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Police

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History Early policing informal, ... apparently community dependent Broken windows Policing disorder and incivility Police Overview History Early policing ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Police


1
Police
  • Overview

2
History
  • Early policing informal, watch systems,
    volunteers, few paid personnel
  • Or, military
  • Professionalized police forces with the advent of
    the Industrial Revolution
  • Urban migration, unrest
  • Structure

3
History
  • Police officers tended to be poorly trained with
    little check on power
  • Often used to break up labor disputes
  • Corruption was visible and common
  • Resented by the poor, particularly immigrants

4
Wickersham commission
  • 1931lack of efficiency, honesty, discipline,
    lack of equipment
  • Recommended education and training, job security
  • IACP had been developed in 1892, became the
    leading voice for reform in the 20th century

5
IACP
  • Development of civil service, removal of
    political control, central organizational
    structure, development of record keeping systems,
    specialized units
  • Vollmer, O. W. Wilsonargued for a
    professionalized force, tough, trained,
    rule-oriented, paramilitary force

6
1960s and 1970s
  • Turmoil and crisis
  • Civil rights movement, Supreme Court decisions,
    riots and demonstrations
  • Growing crime rate
  • Consequences increased spending on technology,
    federal funding
  • LEAA, LEEP

7
Police role
  • Functions of police
  • Crime fighter vs. order maintenance
  • Styles of policing (crime fighter, watchman,
    public servant, legalistic)
  • Considerable disagreement over these roles

8
Major issues
  • How many police are needed?
  • When there are no police, there is often chaos
    (the thin blue line)
  • Although not alwaysthe most recent blackout
  • Faster response times
  • More detectives

9
Issues
  • Targeting career criminals
  • Eliminating technicalities
  • Increasing arrest rates
  • Using problem solving techniques
  • Using the results of deterrence research to deter
    criminals

10
Adding police
  • KC patrol experiment
  • Why wasnt patrol effective?
  • Patrol is spread thinly in the best of
    circumstances
  • Many would-be criminals do not see it as a threat
  • Nor do they always act rationally

11
Adding police
  • Majority of murders and assaults, about 50 of
    rapes occur between people who know each other,
    in the heat of passion and often indoors, where
    police presence will have no effect
  • Outdoor crimes theoretically could be impacted by
    more police

12
Adding police
  • About 100,000 officers were added as a result of
    the Violent Crime Control Act of 1994
  • Not much effectwhy?
  • Crime is concentrated in large cities, which
    received only 23 of the funding
  • Many hired had desk jobs

13
Faster response time
  • Commonly believed that faster response times will
    catch more criminals
  • About 75 of crime-related calls involve crimes
    that occurred some time ago (cold crimes)
  • About 25 of crime-related calls involve a
    confrontation

14
Faster response time
  • Even then, it frequently does not make a
    difference
  • People often delay before calling the police.
  • Victims compose themselves, call a family member
  • Witnesses often hesitate (cell phone might make a
    difference)

15
Faster response time
  • Response time might make a difference in a small
    number, perhaps 3 (Police Executive Research
    Forum). Commercial robberies
  • Faster response time may improve public relations
  • Too much hurry could result in danger to others

16
More detectives
  • Police clear about 21 of all index crimes
  • Belief that we could clear more with more
    detectives
  • Most crimes that are cleared are easily solved,
    such as acquaintance crime
  • 60-80 of arrests made by patrol rather than
    detectives

17
More detectives
  • Information about the suspect most important
  • A study in LA indicated that police cleared 86
    of cases in which a suspect was immediately
    identified
  • Cleared 12 cases without an identification

18
More detectives
  • Skills or training help clear a case only where
    there is evidence
  • Of course, lack of training can hurt a case

19
Targeting career criminals
  • Following high rate offenders (Wolfgangs
    research)
  • Repeat Offender Project
  • High rate offenders placed under surveillance
  • Highly intensive

20
Targeting career criminals
  • 58 of the target group were arrested within a
    year
  • Conviction rate 37
  • Questions about the cost-effectiveness of the
    program

21
Eliminating technicalities
  • Rationale police have been restricted in their
    efforts to catch criminals
  • Exclusionary rule
  • Motion to suppress lt5 of cases
  • Successful in .69 of the total
  • More likely to make a difference in cases
    involving drugs and weapons

22
Technicalities
  • Other types of cases often cleared through other
    means, primarily information about the suspect
  • One study found that 70 of cases where evidence
    was suppressed were convicted on other charges
    (small N)

23
Technicalities Miranda
  • Rate of confessions has declined by 16
    (Cassell)however, was declining prior to Miranda
  • Estimated that confessions needed in 24 of cases
  • Some of those cases get convictions anyway

24
Technicalities Miranda
  • Many suspects waive their rights2/3 in one
    study, 80 in another
  • Police confronted them with evidence and/or
    appealed to their self-interest about 80 of the
    time
  • About 1/4 appealed to suspects conscience

25
Increasing arrests
  • Arrests should increase certainty of apprehension
  • Arrests take police off the streets, decreasing
    visibility
  • Effects of arrest and patrol presence have not
    been systematically compared

26
Increasing arrests
  • Avoidance of arrests, peacekeeping
  • Arrests as escalation of a dispute
  • Whether arrests are effective may be situational

27
Problem oriented policing
  • Risk analysis determining where the problems
    and problem areas are and focusing resources on
    those areas
  • Minneapolis Hot Spots Patrol Experiment
  • Showed statistically significant effects

28
POP
  • Frequent rotation of personnel in this study was
    more effective
  • Longer the police stayed, the longer the hot spot
    was crime free, up to a point (about 10 minutes
    in this study)
  • Merely driving though had little effect
  • What police do at a hot spot may be important

29
POP
  • Look at problems in areashot spots
  • Repeat criminals
  • Repeat victims
  • Repeat calls for service

30
POP examples
  • Crackdowns most successful in the short run,
    only a few studies show displacement
  • Must be unpredictable to avoid displacement
  • Residual deterrence and the phantom effect

31
POP
  • Effect of field interrogations positive, if done
    correctly
  • A Kansas City study found that aggressive gun
    seizures reduced violent crime
  • Gun tips and buybacks did not
  • Use of trespasser laws

32
Risk analysis and risk control
  • Analyzing the problem, and then constructing
    barriers in high risk situations
  • Analogy to drivingsafety devices
  • Ad hoc nature of these efforts

33
Risk analysis and control
  • Deterrence theory indicates that perceptions of
    certainty of apprehension most likely to have an
    effect
  • Analyze high risk areas
  • Control high risk situations by constructing
    barriers

34
Risk control
  • Analogous to care safety devices
  • Altering physical environment
  • Natural surveillance, establishing territoriality
  • Studies indicate that these factors affected by
    another variable, i.e., willingness of those
    surveying to intervene

35
Other efforts
  • Better lighting, barriers and cul-de-sacs
  • Results ambiguous, apparently community dependent
  • Broken windows
  • Policing disorder and incivility

36
(No Transcript)
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