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Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders in Children

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Miriam K. Pizzani, MD Source: Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders in Children by Martin Baren, MD Humor : The Complete Cartoons of The New Yorker – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders in Children


1
Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders in Children
  • Miriam K. Pizzani, MD

Source Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders in
Children by Martin Baren, MD Humor The
Complete Cartoons of The New Yorker Edited by
Robert Mankoff
2
Symptoms of an ADHD Child
  • With Hyperactivity
  • (impulsive)
  • Without Hyperactivity
  • (inattentive)
  • Is fidgety
  • Leaves seat when shouldnt
  • Runs or climbs inappropriately
  • Talks excessively
  • Has difficulty playing quietly
  • Is always on the go
  • Blurts out answers
  • Has trouble waiting turn
  • Interrupts
  • Has difficulty following through on instructions
  • Has difficulty keeping attention on tasks or play
    activities
  • Loses things necessary for tasks and activities
    at school and at home
  • Doesnt listen
  • Fails to give close attention to details
  • Seems disorganized
  • Has trouble with tasks requiring long term mental
    effort
  • Is forgetful
  • Is easily distracted

3
Why take it so hard - theres lots of other
girls in the world, arent there? I know, but
what am I going to do tonight?
4
Myths about the Causes of ADHD
It is generally accepted that none of these cause
ADHD- although some may cause increased problems
for a child with ADHD
  • Too much sugar
  • Too little sugar
  • Aspartame
  • Food sensitivity
  • Food additives/coloring
  • Television
  • Florescent lighting
  • Video games

5
Well, stupid, dont just sit there.
6
Cautions
  • If your childs behavior does seem to change
    after a any particular food or drink, make a note
  • Try keeping the child off that substance, and see
    if there is any improvement
  • Gluten intolerance (wheat flour, rye ,barley
    -malt) avoid for a 3 month trial

7
What other bad words do you know?
8
Why do some children develop ADHD while others do
not?
Not all children who have inherited a tendency
towards ADHD will develop it. The following
factors can make it more likely to emerge
  • Factors during pregnancy
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Drug abuse
  • Poor maternal nutrition
  • Chemical poisons , like lead
  • Factors after birth
  • Brain injuries during or after birth
  • Infections
  • Iron deficiency anemia
  • Chemical poisons, like lead

9
Now can you hear me you boys in the back?
10
At what age does ADHD begin?
  • Many parents are amazed that their children have
    ADHD, because at home they noticed no difficulty.
    Indeed they may report that the child can watch
    television or play video games for hours, with no
    sign of attention disorder.
  • How could such a child have ADHD?
  • The answer is simple. Television and video games
    offer the type of stimulation that helps these
    children to focus. These passive situations, in
    which the children are actually being stimulated
    from outside. In other words, attention span
    during these types of tasks is not important for
    the diagnosis.

11
Sh, Darling. Daddys afraid hell have to work
in New Jersey!
12
Previous Names For ADHD
  • Postencephalitic Disorder
  • Hyperkinetic Syndrome
  • Minimal Brain Damage
  • Minimal Brain Disorder
  • Hyperkinetic Reaction
  • Attention Deficit Disorder of Childhood (with or
    without hyperactivity)

13
Oh, shes been acting that way all day.
Someone told her she looks like Katharine
Hepburn.
14
Important Factors During Diagnosis
  • Explore all of the possibilities that could
    explain the childs behavior
  • Find if there are any additional problems such as
    learning disabilities, conduct disorders,
    depression, anxiety, or various physical
    illnesses
  • Know about the family structure, classroom
    situation, and any special conditions or problems
  • Have a good idea of the childs thinking ability
    and academic skills

15
Small FryCriminal Types
Bully
Peeping Tom
Sadist
Pyromaniac
Liar
Tattle-Tale
Cheat
16
The childs therapy should always include help
for classroom problems. For example the teacher
should
  • Write directions on the board
  • Break instructions into small steps
  • Have the child sit in front of the class
  • Give more time for tests and writing assignments
  • Remind the child to turn in homework
  • Provide a structured learning environment
  • Let the child use tape recorders to record
    lessons
  • Use simplified textbooks
  • Tailor homework assignments
  • Ignore negative behavior as much as possible
  • Do not give bad marks for the childs work
    because of difficulties caused by the attention
    disorder
  • Do not punish the child because of difficulties
    arising from lack of organization or problems
    with attention

17
Dont just stand there get witnesses!
18
Managing the ADHD Child at Home
  • Children usually look for some type of attention
    from their parents- positive or negative. ADHD
    children often get negative types of
    reinforcement. When children do well, they
    should be encouraged and rewarded. This is
    positive reinforcement. Be positive with the
    ADHD child
  • Tell the child often that he or she has a special
    problem with concentration and impulse control.
    Its helpful if the children fully understand
    their condition and how it affects them, both at
    school and at home.

19
If this doesnt get us in, nothing will.
20
Managing the ADHD Child at Home
  • Be very consistent in the way you treat your ADHD
    child, and provide quite a bit of structure at
    any age. This means that the children should
    always know exactly how they stand in a certain
    situation, and how far they can push, as well as
    what will happen if they cross the line.
  • Like all children, ADHD children do much better
    in school if they eat a good, nutritious
    breakfast.

21
We forgot to bring the children!
22
What are the Benefits of Medication?
  • More control over conduct, social behavior,
    impulsiveness, and aggressive behavior
  • Improvement in attention span-especially in
    school
  • Dramatic improvements in the quality and quantity
    of school work in general, including handwriting
    , finishing tasks, the rate of accomplishment of
    certain academic skills, and classroom behavior
  • Better relationships with peers and family
    members
  • Children will often become calmer, more
    organized, and less stubborn. In addition to
    improvements in the way they get along , there
    will be general increase in self esteem

23
Im sure Babys in here somewhere.
24
Other Medications
Drug Description How it Works Comments
Imipramine Desipramine Nortriptyline Antidepressants Improves the supply of neurotransmitters in the brain Improve mood Improvement in impulsivity, hyperactivity, and attention
Bupropion Antidepressant Improves mood and possibly attention. Works on neurotransmitters Help for ADHD symptoms mostly in adults
Adderall Vyvanse Amphetamines Stimulates brain neurotransmitters Improvement in impulsivity, hyperactivity, and attention
25
Other Medications
Drug Description How it Works Comments
Thioridazine Usually given for severe emotional problems Can help behavioral difficulties by changing brain chemistry Useful in very small children with ADHD
Lithium Lithium is an antimanic drug Works on the brain chemistry Useful in calming aggression in children
Fluoxetine Sertraline Treats depression in adults, including obsessive-compulsive problems Works on brain neurotransmitters Helpful in children with attention disorders who are also depressed
26
In Summary
Once your child has been diagnosed by qualified
professionals as having ADHD, you will need to
face the fact that the condition is unlikely to
go away. The good news, however, is that a great
deal can be done to help your child, particularly
if you follow these guidelines
  • Work with health professionals to get the most
    effective medical treatment
  • Work with the school to get the most beneficial
    classroom situation
  • Know your child understand what situations make
    the condition worse
  • Remember that with help, your child can grow up
    to be a successful adult

27
Of course its much too early to draw
conclusions. The Harvard entrance examinations
will tell the story.
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