refining Results
  • If you get too many results to easily review, you
    can click on the Advanced Search link to apply
  • Scroll down to Limits.
  • Limits let you narrow search results by article
    type, publication year, subject criteria,
    language and more. It is advisable to apply
    limits one at a time, to see how each affects
    the search results.

Keyword Searches
  • You always have the option to search for a term
    as a keyword or phrase simply type it in the
    search box on the front page of PubMed, rather
    than using the MeSH Database. Use quotation marks
    for multi-word phrases.
  • Since the MeSH term Cultural Competency is new,
    the phrase was likely used by authors before it
    was assigned to any articles, and it is a good
    idea to run this keyword search in addition to
    using MeSH.

Combining Search Results
  • You can run searches for several different terms
    separately and then combine your results.
  • Click on Advanced Search to see a list of
    searches you have completed.

Combining Searches, Continued
  • Right-click the number next to a search and
  • - AND (if you want results to contain both of
    the terms from the initial searches) 
  • - OR (if you want results to contain either of
    the terms from the initial searches)

Example Use of OR
  • If a MeSH term is new, as with Cultural
    Competency, it may be helpful to combine several
    related terms or phrases using OR to cover that
    broader concept.

Example Use of AND
  • If you are interested in cultural competency as
  • relates to a specific issue, for example
    Language, you
  • can then search for this term as well and combine
    it with
  • your main set using AND.

Viewing and Accessing Results
  • Results of the most recent search will normally
    be displayed.
  • To see results for an earlier search, click
    Advanced Search and click on the number listed to
    the right of any search.

Article Information
  • Click the title of an article to see the abstract
    (if available) and other citation information.
  • Look for a full-text link at the upper right if
    BU has an online subscription to the journal.
  • The Find_at_BU link will search the catalog to see
    if the journal is available in print.

Article Information, Continued
  • Scroll down and click on Publication Types,
  • MeSH Terms to see terms used to index an
  • article.
  • If any of these look useful,
  • you can click to add them
  • to your search. This can be a
  • good way to find relevant
  • terms for a search.

PubMed Help
  • Alumni Medical Library tutorials 
  • http//
  • Reference Desk, staffed 830am-500pm weekdays
  • Meet with a librarian call or email to make an

Other Useful Databases
  • MEDLINE is the primary resource for biomedical
    journal articles, but other databases may also be
  • Academic OneFile
  • CINAHL (Cumulated Index of Nursing and Allied
    Health Literature)
  • PsycINFO
  • Web of Knowledge

Accessing Databases
  • Access databases on the Alumni Medical Library
  • homepage under E-Resources

Academic OneFile
  • Academic OneFile lists articles from journals
    covering a
  • broad range of subjects.
  • While it does not primarily focus on medical
  • useful articles can still be found here.

Academic OneFile Subject
  • Subject Guide Search
  • Cultural Competence
  • Multiculturalism

Academic OneFile Keyword
  • Advanced Search
  • Keyword phrase cultural competen
  • Also try adding specific language, country or
  • keywords depending on the information need.

Academic OneFile Results
  • You can refine results by adding more search
    terms, or by limiting to publication type,
    document type, date, etc.

  • CINAHL (Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied
  • Literature) covers major nursing and allied
  • journals.
  • It will not always be relevant for biomedical
  • but it can be a good source of information on
  • topics.

CINAHL Subject
  • CINAHL Headings (subject search) 
  • Cultural Competence
  • Cultural Sensitivity (used before 1994)

CINAHL Keyword
  • Advanced Search 
  • Select TX All Text and enter keyword phrase
  • cultural competen

CINAHL Results
  • You can narrow and limit results, add extra
    search terms, or search the library catalog for
    the journal.

CINAHL Results
  • Click an article title to see the full reference
    and the subject terms used to index it.
  • If one of them seems relevant, you can click to
    run a search for that term.

  • PsycINFO (and PsycARTICLES, a subset that
    includes only full-text articles) searches the
    psychological literature.
  • PsycINFO is larger (including all information
    from the PsycARTICLES subset), so for a broad
    search, you will want to use it even though many
    results are not full-text.
  • If you want only full-text results, you may wish
    to use PsycARTICLES.
  • Both may be searched in the same way.

PsycINFO Subject
  • Thesaurus (Subject) Search
  • Cross Cultural Differences
  • Cultural Sensitivity
  • Multiculturalism
  • Sociocultural Factors

PsycINFO Combining Subjects
  • Try combining subject headings 
  • ((DE "Cultural Sensitivity") or (DE "Cross
    Cultural Differences") or (DE "Sociocultural
    Factors") or (DE "Multiculturalism"))
  • You can also apply various limits to narrow the

PsycINFO Keyword
  • Advanced Search 
  • Select TX All Text and enter cultural
  • Depending on the specific topic, you may also
    wish to try other keywords for language, country,

PsycINFO Results
  • You can narrow and limit results, add extra
    search terms, or access full text (if available).

PsycINFO Results
  • Click the article title to see the full reference
    and subject
  • terms used to index it.
  • If one of the other indexing terms seems
    relevant, you
  • can click to run a search for that term.

Web of Knowledge
  • Web of Knowledge is a major source for articles
    in a
  • wide range of fields, including the sciences,
  • sciences, and humanities.
  • The subset database Web of Science is an
  • place to find articles from scientific journals
    that may not
  • be included in MEDLINE.

Web of Knowledge Search
  • Web of Knowledge (and its subset database, Web of
    Science) does not use a controlled vocabulary to
    index items, so effective use of keywords is
  • Try "cultural competen" as a topic phrase
    (again, the serves as a 'wild card' to retrieve
    different word endings).

Web of Knowledge Results
  • Refine the search by adding 
  • additional terms related to the 
  • specific issue (i.e. religion") 
  • or by checking off specific categories 
  • or subject areas.
  • You can also try additional topic
  • keywords.
  • Since there is no standardized list
  • of subject terms, you may need to 
  • try the search with several different
  • terms and combinations.

Web of Science
  • This science-focused subset of Web of Knowledge
    also lacks a standardized subject vocabulary, but
    does offer an Advanced Search option (it can also
    be searched in the same way as Web of Knowledge
    using the default Search mode).
  • Access Web of Science from its tab on the main
    Web of
  • Knowledge page.

Web of Science Search
  • In the Advanced Search mode, you must use the
    listed "field tags," i.e. TS for a Topic (or
  • The wildcard indicator () and Boolean operators
    (AND, OR, NOT) may also be used.

Web of Science Search
  • Try for example
  • tscultural AND (tscompeten OR tssensitiv)
  • Scroll to Search History at the bottom of the
    page and click on the number of results to

Web of Science Results
  • You can then narrow the results 
  • by adding more terms or checking 
  • a desired Subject Area, 
  • Document Type, etc.
  • Again, you may need to try several 
  • combinations of keywords since
  • there is no standardized list
  • of subject terms.

Web Searching Google Scholar
  • Google Scholar (http// can be
    a way to locate relevant materials that are not
    published in journals position papers,
    association guidelines, policy statements, etc.
  • Try combining various synonyms of your keywords
    with Boolean operators (AND, OR) to focus your
  • For example
  • (medical OR health OR physician) cultural
    (competence OR sensitivity)

For Additional Assistance
  • If you have questions about any of the library's
    resources, or would like advice on a search
  • Call or visit the Reference Desk 830am-500pm,
    Monday through Friday (617) 638-4228 
  • Email your question to
  • Call or email to make an appointment to meet with
    a librarian 
  • Your library is here for you!
  • ?

Additional Resources
  • Cross Cultural Efficacy, University of Maryland
    One step further than Cultural Competency.
    Eight practice cases, with pre- and post-study
    self-assessment questionnaires.
  • Cultural Competence Health Practitioner
    Assessment, National Center for Cultural
    Competence Answer a series of questions for an
    evaluation (approx. 20 minutes).
  • Cultural Competency, Medical University of South
    Carolina Nicely designed explanation of key
  • Cultural Competency/Health Disparities Education,
    University of California - Irvine Six teaching
    modules with practice cases.

Additional Resources CME
  • Educating Physicians on Controversies and
    Challenges in Health Health Care Disparities
    Among Racial-Ethnic Minority Patients, American
    Medical Association CME course with a cultural
    competencies module.
  • A Physicians Practical Guide to Culturally
    Competent Care, Think Cultural Health Up to nine
    hours worth of CME credits (free registration
  • Quality Care for Diverse Populations, American
    Association of Family Physicians CME course
    (RealPlayer required).