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Differentiated Instruction

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Differentiated Instruction Extended Teacher Induction December 2009 * As you begin . Examine your philosophy about individual needs. Start small. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiated Instruction


1
Differentiated Instruction
  • Extended Teacher Induction
  • December 2009

2
What is Differentiated Instruction?
Welcome!!
  • Please dont forget to place your dot on the
    Differentiated Instruction Chart

3
Agenda
  • Discuss the concept of DI
  • Look at techniques to differentiate the classroom
  • Consider a rationale for on-going assessment in
    the classroom to guide instruction

4
What It Is/What Its Not
  • Differentiated Instruction IS
  • Differentiated Instruction IS NOT

5
What is Differentiation?
  • A teachers response to learners needs
  • The recognition of students varying background
    knowledge and preferences
  • Instruction that appeals to students differences

6
The rationale for DI
  • Examples of learner diversity
  • Cognitive abilities (Bloom)
  • Learning styles (Gardner)
  • Socioeconomic and family factors
  • Readiness
  • Learning pace
  • Motivation
  • Gender
  • Cultural and ethnic influences

7
One Size Doesnt Fit All
8
Essential Characteristics of DI
  • There is no recipe for DI
  • It is a way of thinking
  • Teacher acts as facilitator for learning
  • DI challenges the notion that the curriculum is
    just coverage of facts.

9
Readiness Differentiation
  • Where is THIS child
  • at THIS time
  • with THIS particular
  • skill or idea?

10
What Information Do You Need?
  • To know your students
  • The process of differentiating curriculum,
    instruction and assessment begins by knowing your
    students.
  • To understand your students
  • Strengths, interests, learning styles,
    preferences and intelligences
  • To know student needs
  • This information can be utilized to make your
    curricula more meaningful to students because you
    can tailor your delivery and expectations to meet
    their needs.

11
How will I get this information?
  • Record review
  • Family-centered and culturally responsive fact
    gathering
  • Interest inventories
  • Learning preferences information
  • Multiple intelligences
  • Data-based observations
  • Functional behavior assessment
  • Monitoring cooperative group learning

12
  • Curriculum
  • PA Standards/ Assessment Anchors

The Differentiated Instruction Decision Making
Process
Students
  • Pre-assessment
  • Readiness/Ability
  • Prior Knowledge
  • Interest/Talents

How can I differentiate instruction and align
lesson outcomes and tasks to learning goals?
  • Content
  • What the teacher plans to teach
  • Process
  • How the teacher plans instruction
  • Management of flexible groups
  • Product
  • Assessment of the content

Review the Data
Link To Next Concept, Lesson or Unit
Adapted from Oaksford, L. and Jones, L. 2001
13
WHAT CAN BE DIFFERENTATED?
14
Classroom Elements
  • Content
  • Process
  • Product
  • Affect
  • Learning Environment

15
Differentiating Content
  • Sources of content
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • Teacher determines/clarifies essential knowledge,
    understanding and skills of a unit or topic.
  • Pre-test to determine readiness.
  • Differentiate content to ensure all students have
    equal access to the essential knowledge.

16
Differentiating the Curriculum
DO NOT ASSESS
BIG IDEAS ALL WILL LEARN DO TEACH INTENSIVELY DO
ASSESS
DO TEACH
DO NOT ASSESS
INTERESTING BUT NOT ESSENTIAL SOME WILL LEARN
ANYWAY
DO NOT ASSESS
DO NOT TEACH
SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE TRIVIA FEW WILL LEARN
Edwin Ellis, 2002
17
Ways to differentiate curriculum
  • Reading partners/reading buddies
  • Read/summarize
  • Adjust questions
  • Graphic organizers
  • Varied texts
  • Highlighted texts
  • With a partner, discuss some other ways you can
    help all students have equal access?

18
Differentiating Process
  • Learning and using higher order thinking skills
  • Creative thinking
  • Critical thinking
  • Problem solving
  • Integration of basic skills and abstract thinking
    skills
  • Process activities

19
Ways to Differentiate Process
  • Games
  • RAFTs
  • Cubing, Think Dots
  • Choices
  • Tiered Lessons
  • Anchor Activities
  • Online Activities

20
Games
  • Use games to capture a students interest,
    reinforce ideas and for review.
  • Frequent practice is also necessary for children
    to build and maintain strong academic skills.
  • Have varying levels according to ability.

21
Friendship Cinquain
  • A cinquain is a five-line poem that follows a
    certain pattern.
  • Interview a partner and use what you learn to
    write a cinquain about that person.
  • Questions are on the next slide.

22
Friendship Cinquain
  • What is your name?
  • Adjectives that describe you
  • Activities you enjoy
  • What makes you a good friend?
  • Nickname?

23
Friendship Cinquain
  • Name
  • Adjective, adjective
  • Action word, action word, action word
  • Four word phrase about friendship
  • Nickname or noun

24
Friendship Cinquain
  • Jordan
  • Musical, athletic
  • Singing, dancing, tackling
  • Everyone can be considerate
  • JJ

25
Friendship Cinquain
  • This can be used for any topic if you change the
    questions.
  • Examples
  • Plants
  • Columbus journey
  • Character in a story

26
RAFT
  • Writing to learn activities to enhance
    understanding of informational text
  • ROLE
  • AUDIENCE
  • FORMAT
  • TOPIC
  • The RAFT strategy forces students to process
    information rather than merely write answers to
    questions.

27
Role of the Writer
  • What is the writers role reporter, observer,
    eyewitness, object, number, etc.

28
Audience
  • Who will be reading the writing?
  • Teacher
  • Other students
  • A parent
  • Editor
  • People in the community, etc.

29
Format
  • What is the best way to present the writing?
  • Letter
  • Article
  • Report
  • Contract
  • Poem
  • Advertisement
  • E-mail

30
Topic
  • Who or what is the subject of this writing?
  • A famous scientist
  • A prehistoric cave dweller
  • A character from literature
  • A chemical element or physical object

31
Plant RAFT
ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC
Plant parts Plant needs Picture Were made for each other
Roots Stem, leaf, flower, seeds Letter Youd be lost without me
Flower Stem, leaf, seeds, roots Ad Im more than just a pretty face
32
Immigration RAFT
ROLE AUDIENCE FORMAT TOPIC
Boy of 12 who came from Europe Best friend in Germany Letter Crossing the ocean on a ship
Ship captain Emigrants waiting to come to America Booklet How to prepare for your trip
Artist arriving from France Graphic design firm in NYC Postcard Wish you were here
33
Activity
  • With a partner develop several scenarios where
    you could use the raft in your classroom.

34
Cubing
  • Students consider a concept from a variety of
    different perspectives.
  • The cubes are six-sided figures that have a
    different activity on each side of the cube.
  • A student rolls the cube and does the activity
    that comes up.

35
Think Dots
  • Each student is given a set of activity cards on
    a ring, a die and an activity sheet.
  • Student rolls the die and completes the activity
    on the card that corresponds to the dots thrown
    on the die.
  • Student then completes the activity on the
    activity sheet.

36
Think Dots Suggestions
  • Use colored paper and/or colored dots to indicate
    different readiness levels, interests or learning
    styles.
  • Have students work in pairs.
  • Let students choose which activities for
    example
  • Roll the die and choose any three. Create complex
    activities and have students choose just one to
    work on over a number of days.

37
Choices
  • Use Gardeners Multiple Intelligences
  • Human beings are capable of "many different and
    discrete facets of cognition."
  • Humans display different types of intelligences
    which can be measured, fostered and evaluated as
    isolated faculties of the mind.

38
Multiple Intelligences
  • The MI Theory assumes that all students possess
    an array of at least eight intelligences.
  • Identifying students strength intelligences
    allows educators to use the strengths to capture
    a students attention and assist the student in
    learning new information.

Source Google Images
39
Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence
  • The ability to manipulate ones own body and
    control muscle movements with utmost precision
    (surgeons, pianists)

40
Musical Intelligence
  • The ability to understand and perform music

41
Logical-Mathematical Intelligence
  • This also includes scientific ability.

42
Linguistic Intelligence
  • Knowledge and ability to manipulate language

43
Spatial Intelligence
  • The ability to form a mental model of a spatial
    world (i.e. sculptors, engineers, surgeons)

44
Interpersonal Intelligence
  • The ability to understand others

45
Intrapersonal Intelligence
  • The ability to understand oneself

46
Nature Intelligence
  • The ability to understand nature

47
Gardners MI
  • http//www.op97.k12.il.us/lincoln/mi.html

48
Tiered Lessons
  • Strategy that addresses a particular standard,
    key concept and generalization
  • Allows several pathways for students to arrive at
    an understanding of these components
  • Based on the students interests, readiness or
    learning profiles

49
Developing a Tiered Assignment
  • Identify unit/lesson.
  • Identify essential questions or objectives.
  • Student outcomes
  • Student skill levels
  • Student output
  • Develop/review lesson activity.
  • Determine level of learner(s).
  • Adjust COMPLEXITY for each level of learners.

50
Implementing a Tiered Assignment
  • Assignments should be
  • Accompanied by directions
  • Respectful. Adjusted for varying levels
  • Designed to meet the lesson objective
  • Determine product.
  • Traditional versus alternate
  • Teacher in role of facilitator

51
Anchor Activities
  • Specified ongoing activities on which students
    work independently
  • Ongoing assignments that students can work on
    throughout a unit

52
Why Use Anchor Activities?
  • provide a strategy for teachers to deal with
    ragged time when students complete work at
    different times
  • allow the teacher to work with individual
    students or groups
  • provides ongoing activities that relate to the
    content of the unit
  • allow the teacher to develop independent group
    work strategies in order to incorporate a mini
    lab of computers in classroom

53
Examples of Anchor Activities
  • A worksheet with open- or closed-end questions
  • Learning centers
  • Journal writing
  • Creating games or books
  • Playing games that reinforce concepts/skills

54
  • With a partner, develop a few examples of anchor
    activities you can use in your classroom.
  • Dont forget online options!

55
Differentiating Product
  • Varying the ways students demonstrate what you
    asked them to learn.
  • Use frequent assessment as checks for
    understanding and feedback not just for grades.
  • Replace some tests with rich product assignments.
  • You can also give students a choice between tests
    and assignments.

56
Ways to Differentiate Product
  • Choices based on interest, readiness and learning
    profile
  • Clear expectations
  • Timelines
  • Agreements
  • Product guides
  • Rubrics

57
Differentiating Affect
  • Students need to feel they belong to a group and
    are important to it.
  • Teacher should be continually attuned to student
    feelings.
  • Readiness levels should be value challenged
    supported in the classroom.
  • Differentiate proactively and reactively.
  • Affect is the weather of the classroom.

58
Differentiating Learning Environment
  • Use fluid, flexible grouping that reflects
    real-life situations.
  • Use space, time and materials flexibly.
  • Encourage expression of new ideas, accept
    diversity and exploration.
  • Experiences reflect learner interests and ideas.
  • Honor the dignity of all learners.

59
Differentiating Student Characteristics
  • Readiness
  • Interest
  • Learning Profile

60
Differentiating Readiness
  • Make work a little more difficult for students at
    a given point in their growth.
  • Provide support to succeed at new level of
    challenge.
  • Pre-assessment is key.
  • Teachers need to adapt teaching in ways that make
    curriculum appropriately challenging for a range
    of learners.

61
Differentiating Interest
  • Help students connect with new information by
    revealing connections with things they already
    find appealing and worthwhile.
  • Interest surveys will give clues to teachers.

62
Differentiating Learning Profile
  • Influenced by learning style, intelligence
    preference, gender and culture
  • The goal is to help students learn in the way
    they learn best and to extend ways in which they
    can learn effectively.

63
In a differentiated classroom, the teacher plans
and carries out varied approaches to content,
process, and product in anticipation of and
response to student differences in readiness
and/or interest.
64
On-going Assessment
  • Assessment is todays means of understanding how
    to modify tomorrows instruction.
  • Carol Tomlinson

65
Some Thoughts on Assessment
  • Assessment should happen on a daily basis in the
    classroom.
  • It provides ways to use instruction to inform the
    next steps.

66
As you begin.
  • Examine your philosophy about individual needs.
  • Start small.
  • Grow slowly but grow!
  • Envision how an activity will look.
  • Step back and reflect.

67
Exploring DI Sites
  • Use the following wiki to access two DI word
    documents related to DI.
  • http//wassel.wikispaces.com/Induction_DI_Dec09
  • Explore the wiki to complete the Ticket Out The
    Door activity.

68
Lets review
  • Differentiated Instruction is
  • Differentiated Instruction is not

69
  • Differentiated Instruction IS
  • Using assessment data to plan instruction and
    group students
  • Teaching targeted small groups
  • Using flexible grouping (changing group
    membership based on student progress, interests
    and needs)
  • Matching instructional materials to student
    ability
  • Tailoring instruction to address student needs
  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Is NOT
  • Using only whole class instruction
  • Using small groups that never change
  • Using the same reading text with all students
  • Using the same independent seatwork assignments
    for the entire class

Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language
Arts, 2005
70
For more information
  • www.iu29.org
  • Teacher Resources
  • Differentiated Instruction Resources
  • http//wassel.wikispaces.com/DifferentiatedInstru
    ction
  • http//wassel.wikispaces.com/DIWebpages
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