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Plastics and Synthetic Fibres

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Examples of plastics Examples of plastics Polythene [poly(ethene)] Polystyrene Perspex PVC Nylon Bakelite Formica Silicones PVC [poly(vinyl chloride)] ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plastics and Synthetic Fibres


1
Plastics and Synthetic Fibres
  • Intermediate 2 Chemistry
  • Unit 2(d)

2
Examples of plastics
3
Examples of plastics
  • Polythene poly(ethene)
  • Polystyrene
  • Perspex
  • PVC
  • Nylon
  • Bakelite
  • Formica
  • Silicones

4
PVC poly(vinyl chloride)
5
Nylon
6
Bakelite
7
Formica
8
Silicones
9
Where do plastics come from?
  • Crude oil
  • Fractional distillation
  • Cracking
  • Alkenes

10
Uses related to properties
  • Flexible
  • Watertight
  • Shatter-proof
  • Light

11
Non-biodegradable
  • Cant be broken down by living things.
  • Biopol is a recently developed biodegradable
    plastic.

12
Other problems with plastics
  • Low density
  • Durable
  • Burn or smoulder to give off toxic fumes
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Hydrogen chloride
  • Hydrogen cyanide

13
Types of plastic
  • Thermoplastic
  • Can be reshaped on heating
  • Thermosetting plastic
  • Cannot be reshaped on heating

14
Chemistry of plastics
  • Plastics are examples of polymers
  • These are long chain molecules made from smaller
    molecules joining together
  • These smaller molecules are called monomers
  • There are two types of polymer
  • Addition polymer
  • Condensation polymer

15
Addition polymers
16
Addition polymers
  • Like all polymers, these are made from monomers.
  • For an addition polymer, these monomers always
    have a CC
  • These join together in a reaction called addition
    polymerisation.
  • view animation

17
1
2
3
MONOMERS
POLYMERS
18
1
3
2
3
1
2




MONOMERS
POLYMERS
19
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20
Naming polymers
  • The name of the polymer is made by taking the
    name of the monomer, putting brackets around it,
    and adding poly in front
  • Poly(ethene) is made from ethene
  • Poly(vinyl chloride) is made from vinyl chloride.

21
Naming practice
  • Name the polymer made from
  • Propene
  • Chloroethene
  • Name the monomer used to make
  • Poly(heptene)
  • Poly(phenylethene)

22
Drawing polymers, monomers and the repeating unit
23
CC
H
H
H
H
H
H
C6H5
H
C6H5
H
C6H5
H
Poly(phenylethene)
24
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25
Condensation polymers
26
  • What type of molecule is produced from an alkanol
    and alkanoic acid?
  • Esters
  • Polyesters are made from similar molecules.

27
Polyesters
28
Monomers
  • Must have two functional groups per molecule
  • For polyesters, they are a diol and a diacid

29
Condensation polymerisation
  • The joining up of two molecules, producing water,
    is condensation.
  • Because giant molecules are made, this is
    condensation polymerisation.
  • Specifically with a diol and a diacid, a
    polyester is produced.

30
Polyamides
  • Are produced when an amine group reacts with a
    carboxyl group.

31
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32
Amides
  • Formed when an amine reacts with an alkanoic acid.

amide
amine
carboxylic acid
33
Polyamides
  • Are condensation polymers.
  • Formed when a diamine reacts with a diacid.

34
Recently developed plastics
  • Kevlar
  • Very strong
  • Poly(ethenol)
  • Water soluble
  • Biopol
  • Biodegradable

35
Kevlar
36
Kevlar
37
Poly(ethenol)
38
Poly(ethenol)
39
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