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Title: Estados Unidos Mexicanos AP Comp Government 2007-2008


1
Estados Unidos Mexicanos AP Comp Government
2007-2008
  • Sarah Fisher
  • CKHS
  • Siverdale WA


2
Note on Sources Cited and Referenced in this Work
  • Comparative Politics Today, Eighth Edition,
    (2004), Almond, Gabriel and Powell, Jr, G.
    Bingham, New York Pearson Longman
  • CIA World Factbook Mexico http//www.cia.gov/cia
    /publications/factbook/geos/mx.html
  • Cases for Comparative Politics, ONeil, P.,
    Fields, K., Sharehttp//www.wwnorton.com/college/p
    olisci/compo
  • lAP Comparative Government and Politics Mexico
    Briefing Paper, by Caroline Beer (University of
    Vermont)

3
Introduction to Mexico via the . . .
  • general election Sunday, 2 July 2006 on the
    federal level
  • A new President of the Republic , to serve a
    six-year term, replacing current incumbent
    President Vicente Fox
  • 500 Deputies (300 by the FPTP system and 200 by
    PR) to serve for a three-year term in the Chamber
    of Deputies.
  • 128 senators (two per state by FPTP, 1 seat given
    to the second minority per state and 32 by PR
    from national party lists) to serve six-year
    terms in the Senate
  • Several local ballots also be held on the same day

4
Presidential Election 2006
The Result . . .
BBC July 7, 2006
5
Lots of Protest. . .
Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador may have lost the
vote counting after the 2 July presidential
election in Mexico. But he is still the big
winner on the streets of the capital city.
Hundreds of thousands of enthusiastic Lopez
Obrador supporters crammed into the square known
as Zocalo, in the heart of Mexico City's historic
central district on Saturday. There was no empty
space, save behind a few huge banners that
blocked the view of the stage. Men, women and
children cheered wildly and waved yellow flags.
They chanted the name of the man they believe won
last week's election.
Mexico City is Mr Lopez Obrador's most passionate
constituency BBC July 9 2006
6
The party at the heart of Mexico City's protest
STREET FIESTA Supporters of Mexico's
left-leaning presidential candidate Andres Manuel
Lopez Obrador fry food on improvised gas cookers.
Their street protest has closed down more than
five miles of Mexico City's Reforma boulevard.
CSM Aug 15, 2006 ( a month after the last slide)
7
SO then . . . A partial recount NYT Aug. 5 A
seven-member electoral tribunal on Saturday
unanimously rejected a demand from the leftist
candidate for president for a complete recount of
votes, setting the stage for more protests by
thousands of his supporters who have camped out
in the capital, claiming the election last month
was fraudulent. The judges ruled there were
arithmetic errors and other irregularities that
warranted a recount of votes in about 10 percent
of the polling places. Those polling places are
located in 145 of the 300 electoral districts and
26 of the 32 states.

Supporters of Andrés Manuel Lopéz Obrador, the
Mexican leftist candidate, weeping Saturday after
his call for a total vote recount was rebuffed
8
In the municipality of Zapopan, officials checked
ballots during a recount ordered by the electoral
tribunal. NYT Aug 10, 2006
9
Protests continue
Mexico lawmakers stop Fox speech
There were chaotic scenes in Mexico's Congress as
left-wing lawmakers forced outgoing President
Vicente Fox to abandon his final annual address.
Before Mr Fox arrived, the legislators, who
allege fraud in recent elections, marched onto
the main podium where they shouted slogans and
waved placards. Mr Fox later delivered the
speech on TV from his official residence
BBC Sept 2, 2006
10
Sept 6 2006 Federal Electoral Tribunal declares
a winner
.
Mexico's top electoral court has rejected claims
July's presidential election was riddled with
fraud. The judges said a partial recount of
votes had not changed the original result, which
gave narrow victory to conservative candidate
Felipe Calderon. In their final ruling on
Tuesday, the judges concluded Mr. Calderón won
the election by a mere 233,831 votes out of 41.5
million cast, a margin very close to the official
tally done in early July
The Mexican president-elect, Felipe Calderón,
accepted cheers Tuesday at his partys
headquarters in Mexico City. NYT Sept 5 2006
11
Final Tally from the CIA factbook
Felipe CALDERON elected president percent of
vote - Felipe CALDERON (PAN) 35.89, Andres
Manuel Lopez OBRADOR (PRD) 35.31, Roberto
MADRAZO (PRI) 22.26, other 6.54
12
Mid Sept Still Mass Protests
Supporters of Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who
narrowly lost Mexico's presidential election,
held a mass rally in the capital's main square.
13
Yes, He Lost Mexicos Vote, So Hes Swearing
Himself In NYT Nov 20 2006
About 100,000 people crowded into Constitution
Plaza in Mexico City on Monday to watch Andrés
Manuel López Obrador swear himself in.
14
And on the eve of Caldron's Swearing in Ceremony.
. . A lawmaker from the conservative National
Action Party gave pillows to colleagues in
Mexicos Congress on Wednesday as they and
members of the leftist Democratic Revolutionary
Party scuffled for control of the dais

MEXICO CITY, Nov. 30 It is a measure of the
problems Felipe Calderón will confront as
president when he is sworn in on Friday that both
his conservative supporters and leftist opponents
have camped out on the dais in Congress where the
ceremony is to take place. The leftists swear
they will stop Mr. Calderón from taking the oath
of office. The conservatives vow to ensure that
he does. The standoff has become comic, as
legislators from both sides have stayed up all
night singing ranchero songs in between hurling
fists and insults. NYT Dec 1, 2006
15
Legislators scuffled in Congress before
bodyguards ushered in Felipe Calderón to be sworn
in as president. NYT Dec 1, 2006
16
Amid Catcalls, Mexicos President Is Sworn In
MEXICO CITY, Dec. 1 It was not pretty, but
Felipe Calderón, the new president of Mexico,
managed to take the oath of office in Congress
Friday, as opposition lawmakers whistled and
catcalled and the losing leftist candidate staged
a massive march down the central avenue of the
capital. Never before in modern Mexican history
has a president been sworn in under such chaotic
and divisive conditions. At midnight, as
President Vicente Foxs term ran out, the
government took the step of broadcasting the
private swearing-in of Mr. Calderón at the
presidential residence, a legal necessity usually
not publicized. Minutes later, Mr. Calderón
spoke on national television to urge lawmakers to
respect the Constitution and let the ceremony
take place. The call went unheeded. Mr.
Calderóns opponents from the leftist Democratic
Revolution Party tried to block the entrances to
Congress to prevent him from being publicly sworn
in. But with his conservative National Action
Party supporters ringing the podium, he and Mr.
Fox were spirited in by bodyguards through a door
near the dais at the front of the chamber at 950
a.m.
17
As allies applauded and opponents jeered, Mr.
Calderón, in sash, beside his predecessor,
Vicente Fox, took his oath and left
18
Results in Congressional
Elections Shift of Power in Mexicos Congress
Mexico's ruling National Action Party (PAN) has
become the largest party in Congress for the
first time. But the final results of the 2 July
elections, released on Wednesday, saw the party
fall short of the outright majority required to
govern alone. The PRD came in second place,
ahead of the Institutional Revolutionary Party
which governed for more than 70 years. . . . .
In the legislative elections, the PAN won 206
seats in the 500-seat Chamber of Deputies and 52
seats in the Senate. Mr Obrador's Party of the
Democratic Revolution (PRD) won 126 seats in the
lower chamber and 29 in the Senate.
19
The details from CIA World Factbook
Senate - seats by party - PAN 52, PRI 33, PRD 29,
PVEM 6, CD 5, PT 2, PNA 1 (128 total) Chamber of
Deputies - seats by party - PAN 206, PRD 127, PRI
103, PVEM 18, CD 17, PT 16, other 13 (500 total)
KeyConvergence for Democracy or CD Dante
DELGADO Ranauro Institutional Revolutionary
Party (Institutional Revolutionary Party) or PRI
leader NA Mexican Green Ecological Party or
PVEM Jorge Emilio GONZALEZ Martinez National
Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN
Manuel ESPINO Barrientos New Alliance Party
(Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA Miguel Angel
JIMENEZ Godines Party of the Democratic
Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica)
or PRD Leonel COTA Montano Workers Party or PT
Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez
20
One year later . . . . From the Economist
Mexico's teetering president
21
OVERVIEW facts and figures

22
Overview--Location
23
Overview Regime type
  • Presidential democracy federal republic
  • Economy Capitalist-statist (Freedom House
    designation)
  • On paper separation of powers, checks and
    balances, federalism, bicameral
  • Until 2000 one party dominant regime
    (opposition parties were represented in
    legislature, but one party controlled the process
    , centralization of power, Presidencialismo
  • chief of state Felipe CALDERON
  • head of governmentFelipe CALDERON
  • See also http//www.economist.com/countries/Mexic
    o/profile.cfm?folderProfile2DPolitical20Structu
    re

24
Overview-Population
  • Population size 106,202,903 (US 295,734,134)
  • Growth rate1.17 (US .92)
  • Fertility rate2.45 children born/woman (US 2.08
    children born/woman)
  • Death rate4.73 deaths/1,000 population (US 8.25
    deaths/1,000 population)
  • Migration rate - 4.57 migrant(s )/1,000 (US
    3.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population)

CIA Fact book 2005 est.
25
Overview Population
  • Sex ratio at birth 1.05 male(s)/female (US 1.05
    male(s)/female)
  • under 15 years 1.04 male(s)/female (US 1.05
    male(s)/female)
  • 15-64 years 0.94 male(s)/female (US 1
    male(s)/female)
  • 65 years and over 0.83 male(s)/female (US 0.72
    male(s)/female)
  • Total population 0.96 male(s)/female (US 0.97
    male(s)/female)

CIA fact book 2005 est.
26
Overview Population
  • Infant mortality total 20.91 deaths/1,000 live
    births (US 6.5 deaths/1,000 live births)
  • Life Expectancy total population 75.19 years
    (US 77.71) male 72.42 years (US 74.89) female
    78.1 years (US 80.67)
  • Literacy rate (definition age 15 and over can
    read and write) total population 92.2 (US 97)
    male 94 (US 97) female 90.5 (2003 est.) (US
    97)

CIA Fact book 2005 est.
27
OVERVIEW Population
  • Ethnic Groups mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60,
    Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30, white
    9, other 1
  • Religions nominally Roman Catholic 89,
    Protestant 6, other 5
  • Languages Spanish, various Mayan, Nahuatl, and
    other regional indigenous languages

CIA Factbook
28
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power
Emiliano Zapata Revolutionary and land reformer,
killed in an ambush in 1919
29
Violent Evolutionary Stages
  • Bloody Revolution versus Spain (1810 1821)
  • Nation-Building (1821 1921) from independence
    to the formation of the Partido Revolucionaro
    Institucional (PRI), and
  • Economic Boom of the 1960s, Economic Crisis of
    the 1980s and 1990s, an Assassination of a
    leading Presidential candidate (Luis Colosio), a
    Rebellion in Chiapas (both 1994), and a Political
    Loss for the PRI in 2000.

2000 A watershed in Mexican Politics
30
Historical Political Turning Points
Olmec, Mayan, Toltec, Aztec, others Arrival Of Cortes War for Indepen-dence War With USA Diaz Regime Porfiriato Revolt Const-itution Crister Rebellion
Pre 1500 1519 1810-1821 18461848 1876-1911 1910-1921 1917 1927-1929
31
Historical and Political Turning Points
PRIs predecessor Founded Govt Of Cardenas Pemax Oil Co. Nationalized PAN founded Women Suffrage Massacre Of Tialtelolco OIL Crisis Debt Crisis
1929 1934-1940 1938 1939 1953 1968 1978-1982 1982
32
Historical and Political Turning Points
Earthquake In Mexico City Salinas Elected Pres. NAFTA, Zapatisa Revolt in Chiapas, Colosio is Assassinated Electoral Reforms PRI Loses Majority in Chamber Of Deputies PRI Presidential Candidate Beaten for First Time by Vicente Fox
1985 1988 1994 1996 1997 2000
33
Midterm Election 2003
  • PAN lost 49 congressional seats in midterm
    elections on July
  • PRI won 224 of the 500 seats in the lower
    legislative assembly, up from the 207 it occupied
    going into the election PRI is not dead!
  • The left-wing Democratic Revolution Party also
    posted big gains, nearly doubling the seats it
    holds to 95

Former Mexican President Carlos Salinas speaks to
reporters after casting his ballot in Mexicos
July 6, 2003, midterm legislative elections.
Salinas Institutional Revolutionary Party won a
majority of seats in the National Congress
(Photo Jorge Uzon/AFP-Getty Images
http//www.worldpress.org/Americas/1321.cfm
34
Bases of Legitimacy
  • Revolutionideology of national unity, social
    justice, agrarian reform
  • Mexicanization
  • Constitution
  • Govts role in promoting economic growth, social
    welfare
  • 2000 Election
  • Concerns about legitimacy due to scandals,
    corruption, lawlessness, inequality, 2006 election

Picture of Zapata by Diego Rivera
35
Political Culture Beliefs
  • Democracy, not authoritarian but . . . Democracy
    equality gt freedom
  • Distrust govt and state Political elites seen as
    arrogant and distant
  • Low efficacy disinterest in govt (womengt men
    right gt left)
  • Historically tolerated cooption, but corruption
    testing this
  • proud of Indian past, ashamed of Indian present

36
DRESS CODE Martha Ramirez works at her stand in
Tijuana, Mexico. City regulations will now
require vendors to wear traditional dress or a
city uniform.
http//www.csmonitor.com/2005/0705/p06s03-wogn.htm
l
37
Having a strong leader who does not have to
bother with parliament and elections saying
very good or fairly good idea
  Pride in nationality saying very proud
Source World Values Survey 2000
38
Political Culture Socialization
  • Family
  • Schoolsfederally mandated curriculum and
    textbooks
  • Religion
  • --89 Catholics
  • --until 1920, Catholic church actively
    participated in politics Priests often led
    populist movements
  • --Early 20th c. government turned anti-cleric
  • --church influenced has declined but Church run
    private schools still educate many middle to
    upper class children

39
Political Culture Socialization
  • Authoritarian elements instead of mass
    mobilization, PRI limited and controlled
    participation
  • Mass Media controlled through PRI by funding
  • More independent since 2000
  • Electoral reform of 1996 mandates FEI monitors
    election coverage for bias, leads to more
    participation
  • Salinas privatization leads to more competition
    in TV broadcasting

40
Citizens, Society, and the State
MEXICO CITY, Mexico (AP) -- President Vicente Fox
said Friday that U.S. activists who have called a
new Mexican postage stamp racist don't understand
the issue and should read the comic book.
7/1/05 www.cnn.com/.../americas/
12/01/mexico.fox.04/
Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN)
In Mexico, 52 of voters are women CNN 2000
election
41
Cleavages Ethnic
  • 60 Mestizo, and 30 AmerIndian
  • Indigenous Glorified in history, tradition and
    revolution, but now . . .
  • politically marginalized and victims of Mexico's
    worst poverty, compared to Mexico's wealthy elite
    who tend to be lighter skinned and of European
    origins
  • Leads to Chiapas . . .

42
CHIAPAS Who mostly Mayan Indians What form
Zapatista Army of National Liberation
(EZLN) When Jan 1994 Where occupied several
towns in State of Chiapas Why Indigenous rts.
democratization, end to neo-liberal economic
reforms
43
Subcomandante Marcos
IMPACT surprisingly popular within Mexico and,
together with the economic crisis, helped erode
PRI political dominance and to accelerate
electoral reforms
http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1214676.
stm
44
Since the Zapatistas launched an armed rebellion
1994, the Mexican army has moved between 40,000
and 60,000 troops into the state of Chiapas.
Although significant clashes between the rebels
and the army have been few, the military, local
police and armed paramilitary groups hired by
large landowners have been accused of committing
numerous human rights abuses against villagers
suspected of sympathizing with the rebels.
http//www.drake.edu/artsci/PolSci/ipe/VivaMarcosp
age.html
45
http//www.drake.edu/artsci/PolSci/ipe/Muralpage.h
tml
This mural adorns one wall of a restaurant in San
Cristobal. Note the artist's bold political
commentary on the choices facing the indigenous
peasants of Chiapas. The masked figure on the
right represents Subcommandante Marcos, a leader
and spokesperson for the E.Z.L.N., or Zapatistas,
who sparked a rebellion against the Mexican state
that began on January 1, 1994 - the very day that
NAFTA went into effect.
46
Zapatista supporters of Subcommander Marcos
awaited him in Palenque on Tuesday. In his
speeches, he blames "savage capitalism" and the
rich for social problems from gay-baiting to
racism to domestic violence.
Marcos on tour, in San Cristóbal de las Casas on
Wednesday Jan 4NYT Jan 6, 2006
47
  • The Outcome
  • 1996 Peace Accord signed b/w Zedillo govt and
    EZLN
  • promised protection of indigenous languages and
    granted indigenous communities political
    autonomy
  • . . . But never implemented
  • Vicente Fox, claimed he could resolve the
    Chiapas conflict "in 15 minutes"
  • . . . but has not yet been able to make peace
  • Fox's recent proposed constitutional amendment
    granting more indigenous rights was watered down
    by Congress,
  • . . . And the Zapatistas rejected it

48
Cleavages--Area
  • Region Federal District (Mexico City) and
    northern borders states most privileged Southern
    (especially Chiapas, Oaxaca and Guerrero) and
    central worse
  • North is characterized by large-scale export
    agriculture land is much more fragmented in the
    south. South far poorer infrastructure, lower
    levels of education, and more poverty.

49
Maquiladoras
  • foreign owned plants that import materials or
    parts to assemble for re-export
  • account for about half of all of Mexico's
    exports, generate more foreign exchange for
    Mexico than any other sector, including oil
  • concentrated along the Mexican-U.S. border,
    exacerbating north-south gap
  • Prefer to hire women

userwww.sfsu.edu/ jdrew/web/maquila.html
50
  • REGIONAL CLEAVAGES
  • Federal District (Mexico City) and northern
    borders states most privileged Southern
    (especially Chiapas, Oaxaca and Guerrero) and
    central worse
  • North --large-scale export agriculture South
    land more fragmented and far poorer
    infrastructure, lower levels of education, and
    more poverty

Rural Urban 70 of the population that lives in
extreme poverty live in rural areas
51
Majority candidate per state according to PREP.
Blue Felipe Calderón, Yellow Andrés Manuel
López Obrador
52
  • CLEAVAGES Rich/poor Gap
  • Long time great inequalitydespite rhetoric of
    Mexican rev
  • Worse in rural/south
  • Increased with switch to neo-lib economic
    policies
  • govt spending on social security, public health
    and education low relative to other countries in
    Latin America

New UN study says the richest 10 of Mexicans
produce 43 percent of the country's wealth, and
the bottom tenth 1 http//www.csmonitor.com/2005
/0127/p07s02-woam.html
53
Cleavages Gender
Representation in congress more proportionally
represented than in USlower house 16 female in
2000 23 in 2003 New Gender Quota Law passed in
2002 requires no more than 70 of the seats in
SMDs be the same gender and 1/3 spots on PR lists
must be womenimplemented in July 2003
elections Voting 52 of voters are women
54
Cleavages Gender Grassroots large part of
NGOs, protest Economics As result of economic
crisis of 80s and 1990s, womens participation
increased dramatically Multinational corps and
Maquidores prefer women as more reliable and less
likely to protest
55
Participation Voting
  • Traditionally done to ratify a choice of
    candidates made by PRI hierarchy
  • Why civic duty, law, pressure from local
    caciques, esp. in rural, sometimes votes sold for
    handout from local officials
  • obligatory voting by law evidence sometimes
    required to get public services
  • Turnout higher in presidential, went up since
    1988, abysmally low in midterm 2003

From the BBC elections 2003 http//news.bbc.co.uk
/1/hi/world/americas/3052124.stm
56
Participation Protests
BBC Election 2006
57
Thousands in Mexico City Protest Rising Food
Prices Jan 31 2007
Some protesters handed out ears of corn to
workers and farmers who marched in Mexico City on
Wednesday.
58
Protesters in Mexico City on Wednesday made known
their displeasure over the rising price of food
staples. Jan 19 2007

59
President Felipe Calderón, right, with Roberto
González, the president of Gruma, before
announcing set prices on corn products Jan 19
2007.
60
Tlatelolco MassacreStudnet Protests 1968
The massacre was preceded by months of political
unrest in the Mexican capital, echoing student
demonstrations and riots all over the world
during 1968. The Mexican students wanted to
exploit the attention focused on Mexico City for
the1968 Olympic Games, calling the games a
diversion for the rich, which the poor are paying
for
President Diaz, however, was determined to stop
the demonstrations and, in September, he ordered
the army to occupy the campus of the National
Autonomous University of Mexico,Students were
beaten and arrested indiscriminately.
61
Student demonstrators were not deterred, however.
The demonstrations grew in size, until, on
October 2, after student strikes lasting nine
weeks, 15,000 students from various universities
marched through the streets of Mexico City,
carrying red carnations to protest the army's
occupation of the university campus. By
nightfall, 5,000 students and workers, many of
them with spouses and children, had congregated
outside an apartment complex in the Plaza de las
Tres Culturas in Tlatelolco for what was supposed
to be a peaceful rally. Among their chants were
México Libertad México Libertad ("Mexico
Liberty Mexico Liberty"). Rally organizers
attempted to call off the protest when they
noticed an increased military presence in the
area.
62
The massacre began at sunset when army and police
forces equipped with armored cars and tanks
surrounded the square and began firing live
rounds into the crowd, hitting not only the
protestors, but also other people who were
present for reasons unrelated to the
demonstration. Demonstrators and passersby alike,
including children, were caught in the fire
soon, mounds of bodies lay on the ground. The
killing continued through the night, with
soldiers carrying out mopping-up operations on a
house-to-house basis in the apartment buildings
adjacent to the square. Witnesses to the event
claim that the bodies were later removed in
garbage trucks. The death toll remains uncertain
some estimates place the number of deaths in the
thousands, but most sources report 200-300
deaths. Many more were wounded, and several
thousand arrests occurred.
Troops opened fire on protesters in La Plaza de
las Tres Culturas
63
In 1997, the Mexican congress established a
committee to investigate the Tlatelolco massacre.
The committee interviewed many political players
involved in the massacre, including Luis
Echeverría Álvarez, a former president of Mexico
who was Díaz Ordaz's minister of the interior at
the time of the massacre. Echeverría admitted
that the students had been unarmed, and also
suggested that the military action was planned in
advance, as a means to destroy the student
movement. However, it is important to note that
the PRIs grip on power was not primarily due to
its use of violence.
64
Mexican Court Orders Ex-President Tried in 68
Student Massacre MEXICO CITY, Nov. 29, 2006
An appeals court on Wednesday cleared the way for
the arrest and trial of former President Luis
Echeverría on genocide charges in connection with
the massacre of student protesters in 1968. The
court reversed earlier rulings that the statute
of limitations had long since run out, saying it
had two days to go. The ruling is the final twist
in a long battle by the administration of
President Vicente Fox to charge and try Mr.
Echeverría, who is 84 and in poor health, for his
role in the deaths and disappearances of hundreds
of students, leftist dissidents and guerrillas in
the late 1960s and early 1970s, a period known in
Mexico as the dirty war. The decision was a
victory for Mr. Fox, who leaves office on Friday.
He staked part of his political legacy on holding
government officials responsible for past
atrocities instead of forming a truth commission
with no ability to charge people with crimes.
65
Interest Groups
  • Corporatist system breaks down in 1990srising
    civil society and opposition parties give
    alternatives economic crisis means less money for
    patronage, pork, electoral competition IG SYSTEM
    now more pluralist

66
participation in popular movements/independent
citizen organizations, rise of civil society in
1990s
  • Why
  • economic crises of 1908s and 1990s,
  • govt doesnt deal well with security problems,
  • declining responsiveness of state licensed peak
    association
  • gangsterism in govt sponsored unions,
  • blatant PRI election fraud in 1980s,
  • nationalization of banks by Portillo in 1982,
  • inadequate response to Mexico city earthquake in
    1985, neo-liberal economic policies,
  • Increasing societal modernization (higher
    education levels, urbanization etc)
  • More mass communicationb/c of technology and
    restrictions on media lifted

Protesters were armed with machetes Mexican
farmers cheer airport victory http//news.bbc.co.
uk/1/hi/world/americas/2169556.stm
67
Political Institutions
68
Level of Government Supranational WTO (free
trade) , IMF, World Bank (conditions of loans
structural adjustment pushed)
WTO Meets in Cancun summer, 2003
Demonstrators have clashed with police
69
Institutions Federalism
  • on paper, federal
  • emphasis on municipio libre (free
    municipality, able to control its own affairs)
  • 31 states and the Federal District (Mexico City)
    State governors elected for six-year terms each
    state has a local (unicameral) legislature and a
    governor elected for 3 year terms and has the
    right to levy state-wide taxes
  • each state divided into municipios (like our
    counties) governed by councils, headed by a
    mayor

70
Institutions Federalism
  • In practicevery centralized
  • Federal govt (PRI) controlled elections
  • governors knew Mexico City and federal politics,
    not state they governed
  • Senate could and did topple state govts if state
    could not provide domestic security

71
Mexico City Legalizes Abortion Early in Term
MEXICO CITY, April 24 2007 The Mexico City
legislature approved a bill Tuesday to make
abortion legal during the first three months of
pregnancy, a watershed vote that set the stage
for court battles and social clashes between
religious conservatives and liberals. . . .
Proponents of the law say they hope it will
become a model for states in Mexico, most of
which only allow abortion under conditions like
rape or danger to the mothers health. Many on
each side of the issue predicted it would
ultimately be challenged on constitutional
grounds before the Supreme Court. Opponents said
they would challenge it on the grounds that there
was a prohibition in the Mexican Constitution
against the death penalty that could be broadly
interpreted to grant the right to life to unborn
children. Supporters of the vote argue that in
2002 the Supreme Court ruled that abortion was
legal in circumstances like rape and incest, and
therefore they say it is unlikely that the court
would agree to overturn the new law.
72
October 29, 2006
3 Killed in Mexican Protest Police Move In
OAXACA, Mexico, Oct. 28 Hundreds of federal
riot police officers and soldiers took up
positions outside this besieged tourist city in
southern Mexico on Saturday, poised to end an
increasingly violent protest that has shut the
downtown for five months and left about a dozen
people dead
73
Mexican Forces Move to Retake Oaxaca
After a five-month standoff in which protesters
had occupied the main square of the colonial city
of Oaxaca, federal police armed with water
cannons and backed by heavily armed soldiers
advanced on protesters. By nightfall, they had
taken control of the citys main square, which
had been an encampment of protesters. The
protesters seek the removal of the governor of
Oaxaca State.
74
Mexicos New President Sends Thousands of Federal
Officers to Fight Drug Cartels
TIJUANA, Mexico, Jan. 6 President Felipe
Calderón ran last summer on a promise to create
jobs, but in his first five weeks as chief
executive he has made it clear his first priority
is to turn his government into the scourge of
organized crime. The president has sent thousands
of federal police and troops into the
drug-plagued states of Michoacán and Baja
California to break up criminal organizations and
stop the brutal violence they perpetuate. The
federal forces have burned marijuana crops,
arrested suspected drug gang members and disarmed
local police forces the authorities say are
crippled by corruption
75
  • Since 1984 some decentralization
  • limited revenue sharing,
  • As opposition begins to win, first in
    municipalities and then of states, more freedom
    since not beholden to PRI
  • with economic crisis, education and healthcare
    responsibilities shifted,
  • with Foxs election, much less extra
    constitutional control by presidents

76
Institutions Executive Branch
  • Presidencialismo until recently
  • Power never contested by judicial, legislative
    branches
  • Presidents had informal power to seat/unseat MCs,
    Mayors, Governors, Judges
  • Succession 6 year terms, no reelection, in
    practice president picked successor
  • Qualifications 35, native born, not member of
    clergy or military
  • Powers issue decrees with force of law, directly
    introduce legislation, veto, appoint and remove
    judges, cabinet, C in Chief

77
Vicente Fox elected July 2, 2000
  • First president from the opposition
  • PAN
  • Campaign promises of economic policy with a
    human face and an end to corruption and rule by
    narco- politicians
  • Former rancher, State Governor, MC and Coca Cola
    general manager

78
  • won by a bare 240,000 votes, and his main
    opponent, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, a populist
    former mayor of Mexico City, has never conceded
    defeat, charging that the presidential election
    was rigged against him by a powerful alliance of
    businessmen and President Vicente Fox, who
    belongs to Mr. Calderóns conservative National
    Action Party.
  • holds advanced degrees in law, economics and
    public administration.
  • son of one of the Nation Action Partys
    founders, he has been active in politics since he
    was a youth and became the partys youngest
    leader in its history in 1993.
  • Most recently, he served for 13 months in the Fox
    administration, first as the head of a
    development bank and then as energy minister.
  • He served two terms in Congress and proved to be
    a tough negotiator when he was the head of the
    partys delegation from 2000 to 2003, good at
    forming coalitions and bridging partisan
    differences.

Felipe Calderón elected July 2006
79
Institutions Legislature
  • Chamber of Deputies 500 member lower house3
    year terms, revenue bills must originate here,
    exclusive powers over appropriations and budget
  • Senate 128 member upper chamber 6 year terms,
    exclusive power over foreign affairs-approves
    treaties by majority once submitted by
    president, power to remove state governors and
    depose state legislatures
  • High turnover with nonreelection principle
    Article 59 of Constitution provides that Mexican
    legislators cannot be reelected to consecutive
    termsAs a result, from 1970 to 1997 only about
    17 percent of Mexican deputies entered the lower
    house with any previous legislative experience,
    effectively depriving Mexico of the kind of
    senior lawmakers who dominate the US system.

80
Fistfights in Congress
Rivals in Mexico's Congress have exchanged
punches, just days before President-elect Felipe
Calderon is due to be sworn in to office. The
scuffle occurred after left-wing deputies tried
to take the podium to protest against Friday's
inauguration. Deputies could be seen throwing
punches and grabbing each other's clothes, and at
least one man ended up on the floor. Members of
the left-wing party, the PRD, say Mr Calderon won
July's presidential election by fraud. The
speaker of the chamber, Jorge Zermeno, suspended
the session.
PRD members say they plan to disrupt Friday's
inauguration BBC 11/28/2006
81
Powers of Legislature Makes Law all regular
legislation must be approved by both houses and
submitted to president who must publish bill
within 10 days or return to bill to the original
chamber Congress can override veto with 2/3 vote
Declares War Approve nominees Approves
budget Debates remember, even under PRI, one
party dominant, not one party system Can deny
president right to travel (see below)
82
Fox is told he travels too much
83
Executive-Leg Relations Changing
  • In the past, president dominated b/c unified
    govt., high discipline and he was recognized as
    de facto head of party but now . . .
  • Evidence Congress more assertive number of
    approved bills down, more legislation originates
    in Congress
  • Relns b/w Fox and Congress his party did not
    dominate, Fox's proposed reform of Mexico's tax
    structure was torpedoed by PRI and PRD
    opposition, and Congress blocked his effort to
    negotiate a reduction on tariffs for imported
    sugar. Mexico's upper house even used its
    constitutional power to bar Fox from traveling to
    the United States in April 2002, complaining that
    the president was not paying enough attention to
    domestic politics.
  • After 2006 electionswell fistfights to protest
    inauguration dont bode well PAN controls
    president and has largest block in Congress but
    not enough to govern alone divided govt

84
Electoral Reforms of 1990s
  • What Electoral reforms-cost a billion dollars
    but did improve elections
  • When in 1993-1994 and 1996, Salinas govt
  • Why build up domestic and international
    credibility for 1994 elections
  • How
  • high tech, photo id cards issued to entire 42.5
    million person electorate
  • Federal Electoral Institute strengthened, given
    more autonomy, PRI denied a majority
  • Independent tribunals to investigate, special
    prosecutor to investigate violations of electoral
    laws, new electoral crimes defined
  • Legalized international observers and independent
    Mexican citizens observers formally recognized
  • Exit polls authorized and publicly announced on
    election night
  • Ceilings on contributions
  • increased public funding for all parties

85
Electoral System for Congress-- mixed
  • The Cámara de Diputados (Chamber of Deputies) 500
    members, three year term, 300 members elected in
    single-seat constituencies and 200 members
    elected by proportional representation in
    multi-seat constituencies (threshold 2)
  • The Cámara de Senadores (Chamber of Senators) 128
    members, six year term , 96 of them in three seat
    constituencies and 32 by proportional
    representation. In the constituencies two seats
    are awarded to the plurality winner and one to
    the first runner-up.

86
Electoral System for President
  • Plurality
  • Note 6 year terms, can not be reelected

87
Institutions Judicial Branch
  • Structured like US with a Supreme Court and
    courts at local and state level
  • 11 Sup Ct justices, nominated by Pres for 15 year
    terms approved by Senate
  • Powersunder PRInot independent public
    perception judicial system still corrupt, esp. at
    local level
  • new reforms in 1996 give Supreme Court judicial
    review now more assertive

88
System of Law
  • Derives from Roman and Napoleonic traditions
  • Explicit highly formalized
  • Constitution long and relatively easy to amend
  • Administrative law created by regulatory agencies

89
Institutions Military
  • Historicallymilitary intervenes
  • One of biggest accomplishments of revolution is
    to establish civilian control
  • Institutional loyalty tested in 2000 but civilian
    control won out
  • Human rights abuses in Chiapas, and in dealing
    with drug and security problems

90
Institutions Party system
  • Under PRI party dominant (contrast to China)
  • Means opposition parties were tolerated and held
    seats
  • But PRI maintained key positions and co-opted
    opposition
  • Now 3 party system (though even more represented
    in Congress) but two party in most of the
    country North and WestPAN vs PRI South and
    West PRI vs PRD, Mexico City all three

91
(No Transcript)
92
Institutions PRI
  • Inclusive party with no clear ideology
  • Founded in 1929, become increasing
    indistinguishable from the state
  • Who supports in last four elections, older, less
    wealthy, less educated
  • Even with historic defeat in 2000 PRI is still a
    strong partyUntil 2006, majority in Senate,
    largest plurality in CD, more than half of
    governorships

PRI comeback - a blow for Presidential PAN
http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3052124.
stm
93
PRI CONTROL many ways
Electoral fraud stuffing ballot boxes,
disqualifying opposition party poll watchers,
relocating polling places at the last minute to
sites known only to PRI supporters, manipulating
voter registration lists, padding them with
nonexistent or non resident PRI supporters or
shaving off those who were expected to vote for
opposition, giving multiple voting credentials to
PRI supporters, confiscating credentials of
opposition voters, or buying them for material
benefits, organizing carruseles (flying
brigades) of PRI supporters transported by truck
or van to vote at several different polling
places . Plus, they held majority representation
in state and local government entities that
controlled vote counting and certificationmost
common was to add votes for PRI (instead of
taking away from opposition) so that sometimes
total number of voters exceed total number of
registered voters or even adults
94
Control though system of corporatism
And what was corporatism again? From the evil
Wikipedia it refers to a political or economic
system in which power is given to civic
assemblies that represent economic, industrial,
agrarian, social, cultural, and professional
groups. These civic assemblies are known as
corporations. Corporations are unelected bodies
with an internal hierarchy their purpose is to
exert control over the social and economic life
of their respective areas. Thus, for example, a
steel corporation would be a cartel composed of
all the business leaders in the steel industry,
coming together to discuss a common policy on
prices and wages. When the political and economic
power of a country rests in the hands of such
groups, then a corporatist system is in
place. The word "corporatism" is derived from the
Latin word for body, corpus. This meaning was not
connected with the specific notion of a business
corporation, but rather a general reference to
anything collected as a body.
95
Corporatism Pluralism
Single peak assoc. reps a societal interest Compulsory/universal membership Central organization Groups systematically involved in making and implementing policy State grants favored status Multiple groups can rep. a single interest Non-compulsory membership Decentralized organization Clear sep IG/govt In competition among groups for policy not all groups equal
 
96
  • PRI organized society into 3 sectors Labor,
    Peasant, Popular
  • each sector rept by one peak association (1)
    Confederacion de Trabajadores de Mexico (CTM) for
    labor sector, (2) Confederacion National
    Campesino (CNC) for Peasants and the
    Confederacion National de Organizacions Populares
    (CNOP) for Popular
  • Associations get a seat at the table for policy
    negations, subsidies, jobs for leaders

97
Control through Patron Client system
  • Patron Clientelism
  • System of cliques of personal connections fueled
    by charismatic leaders
  • Patron-Client (camarillas) network extends from
    the political-elites through a variety of
    vote-mobilizing organizations throughout the
    country
  • Corruption is a definite by-product of patron
    clientelism

98
PATRON CLIENT RELATIONS ILLUSTRATED During the
PRI's long rule millions of Mexicans lived in
extreme poverty. During the 1990s over 17,000
people survived as pepenedores, garbage pickers
who lived and worked in Mexico City's
rat-infested garbage landfills. Journalist Alma
Guillermoprieto describes how the PRI web of
patron-client relationships extended all the way
down to the lowly pepenedores. 2 She argues that
garbage dump caciques were able to use
patron-client relationships to provide services
for the garbage pickers and, most important, to
protect their jobs against government officials
seeking to move them out of the dumps. One
community of pepenedores was awarded a
neighborhood of homes across the street from a
dump, complete with a school and running water.
With this extension of aid, the PRI secured the
support of some of Mexico's most destitute
voters.this is co-option
99
Daley defends hiring affidavit amid
scandal Mayor Daley on Friday defended his
decision to require Democratic  precinct workers
circulating his nominating petitions to sign a
sworn  affidavit verifying they were promised no
jobs, promotions or other  benefits in exchange
for the political work. Democratic ward bosses
have called the unprecedented demand a slap  in
the face from a mayor who has ignored their job
requests while  rewarding the Hispanic
Democratic Organization at the center of the 
city hiring scandal. Daley made no apologies
for the sworn statement not after watching 
his former patronage chief and three others be
convicted and  sentenced for rigging city hiring
and promotions in favor of HDO and  other
pro-Daley armies of political workers...

100
PAN
  • Founded in 1939 in response to leftward drift of
    Cardenas oldest opposition party
  • center-right, with strong elements of Christian
    socialism
  • Who supports northern border states and north
    central states, NOT rural
  • Plagued by internal divisions

Victory for Fox 2003 http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/am
ericas/813206.stm
101
Victory in 2006 elections (still no majority)

In Aguascalientes on Saturday Jan 2006, Mr.
Calderón (PAN candidate) reached out to farmers.
102
Party of the Democratic Revolution
  • formed In 1980s a leftist faction in PRI, led by
    Cardenas, son of former president, left PRI and
    formed PRD
  • Opposes PRI's neo-liberal reforms and neglect of
    poor Mexicans, calls for more nationalist and
    protectionist policies
  • who supports Mexico City and the south

March 2002 the PRD elected a new leader, Rosario
Robles, the first woman to lead a major Mexican
party. Robles is a former member of Congress and
popular former mayor of Mexico City. A former
student activist, she is an outspoken opponent to
free-market policies
103
  • 2006 election Platform
  • He promises to cut the salaries of top government
    officials and the president himself. He vows to
    do away with lavish pensions for ex-presidents.
    He says he will slash wasteful government
    spending and root out corruption in the
    government and entities like the state-owned oil
    monopoly, Pemex.
  • He says that with the savings that will rack up,
    he will establish food subsidies for the elderly,
    monthly stipends for the disabled, free health
    care, free education through college, and aid for
    single mothers. He also pledges to cut the costs
    of electricity, natural gas and gasoline, all of
    which are relatively expensive in Mexico despite
    its oil reserves.
  • Mr. López Obrador also says he wants to
    renegotiate the free trade agreement with the
    United States to protect more farmers and workers
    in other weak sectors."The next president of
    Mexico will not be a puppet of anyone," he said
    here on Thursday, a veiled suggestion that Mr.
    Fox has been too closely allied with Washington.
    Then he added, "We are going to protect our
    markets as they do in the rest of the world."

Andrés Manuel López Obrador campaigning last week
in Tehuantepec on a swing through Oaxaca State.
NYT March 19, 2006
104
Political and Economic Change
Dead cattle lined a river in Aguadulce, Veracruz,
and residents were evacuated after a Pemex
pipeline broke in January, spilling semirefined
gas.
105
Economic Policy Overview
  • PAN promotes free market economy
  • mixture of modern and outmoded industry and
    agriculture, increasingly dominated by the
    private sector.
  • Per capita income is one-fourth that of the US
  • income distribution remains highly unequal.
  • Trade with the US and Canada has tripled since
    the implementation of NAFTA in 1994.
  • By sector agriculture 4 industry 27.2
    services 68.9
  • GDP growth rate 3 (US 3.5)

CIA Factbook
106
  • MASSIVE INEQUALITY
  • Long time problem, despite Mexican revs
    commitment to equality
  • shift to neo-liberal policies increased gap
  • Problem not evenly distributedworse in rural
    areas, central and South
  • Huge informal sector indicates poverty

http//www.economist.com/surveys/displayStory.cfm?
Story_id403154
107
GINI INDEX a measure of inequality
108
Answering Latin Left, Bush Pledges to Help Poor
President Bush and President Felipe Calderón of
Mexico met for three hours at a luxury hotel,
then toured the Mayan ruins of Uxmal, above.
March 14, 2007
109
The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality
It is usually used to measure income inequality,
but can be used to measure any form of uneven
distribution. The Gini coefficient is a number
between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect
equality (where everyone has the same income) and
1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one
person has all the income, and everyone else has
zero income). The Gini index is the Gini
coefficient expressed in percentage form, and is
equal to the Gini coefficient multiplied by 100.
The Gini coefficient's main advantage is that it
is a measure of inequality, not a measure of
average income or some other variable which is
unrepresentative of most of the population, such
as GDP
Correlation with per-capita GDP Poor countries
(those with low per capita GDP have Gini
coefficients that fall over the whole range from
low (0.25) to high (0.71), while rich countries
have generally low Gini coefficient (under 0.40).
110
Development of Gini coefficients in the US over
time Gini coefficients for the United States at
various times, according to the US Census
Buerea 1970 0.394 1980 0.403 1990 0.428
2000 0.462 1
111
Economy until the 1970s
  • Strong elite consensus that state should be a
    guiding force of a mixed economy Mexico was to
    have a capitalist economy, but the Mexican state
    played an important role in key sectors of the
    economy, though far less than in socialist
    economies.
  • State was nations largest employer,
  • Practiced import substitution industrialization
    was encouraged through import policies with high
    tariff protection for Mexican industries and
    agriculture
  • Government policies provided Mexican
    entrepreneurs with subsidized credit and energy,
    and very low taxes
  • PRI's ability to control labor and therefore
    labor costs also benefited Mexico's
    entrepreneurs.
  • Result Mexican Miracle economic growth
    (annually 6-7) and low inflation (5) but
    inequality and then crashes in economic crisis of
    1970s and 1980s

112
President Cardenas (1934-40)
  • most important reformer embodied socialist
    aspects of Revolution
  • first president to implement the Constitution's
    call for land reform
  • Integrated peasants and workers into
    state-controlled unions
  • Nationalized foreign-dominated oil industry
    created PEMEX (state oil monopoly )
  • won the PRI the enduring political loyalty from
    Mexico's workers and peasants

113
Economic crisis in 1970s and 1980s
  • Huge deficit b/c govt had been trying to spend
    its way out of accumulating social and economic
    problems w/o raising taxesfuels inflation
  • Over reliance on oil to fund govt and borrow on,
    then world wide decline in oil prices in early
    1980s
  • Presidents de La Madrid (1982-1988) and Salinas
    (1988-1995) responded by abandoning protectionist
    policies, land reform and adopting neo-lib
    policies
  • Salinas uses shock therapy of a sort (price and
    wage controls, boost revenues, cutting spending)

114
1990s collapse of the peso
  • sudden crash of peso and massive capital flight
    in December 1994
  • Why though inflation had declined to one digit,
    peso had become seriously devalued, govt decides
    to ignore until after election, skittish
    investors, inexperienced financial team after
    election
  • Saved by massive bailout by US
  • Suffered huge loss in creditability, huge wage
    drop

115
Economy today globalization and market
liberalization
  • Most recent presidentsmore free reign to market
    forces liberalized Mexico's statist economy,
    abandoned social commitments (like land reform)
  • Structural adjustment (a policy of economic
    liberalization adopted in exchange for financial
    support from liberal international organizations,
    typically includes privatizing state run firms,
    ending subsidies, reducing tariff barriers,
    shrinking the size of the state and recombining
    foreign investment
  • Fox responsible for preserving macroeconomic
    stability (although without reducing unemployment
    or significantly improving growth)
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in
    1986 and the North American Free Trade Agreement
    (NAFTA) with the United States and Canada in 1994
  • Growing gdp, growing inequality

116
NAFTA
  • More diverse economy, though 90 exports go to US
  • Manufacturing exports grown at rate of 75 per
    year
  • Agriculture b/c of NAFTA, amount of Mexican food
    imports from the US has doubled. This lowers food
    prices, helps some exports but creases a massive
    crisis for millions of Mexico's farmers
  • FDI increased, though most goes to Maquiladoras
    (North)

Farmers say Mexico must withdraw from the treaty
117
NAFTA The future?
The elder Mr Bush,dreamed of a free-trade
agreement that would stretch from Anchorage to
Tierra del Fuego.
118
The Economy under Fox
Mr. Fox managed to put an end to decades of
economic mismanagement. He also made some headway
with social programs, particularly a vast public
housing initiative that provided low-cost
mortgages to millions of households. The number
of families living in desperate poverty has
dropped. But Mr. Foxs tenure was a
disappointment in many other ways. As the
election made clear, social divisions and a lack
of opportunity still define the country. At least
a quarter of working-age Mexicans labor in an
underground economy, selling contraband in street
markets or washing cars in parking lots. Some
400,000 emigrate to the United States every year
in search of work. Mr. Fox also failed to get
key energy and tax reforms through a divided
Congress. Oil production at the government-owned
oil monopoly has begun to fall, even as the
government continues to depend on oil revenues
rather than tax collection, a barrier to deeper
political reform. Nor did Mr. Fox take on the
public and private monopolies, like those in
energy and telecommunications. Changes in labor
laws never made it to Congress, and Mr. Fox was
unwilling to curb public employee unions,
particularly the teachers union NYT Dec 1, 2006
119
Political change under Fox
The country Mr. Calderón inherits on Friday has
changed in many ways since 2000, when Mr. Foxs
election ended the 71-year monopoly on power held
by the Institutional Revolutionary Party. Under
Mr. Fox, Mexico has become a country with
stronger democratic institutions, vociferous
public debate and the end of an imperial-style
presidency. NYT Dec 1, 2006
120
Public Policy
Many would-be migrants at the US border are
intercepted http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/amer
icas/country_profiles/1210779.stm
121
Lawlessness
  • epidemic of violent street crimesarmed
    robberies, muggings, kidnappings, rapes and
    homicide
  • Govt not dealing with it well
  • High percentage of violent crimes related to
    operation of drug cartels

A tunnel used to transport drugs to the US from
Mexico
122
Corruption
  • Flourished under long dominance of PRI
  • Democratization, increased transparency (FOIA
    now), improved judicial reforms may helpthough
    drug trafficking complicates
  • Still a tough problemhampers legitimacy eg from
    BBC Feb 22 2005
  • Mexico has been shaken by the arrest of a senior
    member of President Vicente Fox's staff on
    suspicion of leaking information to drugs
    traffickers

Police corruption impedes effective policy
against traffickers from Mexico fights spectre
of narcopolitics http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ame
ricas/4247859.stm
123
Human Rights Violations
  • Though not as bad as some Latin Am nations, PRI
    did maintain control in part thru govt sponsored
    violence against protestors (1968)
  • throughout the 1990s, Human Rights groups
    documented wide spread use of torture, summary
    executions and disappearances sponsored by govt
  • Fox promises to improve, FOIA passed under his
    administration to make it easier to open archives
    on human rights violations

The UN has criticized Mexico's handling of the
Juarez murders (400 abductions/murders, rape,
mass graves, since 1993 recent 7 and 10 year
old http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4584
951.stm
124

A black cross and the word "justice" painted on a
lamp post in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico in support of
finding an end to the more than 370 murdered
women in Juárez and Chihuahua
Demand Justice for the Women and Girls of Ciudad
Juárez and Chihuahua, México Amnesty
International                                    
                               
125
Public Demands to Enforce Rule of Law
  • Demands include solve crimes, prosecute
    criminals, reduce police corruption, make elected
    officials accountable
  • Zedillos reforms 1996 Reduce size of Sp.Ct from
    24 to 11, increase terms justices to 15 years,
    change senate confirmation to 2/3, grant judicial
    review (tho it takes 8/11 to find law
    unconstitutional

126
Migration
  • Internal rural to urban, South to North
  • External to US dates back to Bracero Program,
    Immigration Reform 1987 sanctions employers, both
    Fox and Bush pledge to address Bushs Guest
    Worker program
  • Migration rate 4.57

President Bush has said a deal on Mexican
immigration is a priority http//news.bbc.co.uk/1/
hi/world/americas/4183447.stm
127
Today there are almost 11 million Mexicans living
in the U.S. (about 10 percent of Mexico's total
population, and four percent of the U.S.
population). According to some estimates, the
amount of foreign exchange sent to Mexico by
Mexicans living outside the country has grown to
almost 20 billion dollars annually, making it
the largest single source of foreign exchange
(even larger than revenue earned from oil
exports). NYT March 2006
128
More than 400 Mexicans died in 2005 trying to
enter the United States (though in only two cases
was the Border Patrol involved). That looms large
in Mexican consciousness. Every Mexican knows
someone who has crossed the border, if they
haven't done so themselves. The harder and more
dangerous it gets, the more Mexican public
opinion may turn against the United States. The
free movement of goods, but not of labour, across
the border was always likely to cause problems
Economist Jan 12, 2006
129
A major Foreign Policy Issue with the US
At the Chichén Itzá ruins near Cancún, Mexico,
President Bush took a break from talks with
Canadas prime minister, Stephen Harper, left,
and his host, President Vicen
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