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BRICS Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa

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Brazil-Russia-India-China ... to the International Monetary Fund in 2011 the EU joint nominal GDP in ... BRICS European Union 20,990,530 15,821,264 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BRICS Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa


1
BRICS Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa
H.E. Mr. Gilberto Fonseca Guimarães de Moura,
Ambassador of Brazil to Slovenia Roundtable EU
and BRICS Academy of Active Citizenship and
Entrepreneurship 13 May 2012

2
BRICS
3
BRICS Origin
  • 2001Building Better Global Economic BRICs.
    Paper by Jim ONeil, from Goldman Sachs.
  • 2003Dreaming with BRICs the path to 2050
    written by Dominic Wilson and Roopa Purushothaman
    from Goldman Sachs. Paper about the evolution of
    global economy until 2050, proposes new category
    composed of the four major emerging economies.

4
BRICS Concept
  • The BRICs idea was immediately adopted by
    analysts and the media.
  • The growth of these countries would be the new
    building blocs bricks of the world economy
    by 2050.
  • Brazil, Russia, India and China were singled out
    due to their economic indicators and their
    potential, in relation to other developing
    countries.

5
BRICs Chart of Indicators
26 of Earth's land
area 42 of world's
population 46 of
worlds work force 19 of worlds nominal GDP
(26 of GDP PPP)
6
BRICS Comparative Graphic
According to the International Monetary Fund in
2011 the EU joint nominal GDP in billion USD was
17,577.691 Source http//www.imf.org/external/pub
s/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy2011ey2
011scsm1ssd1sortcountryds.br1pr1.x94p
r1.y8c0012C998sNGDPDgrp1a1
7
BRICs GDP
  • Relevant data
  • An IMF forecast (January 2012) predicted that the
    five BRICS countries will contribute 56 of the
    worlds GDP growth in 2012. Comparatively, the
    contributions of the G-7 to global economic
    growth will be approximately 9, and   Latin
    America as a whole is expected to
    contribute 9.5.
  • From 2003 to 2007, the growth of BRIC countries
    represented 65 of the worlds GDP expansion.
  • In PPP (Purchasing Power Parity), BRICs GDP is
    already greater than that of the USA or the EU
    (Country GDP (PPP) Million for 2011  World
    78,897,426 European Union 15,821,264 BRICS
    20,990,530  United States 15,094,025  China
    11,299,967  India 4,457,784  Japan 4,440,376
     Germany 3,100,080  Russia 2,383,402  Brazil
    2,294,243 Source International Monetary Fund)

8
Country GDP (PPP) Million for 2011 Source
International Monetary Fund
Country GDP (PPP) Million
 World 78,897,426
BRICS European Union 20,990,530 15,821,264
 United States 15,094,025
 China 11,299,967
 India 4,457,784
 Japan 4,440,376
 Germany 3,100,080
 Russia 2,383,402
 Brazil 2,294,243
 United Kingdom 2,260,803
 France 2,217,900
Italy 1,846,950
9
BRICS Comparative graphics
  • Significant drop of all countries but the BRICs
    manage to stay in positive numbers

10
BRICS Trade Flow
  • Between 2003 to 2010 (US billion)
  • Brazil-Russia 2 ? 6
  • Brazil-India 1 ? 7,7
  • Brazil-China 6,7 ? 56
  • Brazil-South Africa 1 ? 2
  • - Brazil-BRICS 10,7 ? 71,7
  • Increase of 570

11
Foreign Trade of the BRICS countries with the
EU Source Eurostat, European Statistical Office
12
Foreign Trade of the BRICS countries with
Slovenia Source Eurostat, European Statistical
Office
13
Foreign Trade of the BRICS countries with
Slovenia in 1000 EUR Source Statistical Office
of the Republic of Slovenia
14
Bilateral trade Slovenia - Brazil 2005-2011
Source Izvozno okno, Statistic Office of the
Republic of Slovenia
    Brazil
2000 Export 23861
2000 Import 29280
2005 Export 11801
2005 Import 56982
2006 Export 18883
2006 Import 72344
2007 Export 21602
2007 Import 105865
2008 Export 28148
2008 Import 76062
2009 Export 24286
2009 Import 64208
2010 Export 34448
2010 Import 62806
2011 Export 37131
2011 Import 114270
15
Bilateral trade Slovenia - Russia 2005-2011
Source Izvozno okno, Statistic Office of the
Republic of Slovenia
    Russia
2000 Export 209873
2000 Import 213282
2005 Export 467462
2005 Import 334195
2006 Export 599504
2006 Import 357056
2007 Export 691606
2007 Import 489977
2008 Export 799914
2008 Import 355888
2009 Export 519354
2009 Import 207452
2010 Export 534099
2010 Import 289474
2011 Export 542678
2011 Import 386537
16
Bilateral trade Slovenia - India 2005-2011
Source Izvozno okno, Statistic Office of the
Republic of Slovenia
    India
2000 Export 18217
2000 Import 14488
2005 Export 17843
2005 Import 47648
2006 Export 32049
2006 Import 53274
2007 Export 36301
2007 Import 69614
2008 Export 49036
2008 Import 87922
2009 Export 76040
2009 Import 134021
2010 Export 71618
2010 Import 170044
2011 Export 83635
2011 Import 197972
17
Bilateral trade Slovenia China 2005-2011
Source Izvozno okno, Statistic Office of the
Republic of Slovenia
    China
2000 Export 15828
2000 Import 43537
2005 Export 36248
2005 Import 196797
2006 Export 53579
2006 Import 245841
2007 Export 60571
2007 Import 345932
2008 Export 68978
2008 Import 440974
2009 Export 63376
2009 Import 345685
2010 Export 87285
2010 Import 449486
2011 Export 88682
2011 Import 509124
18
Bilateral trade Slovenia South Africa
2005-2011 Source Izvozno okno, Statistic Office
of the Republic of Slovenia
    South Africa
2000 Export 9288
2000 Import 4224
2005 Export 36712
2005 Import 11572
2006 Export 32961
2006 Import 12285
2007 Export 24071
2007 Import 19268
2008 Export 21886
2008 Import 22821
2009 Export 17151
2009 Import 4342
2010 Export 24603
2010 Import 6287
2011 Export 23269
2011 Import 6823
19
BRICs Characteristics
  • Vast land area
  • Challenges related to economic and social
    integration
  • Desire to make the international order more
    representative
  • Possibility of cooperation in many areas

20
From BRICs to BRICS
  • Institutionalization at the Ekaterinburg
    Ministerial the BRIC (singular), implied the
    establishment of a dynamic of cooperation among
    the four countries, which had originally been
    placed side to side due to their individual
    characteristics (the BRICs, plural)
  • The BRIC became a mechanism through which the
    countries can exchange opinions, seek
    convergence, identify areas of cooperation and
    influence the international agenda.
  • With the entrance of South Africa, at the 3rd
    BRICS Summit, in April 2011, the BRIC became
    BRICS, with capital "S".

21
Entrance of South Africa
  • It brings an important contribution to the Group
    because of its economic importance in Africa,
    constructive political action and its geographic
    representation. With South Africa, the BRICS, as
    it is now called, includes countries from all
    continents except Oceania.
  • The entrance of the fifth country represents a
    detachment of the group in relation to the
    acronym originated in the financial markets,
    highlighting the search of the five countries to
    form a group with its own features and agenda.
  • It is noteworthy that the creator of the acronym
    BRIC manifested, after the Summit in Sanya, a
    certain perplexity with the new member. In his
    analysis, however, Jim O'Neill took into account
    only his perspective, focused on economic
    elements. But as a diplomatic group, the BRICS
    can reinvent itself, and this is what it is
    doing.
  • The consensual approach is that the interaction
    between the five countries is done and will
    continue to be done without an element of
    confrontation. The group is open to an increased
    engagement and cooperation with third countries,
    as well as international and regional
    organizations.

22
BRIC in diplomacy
  • September 2006 1st Meeting of Foreign Ministers,
    at the margin of the 61st UNGA
  • Since then, the BRICS Foreign Ministers meet
    every year at the margin of the UNGA sessions
  • May 2008 1st Ministerial Meeting, in
    Yekaterinburg
  • July 2008 Informal meeting of BRICs Heads of
    State and Government, at the G-8 Summit, in
    Hokkaido

23
1st BRIC Summit
  • June 16, 2009 1st Summit of Heads of State and
    Government, in Yekaterinburg. The summit's focus
    was on means of improving the global economic
    situation and reforming financial institutions
    and discussed how the four countries could better
    co-operate in the future.
  • 2 documents issued
  • Joint Statement
  • Joint Statement on Global Food
  • Security

24
1st BRIC Summit
25
2nd BRIC Summit
  • April 15th, 2010, in Brasília
  • Leaders signed a Joint Statement
  • The leaders discussed various current issues
    including the Iran and nuclear weapons,
    development, the furtherance of the BRIC (and
    IBSA that was occurring at the same time) as an
    international body, the global economic situation
    at the time, reform of financial institutions,
    the financial G20, and cooperation and issues
    related to global governance
  • Meetings held at the margin of the Summit
  • - Meeting of BRIC Cooperatives (Brasília) -
    IBSABRIC Business Forum (Rio de Janeiro) - BRIC
    Think Tanks Seminar (Brasília) - Meeting of BRIC
    Development Banks (Rio de Janeiro)

26
2nd BRIC Summit
27
3rd BRICS Summit
  • April 14th, 2011, in Sanya, China.
  • Joint Declaration issued, including an Action
    Plan listing events and initiatives to be
    organized in 2011.
  • The Summit discussed Economy, International law,
    United Nations Security Council reform, Trade
    medium and Libyan civil war
  • Associated to the Summit, the following events
    were organized Think Tanks Seminar in Beijing,
    the 2nd BRICS Business Forum, in Sanya, and the
    Meeting of BRICS Development Banks, also in
    Sanya.
  • Trade ministers discussed the Doha Round,
    exchange rates and commodity prices.

28
3rd BRICS Summit
29
4th BRICS Summit
  • March 29th, 2012, in New Delhi, India.
  • The Leaders meeting consolidated the mechanism
    and deepened intra-group dialogue, especially in
    the financial and economic area.
  • The Leaders approved the creation of a Working
    Group to study the implementation of a
    Development Bank, for mobilizing resources for
    infrastructure and sustainable development
    projects in BRICS and other emerging economies
    and developing countries.
  • The Development Banks Presidents met and approved
    two agreements to facilitate trade in local
    currencies.
  • Associated to the Summit, the following events
    were organized Trade ministers meeting, Business
    Forum, Financial Forum, Academic Forum.

30
4th BRICS Summit
  • The Delhi Declaration, issued at the meeting,
    shows that the BRICS are able to achieve
    important common denominators. Besides subjects
    related to the international economic and
    financial agenda, the document covers peace and
    security, environment, energy, among others
    issues.
  • The Declaration mentioned the reform of the
    United Nations and international financial
    governance.

31
4th BRICS Summit
32
BRICS Next Summit
  • 2013, in South Africa

33
BRICS Policy coordination
  • The BRICS share many interests related to the
    construction of a new global governance
    therefore, they could identify common agendas and
    principles
  • - Commitment to multilateral diplomacy
    with the United Nations playing the central role
    in dealing with global challenges and threats. In
    this respect, BRICS reaffirm the need for a
    comprehensive reform of the UN, including its
    Security Council, with a view to making it more
    effective, efficient and representative
  • - The voice of emerging and developing
    countries should have greater resonance in
    international relations
  • - The coping of climate change. BRICS
    support the Cancun Agreements and are ready to
    make concerted efforts with the rest of the
    international community to bring a successful
    conclusion to the negotiations at the Durban
    Conference applying the mandate of the Bali
    Roadmap and in line with the principle of equity
    and common but differentiated responsibilities
  • - The Doha Round. BRICS share the same positions
    about the round
  • - Strong condemnation of terrorism in all
    its forms and manifestations the United Nations
    has a central role in coordinating the
    international action against terrorism
  • - Support the Group of Twenty (G20) in
    playing a bigger role in global economic
    governance as the premier forum for international
    economic cooperation
  • - Support the reform and improvement of
    the international monetary and financial system,
    whose inadequacies and deficiencies were evident
    with the international financial crisis

34
BRICS Areas of cooperation

35
Finance
  • In November 2008, the 1st Meeting of BRIC Finance
    Ministers was held, on the sidelines of the G-20
    Ministerial in São Paulo.
  • Since then, BRICS Finance Ministers and Central
    Bank Presidents often gather on the sidelines of
    G-20 and IMF meetings.
  • These meetings have an important role in the
    consolidation process of the group, which claim
    more active participation of developing countries
    in the reform of international financial
    institutions such as the IMF and World Bank.
  • The BRICS Leaders met on the sidelines of the
    G-20 Summit in Cannes (November 8th, 2011) to
    discuss matters related to the Euro Zone)
  • The last meeting of BRICS Finance Ministers was
    held on the sidelines of the G-20 meeting in
    Mexico City (February 25th, 2012).

36
Agriculture
  • March 2010 Meeting of BRIC Agriculture and
    Agricultural Development Ministers, in Moscow.
    Joint Communiqué proposes
  • 1) Creation of a BRIC agricultural information
    system
  • 2) Development of a general strategy for ensuring
    access to food for the most vulnerable population
  • 3) Reduction of the negative impact of climate
    change on food security and adaptation of
    agriculture to climatic changes
  • 4) Enhance agricultural technology cooperation
    and innovation
  • August 2011 1st Meeting of the BRICS
    agricultural experts WG, in Beijing.
  • October 2011 2nd Ministerial Meeting, in Chengdu.

37
Health
  • May 2011 Meeting of Health Ministers on the
    margins of the 64th World Health Assembly.
  • July 2011 1st Meeting of Health Ministers, in
    Beijing.
  • September, 2011 Meeting of Health Ministers on
    the margins of the UN High Level Meeting on
    Non-communicable Diseases.
  • Issues discussed
  • Promote adequate access to health services and
    medicines
  • Reform of WHO
  • Strengthening of health systems and health
    financing
  • Transfer of technology to strengthen innovation
    capacity to benefit public health in developing
    countries

38
Strategy and Security
  • May 2009 1st Meeting of High Level
    Representatives on Security, in Moscow.
  • April 2010 2nd Meeting, in Brasília
  • October 2010 BRIC meeting on the sidelines of
    the International Security Meeting in Sochi
    (Russia).
  • Discussed Topics
  • - Global governance and multilateralism
  • - Exchange of views on issues which occupy the
    top of the international agenda, from the
    strategic and security point of view, such as
    disarmament and nonproliferation long-term
    energy security.

39
Statistics
  • February 2010 1st Meeting of Heads of
    Statistical Intitutions of the BRIC, in New York,
    on the sidelines of the meeting of the UN
    Statistical Committee. - Release of the BRIC
    Statistics Publication (in the 2nd Summit)
  • December 2010 2nd Meeting of Heads of
    Statistical Intitutions of the BRIC (Rio de
    Janeiro) - Release of updated version of the
    Statistics Publication, already with South Africa
    data (in the 3rd Summit)
  • March 2012 release of the 3rd version of the
    statistics publication, in New Delhi

40
Other events in 2011
  • Over 25 BRICS events were organized in 2011.
  • Some of them are listed below
  • September 15th meeting of BRICS Senior
    Officials in science, technology innovation
    areas, in Dalian.
  • September 23rd 6th Meeting of Foreign Ministers,
    at the margin of the 66th UNGA.
  • December 3rd First Conference of BRICS Sister
    Cities and Local Governments, in Beijing.
  • December 2nd Meeting of the Contact Group for
    Trade and Economic Issues, in Beijing
  • December 14th BRICS Trade Ministers meeting, on
    the margin of the 8th WTO Meeting, in Geneva

41
BRIC(S) OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS
  • Summits
  • 2012 March 29, New Delhi, India
  • 2012 Delhi Declaration and Delhi Action Plan
  • BRICS Report Executive Summary
  • Statement on Agreements between BRICS Development
    Banks
  • 2011 April 14, Sanya, China
  • BRICS leaders declaration
  • 2010 April 15, Brasilia, Brazil
  • BRIC leaders joint statement
  • 2009 June 16, Yekaterinburg, Russia
  • BRIC leaders joint statement
  • BRIC Joint Statement on Global Food Safety
  • Agriculture Ministers
  • 2012 India
  • 2011 October 29-30, Chengdu, China
  • BRICS agriculture ministers declaration
  • Action Plan 2012-2016 for Agricultural
    Cooperation of BRICS Countries
  • Working Procedures for Agricultural Cooperation
    Working Group
  • 2011 August, Beijing, China
  • Finance Ministers
  • Note BRICS finance ministers usually meet
    on the margins of G20 meetings and the regular
    meetings of the International Monetary Fund and
    World Bank.
  • 2011 September 22, Washington DC, United
    States
  • BRICS finance ministers communiqué
  • 2009 March 14, Horsham, United Kingdom
  • BRIC finance ministers communiqué
  • 2008 November, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • BRIC finance ministers
  • Foreign Ministers
  • 2011 November 24, Moscow, Russia
  • BRICS deputy foreign ministers communiqué
  • 2011 September 21, New York
  • Health Ministers
  • 2011 July 11, Beijing, China
  • BRICS health ministers declaration
  • Trade Ministers
  • 2011 December 14, Geneva, Switzerland
  • BRICS trade ministers declaration
  • 2011 April 13

42
BRICS - Conclusion
  • The BRICS, in its current configuration, fulfills
    the need of strengthening centers of influence in
    global governance which could contribute to the
    establishment of a positive multipolarity" in
    international affairs.
  • The group aims at not only defending the
    interests of its members, but also aims at
    broader goals, such as opening spaces for
    dialogue that could facilitate a systemic
    re-accommodation of the international order. The
    mechanism wishes to strengthen multilateralism.
  • The BRICS is at a significant moment of
    consolidation. The group demonstrated at the
    Declaration of New Delhi that it can reach
    broader and significant consensus.
  • Extending beyond the original concept, the BRICS
    is today an exciting and promising mechanism not
    only for intra-group cooperation, but also to
    promote real change in global governance.

43
  • From the Brazilian point of view, it is necessary
    to stress that Brazil does not have
    confrontational intentions as it can be seen in
    its international action open to engagement, in
    its efforts to strengthen multilateralism and
    cooperation with third countries and in its
    constructive activities in the framework of
    G-20. 
  • The Forum does not want to replicate old patterns
    of asymmetric and dominating relations. The BRICS
    are interested in creating new innovative
    mechanisms capable of dialogue and cooperation as
    stated in the 6th paragraph of the Sanya
    Declaration we reiterate that such cooperation
    is inclusive and non-confrontational. We are open
    to increasing engagement and cooperation with
    non-BRICS countries, in particular emerging and
    developing countries, and relevant international
    and regional organizations.

44
Report on the EU foreign policy towards the BRICS
and other emerging powers objectives and
strategies 10 January 2012 EU Parliament,
Committee on Foreign Affairs
  • The BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South
    Africa) and other emerging economies could gather
    strong relevance in foreign policy terms on the
    global scene. In a global economic perspective,
    seven emerging countries (Brazil, Russia, India,
    China, Indonesia, Mexico and Turkey) are
    projected to have larger economies than,
    collectively, the G-7 countries (USA, Japan,
    Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France and
    Italy) in 2050.
  • As the current economic crisis demonstrates,
    there is a strong degree of interdependence
    between emerged powers and emerging powers.
  • In this regard, it should be pointed out that the
    BRICS have already shown clear ambitions in
    foreign policy terms. Thus, the BRICS seem to
    challenge the current system of international
    governance. However, if an inclusive, new system
    of governance were to be devised, they could
    become valuable partners of the West.
  • The EU will have to duly take into account the
    new weight, in political and economic terms, of
    the BRICS and other emerging powers and use its
    political leverage to continue to promote
    universal values.

45
BRICS Website
  • http//www.itamaraty.gov.br/brics
  • Events held since 2006
  • Documents issued by Heads of State and
    Government, and by the Foreign Ministers
  • Documents issued by High Representatives
  • Articles and academic texts
  • Statistical Publication
  • Videos and interviews
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