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Rest of the course


Only 3 lectures left - last lecture is on May 30th we expect you to come to this as key learning portfolio exercise of reflecting on best policy briefs – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rest of the course

Rest of the course
  • Only 3 lectures left - last lecture is on May
    30th we expect you to come to this as key
    learning portfolio exercise of reflecting on best
    policy briefs
  • Next week last tutorial
  • Week after - May 20-22 you are giving your policy
  • Extra session on June 2nd for anyone interested
    on getting a job in EPP

Assessment reminders
  • You must all have by now been to a supertutorial
    and last round of facilitations are next week
  • Remaining essay questions are
  • Cultural Heritage - due by tuts May 13-15 What
    is cultural heritage? What should we keep? How
    should we decide?
  • Indigenous issues - due by tuts May 20-22 Why
    should Indigenous people be involved in EPP? What
    are the current barriers to their effective
    involvement and how can these be overcome?
  • Regional Planning -due by may 27-29 How can
    regional planning best contribute to sustainable
    environmental management?

Learning Portfolio
  • Due June 13th but get it in earlier if you can!
  • Your learning portfolio MUST contain at least the
    following items
  • 1) reflections on what you learnt in each
    tutorial (please supply an explanation if you
    miss more than two tutorials) on what you learnt.
    Your tutorial reflections should include the one
    you facilitate, so for this one you should
    reflect on both what you learnt about the topic
    and about the process of facilitating.
  • 2) reflections on what you learnt in the lectures
    (please supply an explanation if you miss more
    than two lectures). There are lots of examples of
    good learning portfolios from past courses on my
  • 3) all of your one page tutorial preparations (ie
    you have to hand in ones even for tutorials you
    missed) and your supertut one page summary
  • 4) reflections on your classmates policy briefs
    delivered in the last tutorial and last lecture.
  • 5) Plus two one page summaries of how two
    lectures/talks/seminars relate to EPP. Any of
    the panel sessions in SRES1001 can be used for
    these summaries.

You must go to 2 relevant talks and summarise in
one page or less their relevance to EPP
  • Hence all the emails I have been sending you
    about such talks
  • Seminar next Monday 12 noon Fiona Miller CRES
    seminar room - applicant for Geography lectureship

Policy briefings to be given in week 11 tutorials
  • http//

Cross-cultural communication is a key
  • Lynette Liddles cultural midwife concept
  • Need for two way learning
  • Non-Indigenous people learning to sit and listen
  • Quite acceptable not to answer a question in many
    Aboriginal contexts
  • Different etiquette - stranger sits on smoky side
    of fire - forces them to look away, not directly
    into the eyes of their host
  • Deal with conflict much more directly Uluru eg

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Poor communication can have dreadful outcomes
  • Environmental, Policy and Planning
  • Regional planning

Regional Planning - Lecture outline
  • Different ways of dividing Australia up
  • How do you make regional environmental planning
  • Trends in Australia towards regional approaches
    eg attempts to scale up Landcare and catchment
  • Top-down v bottom-up regional processes -
    Regionalism v Regionalisation
  • Bioregionalism
  • Institutional arrangements to support

Regional planning last tut topic for good reason
  • Regional planning issue deliberately at the end
    of the course as it is such a fundamental issue
    and one that builds on so much that comes

Key issues
  • Lots of ways to divide the world or any country
    up key is to get the right regionalisation
    for the right issue
  • What are your ideas on key ways of dividing
    Australia up?
  • Some Australian egs

Increasing push in policy documents in Australia
towards regional planning
  • The Murray-Darling Basin Agreement
  • http//

Total Catchment Management
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Murray-Darling Basin
Regional planning at many scales with the MDB
  • Border Rivers agreement- NSW - Qld
  • SA- Vic agreement on groundwater
  • NSW-Victoria-ACT Alps agreement
  • smaller scale Catchment Management Boards- Lake
    Eyre Basin
  • Regional Landcare Groupings
  • smaller scale Catchment Management Boards, ICM,
    TCM - see

  • National Forest Policy Statement (NFPS)
  • paved the way for the Regional Forest Agreements
    http// and see http//

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  • OUR VITAL RESOURCESA National Action Plan for
    Salinity and Water Quality in Australia

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National Action Plan for Salinity and Water
  • Catchment/regions are the most effective scale
    at which to engage the community in addressing
    dryland salinity and water quality. The
    catchment/region units will underpin broader
    levels of management such as the Murray Darling
    Basin Salinity Strategy or State/Territory
    salinity plans
  • P2 A National Action Plan for Salinity and Water
    Quality, October 2000, Commonwealth Government of

Six priorities of the National Action Plan
  • targets and standards for natural resource
  • integrated catchment/regional management plans
  • capacity building for communities and landholders
    to assist them to develop and implement
    integrated catchment/region plans, together with
    the provision of technical and scientific support
    and engineering innovations
  • an improved governance framework
  • clearly articulated roles for the Commonwealth,
    State/Territory and community
  • a public communication program

  • More ambitious regional planning exercises

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Developing regional boundaries
  • 56 regions have been identified across Australia
    for the purposes of determining natural resource
    management and sustainable agriculture
  • The boundaries for each region have been
    established by agreement between Commonwealth and
    State/Territory Governments.
  • The original assessment for selection of the NAP
    priority regions was made by the Australian
  • This assessment was based on National Land and
    Water Resources Audit data

OK - How do we make regional planning
workSmall group work
  • Group 1 - anyone who has worked for government
    if you were in charge in a govt dept for
    assisting a regional planning exercise what are
    they keys to getting the process to be responsive
    to local needs?
  • Group 2 anyone who has lived in rural Australia
    what are the keys for involving rural
    Australians in any regional environmental
  • Group 3- Indigenous facilitators what are the
    keys to involving Indigenous people in any
    regional environmental planning?
  • Group 4 - regional planning facilitators what
    are the keys to defining regions that work?
  • Group 5 - Landcare facilitators how can
    landcare be scaled up?
  • Group 6 - Anyone left - what are the key things
    this course has taught you so far on making
    regional environmental planning in Australia

Establishing regional organisations
  • Each region has at least one 'regional body'
    formed to undertake the important job of managing
    and protecting their region's natural resources.
  • Larger regions may have more than one regional
    body. Where possible and appropriate, existing
    structures are being used.

Developing integrated regional natural resource
management plans
  • Regional plans are the basis for regional
    investment from both the Natural Heritage Trust
    and the National Action Plan for Salinity and
    Water Quality, removing the need for individual
    project plans or applications in order to access
    different types of Government funding.
  • Regional bodies, State/Territory governments and
    the Commonwealth work together to develop an
    integrated natural resource management plan for
    each region.

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Different regions for different issues
  • Critical issue to work out the most appropriate
    region for particular issues
  • this is going to be different for most issues
  • Eg. airsheds and watersheds clearly different and
    requires appropriate planning divisions
  • Needs of different species need to be considered
    at different scales eg wildebeest, tourists,
    bears and wolves

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Some implications of this biogeographic
  • Many zones with no protected areas
  • some zones are entirely Aboriginal land strong
    factor in Indigenous Protected Areas being

Scaling up catchment management
  • Upper Shoalhaven
  • Shoalhaven
  • Sydney south

Cultural and catchment boundaries are usually
  • catchment approaches can be top down and can be
    a cause of conflict
  • Braidwood Landcare egs
  • Araluen in or out?
  • CMC imposed Landcare locally owned
  • Regionalisation of Landcare

Scaling up landcare?
Issues Government Departments involved Scale
Soil Erosion Soil Conservation Service Individual farm
Land Degradation State Water and Land Depts., Federal Depts... AFFA and Environment Culturally defined area of Landcare groups - regional groupings of Landcare groups
Sustainability Whole of Government approach required Regions - the nation - the planet
Non-contiguous regions
  • Eg Aboriginal Dreaming paths
  • Montague Island and Gulaga (Mt Dromedary)

Communities of common concern
  • Linking regions of common concern
  • Eg Albury City Council
  • South East Asia impacted by smoke haze
  • Everyone around the Indian Ocean in the path of
    the boxing day Tsunami

Regionalism versus Regionalisation.
  • Government attempts to set up regional
    organisations and the moves towards regional
    groupings that are emerging from the community
    are fundamentally different.
  • Campbell explores this issue in great detail and
    labels the bottom-up tendency as regionalism and
    the top-down one as regionalisation.

Andrew Campbell
  • Regionalism is about autonomy and identity at a
    regional level, and about scaling up to better
    engage with particular environmental and social
    issues, driven from below. Regionalisation is
    about central governments achieving efficiencies
    and effectiveness by concentrating program
    delivery at the regional scale, usually while
    retaining financial control and hence program

Need to decide what we mean by the term region
- I have been speaking of regions at very
different scales
  • South-East Asian region
  • Mekong region
  • Communities of common interest

Regions in Australia
  • have usually been defined at scales greater than
    local government areas and smaller than States
  • Eg the Riverina, New England, the Channel
    Country, the South Coast, the Southern
    Tablelands, the Wimmeria, Eyre Peninsula, The Top
    End (of the NT), Cape York
  • Regional Australia has a different meaning

One definition of regions
  • sizeable division of Territory separated from
    others by a mixture of tangible characteristics
    which simultaneously sets it is apart from
    neighbouring areas, and declares a degree of
    commonality, or shared identity, among the
    physical features and/or the inhabitants of that
  • Joe Powell The emergence of Bioregionalsim in
    the Murray-Darling Basin 1993

Interesting history in Australia of regional
  • eg New England region in northern New South Wales
  • Major towns in the region with a focal point for
    a growing dissatisfaction with Sydney in the
  • in 1915 separatist agitators on the North Coast
    led by Earle Page united with those from New
    England and their campaign rapidly gained
    momentum and in 1918 became known as the new
    state movement

New Englands attempts to become a new state
  • this new state movement seem likely to be
    successfully early 1920s but was thwarted by the
    Cohen Royal Commission in 1925
  • a referendum in 1967 throughout the proposed new
    state area resulted in most in northern and North
    Coast New South Wales voting yes to separation
    from NSW but they were defeated by larger no
    vote for Newcastle region

History of regional planning in Australia
  • Important to note also that there has been a long
    history of regional planning in Australia
  • the Commonwealth Government (traditionally ALP
    ones - but LNP done same recently) have often
    seen it as a tool to circumvent recalcitrant
    state governments

The Commonwealth view of regional planninghas
changed over time
  • Conflict between centralist vs State's rights
  • 1940s Curtin -- Chifley post-war reconstruction
  • 1970s Whitlam Uren big picture Albury --
    Wodonga regional growth centres
  • mid-1990s Keating Brian Howe "economic growth
    engine see Mr Joel Fitzgibbon First Speech To
    Parliament - homage to Howes legacy
  • Current government in the late 1990s they
    regionalised natural resource management through
    the Natural Heritage Trust

  • popular movement in North America particularly in
    the so called Pacific North-West
  • has a long history but popularised in the mid
    1970s by Peter Berg and Raymond Dasmann of the
    Planet Earth Foundation
  • Eg of Salmonopolis

Two definitions
  • A bioregion is a place defined by its life
    forms, its topography and its biota, rather than
    by human dictates a region governed by nature,
    not legislature Kirkpatrick Sale 1985 Dwellers
    in the Land The Bioregional Vision San
    Francisco Sierra Club
  • Bioregionalism, as a cultural movement,
    celebrates the particular the unique and often
    indescribable features of a place. It celebrates
    this through visual arts, music, drama ands
    symbols which convey the feeling of place
  • Editorial An integrating Idea The New Catalyst
    1 No 2 19862

Does nature know best?
  • Great article - Bioregionalism Science or
    Sensibility? Environmental Ethics 1990 p161-173
  • Criticizes the bioregionalism movement as a
    veering towards a simplistic view of nature
    knows best and argues that bioregionalism is
    best seen as a sensibility and environmental
  • Author argues that Bioregionalism, in essence,
    is the regional fulfillment of Aldo Leopoldss
    Sand Country Almanac land ethic.

A land ethic
  • We shall never achieve harmony with the land,
    any more than we shall achieve absolute justice
    or liberty for people. In these higher
    aspirations the important thing is not to
    achieve, but to strive. It is only in mechanical
    enterprises that we can expect that early or
    complete fruition of effort which we call
  • When we say striving, we admit at the outset
    that the thing we need must grow from within. No
    striving for an idea was ever injected wholly
    from without.

A land ethic cont.
  • The problem, then, is how to bring about a
    striving for harmony with land among the people
    many of whom have forgotten there is any such
    thing as land, among whom education and culture
    being have become almost synonymous with
    landlessness. This is the problem of
    conservation education.
  • A Sand County Almanac - Aldo Leopold. 1970210
    Ballantine Books 1949 original

Leopolds quote highlights how successful
regional planning also requires effective
environmental education
  • Effective environmental education requires
  • raising awareness of environmental issues without
    getting people offside by preaching to them
  • educating without depressing the pants of people
    by painting a black picture of how bad
    environmental problems are

Aim of the game in my opinion should be to
empower people by
  • giving them the skills to learn about the
    environment themselves and
  • empowering them by presenting positive role
    models of how things can be achieved by
    highlighting positive things that are happening
    as far as solving environmental problems

Making regional organisations work we can learn
from the literature of common property resources
  • established relationships, trust and commitment
  • shared understandings of the CPR that come out of
    point 1
  • management systems that rely on local ecological
  • clearly defined boundaries
  • transparent processes
  • monitoring systems
  • graduated sanctions
  • internal conflict resolution systems

We can also learn from the literature on core
principles for institutional arrangements to
support sustainability
  • Sustainability
  • Holism
  • Equity
  • Inclusiveness and participation
  • Accountability
  • Effectiveness
  • Efficiency
  • Durability

  • as a central goal, including taking a
    precautionary approach
  • so as not to diminish opportunities for future
  • also recognising the pre-eminent importance of
    ecosystems upon which communities and economies
    ultimately depend

Holism and Equity
  • Holism
  • as an approach, taking account of social,
    cultural, economic and ecological issues, their
    actions and interdependencies
  • Equity
  • for its own sake, but also as a means of reducing

Inclusiveness and participation
  • encouraging a high level of diverse stakeholders
  • Need to acknowledge the key issues of
    representation, involvement and ownership
  • Need to set in place a participatory process that
    is clear, genuine, predictable and maintained
    over time recognising that participation is a
    highly complex matter

Accountability and effectiveness
  • Accountability
  • of all empowered participants to their
  • i.e. to whom is the institution accountable?
  • in practice, how is this accountability
  • Effectiveness
  • of the processes to really make a difference
  • i.e. does the capacity match the intent?

Efficiency and Durability
  • Efficiency
  • of the processes that is, do the ends (outcomes)
    justify the means (costs, trade-offs, time,
  • also, has there been, or is there, unnecessary
  • Durability
  • Need to move beyond short-lived or ad hoc
  • so the institution has sufficient longevity to
    persist, experiment, learn and adapt

  • Growing trend in Australia towards
    regionalisation of natural resource
  • Lots of opportunities for people like yourselves
    to work with new regional bodies with enormous
    responsibilities for managing regional
  • Keep getting told by former EPPers we need people
    with EPP like skills out here!