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Supplementation of Low Quality Forages

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Title: Supplementation of Low Quality Forages


1
Supplementation of Low Quality Forages
  • Norman Suverly
  • WSU Okanogan County Extension Educator

2
Introduction
  • Forage Beef
  • The ideal supplement should enhance, not inhibit
    the animals ability to digest forage
  • Supplement should complement forage quality

3
Basic Beef Nutrition
Rumen
Stomach (abomasum) Intestines
4
Rumen Function
Feed
Stomach and Intestines
5
Considerations when supplementing ruminants
  • Rumen microbes have nutrient requirements
  • If not met, rumen efficiency is decreased
  • Feed affects rumen microbes before it affects the
    animal

6
Examples of low-quality forage
  • Forages that fall below nutritional levels to
    provide the necessary animal requirements (lt7
    CP)
  • Wheat straw 3.6 CP
  • Barley straw 4.7
  • Grass seed straws 4-12
  • Dormant range 2-6

7
Nutrient content of range forage
Percent
Influence of season on forage quality, Johnson et
al., 1998, NDSU
8
Ruminal Protein Digestibility
Percent
of Protein
Influence of season on forage quality, Johnson et
al., 1998, NDSU
9
Nutrient content of range forages northern
Great Basin
Ganskopp and Bohnert 2001, OSU
10
Forage nutrient content varies with season
11
Energy vs. protein supplements
  • Energy
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Oats
  • Fat
  • Molasses
  • Protein
  • Soybean meal
  • Cottonseed meal
  • Corn gluten meal
  • Feather and blood meal
  • Alfalfa
  • Canola meal
  • Distiller grains
  • Non-protein nitrogen

12
Type of Protein Supplement
Natural
Non-Protein Nitrogen
  • Soybean meal
  • Cottonseed meal
  • Corn Gluten meal
  • Canola meal
  • Urea (48 nitrogen)
  • Biuret
  • Slowly digested
  • Provide VFAs
  • Quickly digested/dissolved
  • Provides only nitrogen

13
DIP and UIP of common protein sources
Supplement CP UIP DIP
Alfalfa hay 18 14 86
Wheat midds 18 23 77
Canola meal 39 30 70
Corn gluten meal 47 62 38
Dry distiller grains 30 50-60 40-50
14
Tips for successful protein supplementation
  • Begin your supplementation before weight loss and
    body condition loss
  • Time supplements to facilitate grazing
  • Supplement form consider what it is supplying
    and the cost
  • Self-feeding vs. hand-feeding
  • Mineral considerations
  • Ca, Mg, P, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Na

15
Price
  • SBM supplement costs 290/ton and provides 40 CP
  • Canola meal costs 160/ton and provides 35 CP

SBM is .15/ton (290/2000) and will cost .38/lb
of protein CM is .08/ton (160/2000) and will
cost .25/lb of protein
16
Effect of Degradable Protein Supplements on
Intake and Digestion of Low-Quality Forage by
Beef Cows
  • H. H. Koster et al. (1996)
  • Kansas State University

17
Methods
  • Cows fed a diet of
  • Low-quality forage
  • 5 levels of ruminally degradable protein
  • Measured diet digestion parameters

18
Forage Intake (g/kg BW.75)
Degradable Protein (grams/day)
19
Forage Digestion ()
Degradable Protein (grams/day)
20
Total Diet Digestion ()
Degradable Protein (grams/day)
21
Implications
  • Supplementing ruminally degradable protein
  • Improved digestion of low-quality forage by 15
  • Increased forage intake by 55
  • This represents an improvement of forage
    utilization by the animal

22
Performance of Cows on Native Range When Fed
Protein or Corn Supplements
  • D. W. Sanson, D. C. Clanton and I. G. Rush
  • (1990)
  • University of Nebraska

23
Methods
  • 135 cows grazing native Sandhills winter range
  • Supplement treatments
  • Ear corn
  • Ear corn protein supplement
  • Protein supplement

24
Weight Changes of Cows
25
Implications
  • Corn supplemented cows lost more weight than
    protein supplemented cows
  • Corn supplement decreased forage digestion and
    intake

26
Using TDN/CP Ratio for Supplement Selection
27
Considerations for using energy supplements
  • Grain vs. fermentable fiber
  • Supplementation with grain at 0.4 of BW
  • Fermentable fiber at .2 to .8 percent
  • If utilizing low quality forages, no more than
    0.5 of body weight (5.5 lbs for 1100 lb cow)

28
Protein to energy ration
CP, TDN, TDN/CP
Cattle need 4.0-6.0
Dead grass 4 50 12.5
Med quality grass hay 11 52 4.7
Annual pasture 21 65 3.1
Cottonseed meal 46 76 1.6
Range cube 22 80 3.6
Corn 10 88 8.8
29
Using TDN/CP Ratios for Supplement Selection
Forage TDN/CP
Supplement
gt 7
Protein
lt 4
Energy
30
Nutrient requirements of cattle
Season CP TDN
Dry-cow, mid-tri 1100 lbs Fall 7 49
Cow nursing, post-partum Winter 9 56
Heifer, mid-tri 800 lbs,1.5 lb gain Fall 9 60
Heifer, post-partum, 950 lbs Winter 10 62
31
Situation 1
  • Forage supply is abundant and protein content of
    the native range is 5 or less
  • Should select adequate diet (6.5-7 percent)
  • Supplement with protein
  • .5 to 1 lbs/day gt30
  • 55 to 70 DIP

32
Situation 2
  • Forage supply is limited and protein content
    below 5 percent
  • Combination supplement of 20 to 30 CP
  • Should provide supplemental energy in form of
    fermentable fiber.

33
Situation 3
  • Forage supply is unlimited and protein content of
    range is above 5 percent
  • Should select adequate diet (7 or greater)
  • No intervention needed for a dry cow.

34
Conclusion
  • Proper supplementation can improve forage
    digestion and animal performance
  • Provide supplements that complement forage
  • Use resources to help determine proper
    supplementation

35
References
  • DelCurto, T. and D. Bohnert. Fundamentals of
    Supplementing Low-Quality Forage. Cattle
    Producers Library. CL317.
  • Ganskopp D. and D. Bohnert. 2003. Mineral
    concentration dynamics of 7 northern Great Basin
    grasses. J. Range Manage. 56 174-184.
  • Ganskopp, D. and D. Bohnert. 2001. Nutritional
    Dynamics of 7 northern Great Basin grasses. J.
    Range Manage 54640-647.
  • Herd, D.B. 2003. Tips on Winter Supplementation
    of Beef Cattle. http//thecattlemanmagazine.com/is
    sues/2003/1103/winterSupp.asp
  • Johnson et al. 1998. Influence of season on
    forage quality. North Dakota State University.
  • Koster, H.H. et al. 1996. Effect of Degradable
    Protein Supplements on Intake and Digestion of
    Low-Quality Forage by Beef Cows. Kansas State
    University.
  • Mathis, C.P. 2003. Protein and Energy
    Supplementation to Beef Cows Grazing New Mexico
    Rangelands. New Mexico State University, Circular
    564.
  • Mount, D. Supplementing Feed to Grazing Cattle.
    PowerPoint presentation. http//www.wyorange.net/r
    esources/mount/MountBasicsofSupplementationtoGrazi
    ngCattle.ppt
  • Sanson, D.W., D. C. Clanton and I. G. Rush. 1990.
    Performance of Cows on Native Range When Fed
    Protein or Corn Supplements. University of
    Nebraska.
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