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Law Enforcement Organization and Administration


Law Enforcement Organization and Administration Chapter 13 TRAINING Historical Perspective Prior to turn of the 20th Century training for police was generally not done. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Law Enforcement Organization and Administration

Law Enforcement Organization and Administration
  • Chapter 13

  • Historical Perspective
  • Prior to turn of the 20th Century training for
    police was generally not done. Officers were
    given a gun and badge and worked the street with
    a tenured officer
  • First police training programs were set up around

Recruit Training Today
  • On average police recruits today are required to
    complete 760 hours of classroom training and 180
    hours of field training.

Virginia Recruit Training
  • Prince William County Criminal Justice Academy
    932 hours of training. Provides training for
    Prince William County Police and Sheriff and
    Dumfries Town Police

  • Northern Virginia Criminal Justice Academy 776
    hours of basic training. Provides training for
  • Arlington County Police and Sheriff
  • George Mason University
  • Loudoun County Sheriff
  • Alexandria City Police and Sheriff
  • Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Police
  • Fairfax City Police
  • Northern Virginia Community College Police
  • Falls Church Police
  • Leesburg Police
  • Middleburg Police Purcellville Police
  • Manassas City Police
  • Manassas Park Police

  • Fairfax Count Criminal Justice Academy
  • Provides training for Fairfax County Police and
    Sheriff, the Herndon Town Police Department and
    the Vienna Town Police

  • Basic training generally takes place after the
    officer is hired. In some states they allow
    civilians to attend a pre service academy and
    then apply for a police position. This helps
    the localities save money.
  • Virginia requires all academy faculty to be
    trained and certified as instructors

  • In Virginia, the individual is hired and goes
    through the academy and is sworn in as a police
    officer upon graduation from the academy.

  • In Florida, the college system is set up so the
    individual gets the law enforcement certification
    upon successful completion of a college program
    at the community college level and pass a
    certification test.
  • Upon certification the individual will seek

Field Training for Police Officers
  • Recruit is pared with a field training officer
    (FTO) for a period of time
  • FTO does daily and weekly evaluations
  • It is important for departments to have a formal
    field training program

Field Training
  • Chief Executives should view field training as a
    normal part of the process
  • Administrative control should be in the patrol
  • Programs should have written policies and clear
  • Use standard evaluations for all and be
    evaluations should be given every day
  • FTOs should be trained in how to train
  • FTOs should be compensated
  • Field training programs should be evaluated

  • Police managers have to be confident that
    officers know how to do their jobs, make split
    second decisions, and carry out the mission of
    the department

Common Deficiencies in Training Programs
  • Program Content Does not fully cover all the
    aspects of being a police officer
  • Quality Instructors Many are not trained on how
    to be an instructor
  • Poor facilities and equipment
  • Lack of formal field-training program
  • Outdated teaching methods
  • Allowing untrained officers to perform police
  • Field training deficiencies
  • Teaching methods

Historical Recommendations
  • In 1973 the National Advisory Commission on
    Criminal Justice Standards published curriculum
    recommendations for police training.
  • Intro to the criminal justice system 8
  • Law 10
  • Human values and problems 22
  • Patrol and investigation procedures 33
  • Police proficiency 18
  • Administration 9

  • Commission also recommended departments have
    in-service training programs for up to 40 hours
    per year
  • This is mandated in Virginia

Training Curriculum at Present
  • Nationally most programs can be divided into the
    following areas
  • Administrative procedures
  • Administration of justice
  • Basic law
  • Police procedures
  • Police proficiency
  • Community relations

  • Performance Outcomes, Training Objectives,
    Criteria mandated by the state of Virginia are
  • Legal issues
  • Communication
  • Patrol
  • Investigations
  • Defensive tactics/use of force
  • Weapons Use
  • Driver training
  • Physical training
  • Field training

Terrorism and Emergency Management
  • As a result of 9/11, police departments recognize
    the need for training in terrorism and emergency

Training in Terrorism and Emergency Management
  • Terrorist group identification
  • Intelligence gathering and reporting
  • Community threat analysis
  • Response to incidents involving weapons of mass
    destruction (WMD)
  • Ethical issues related to post 9/11 policing
  • Security of critical facilities
  • Legal issues related to counter terrorism
  • Document fraud
  • Traumatic stress caused by WMD incidents

AIDS and Blood-borne Pathogens
  • Because police can come in contact with blood and
    other body fluids, agencies need control plans to
    limit direct exposure and to administer vaccine
    for hepatitis B to affected employees.

Domestic Violence
  • In the 1990s many departments and states changed
    regulations/laws regarding police response to
    incidents of domestic violence. The laws require
    police to make an arrest.
  • Police training on this issue increased to
    include protecting the officer from injury,
    listening skills, domestic violence report
    writing, and arrest procedures.

Use of Force and Deadly Force
  • Key to this training is scenario and simulation
    training. This training can include role
    playing, case study review, and computer
    generated training.

Less Lethal Training
  • Less lethal weapons include a wide range of
    devices that will in most case not cause
    immediate death if used properly. Purpose is to
    cause pain and create compliance of a combative

Cultural Diversity Training
  • Defined as having empathy toward other cultures
    and ways of life in order to explain why people
    feel the way they do. Cultural diversity
    training prepares officers to deal with various
    ethnic communities

Virginia mandates that all sworn officers receive
cultural diversity training at least once every
24 months.
Hate Crimes
  • Hate crimes or bias crimes is defined as offenses
    motivated by hatred based on his or her race,
    religion, sexual orientation, handicap or
    national origin.

Virginia Hate Crime Law
  • Va Code
  • 52-8.5. Reporting hate crimes.
  • A. The Superintendent shall establish and
    maintain within the Department of State Police a
    central repository for the collection and
    analysis of information regarding hate crimes and
    groups and individuals carrying out such acts.
  • B. State, county and municipal law-enforcement
    agencies shall report to the Department all hate
    crimes occurring in their jurisdictions in a
    form, time and manner prescribed by the
    Superintendent. Such reports shall not be open to
    public inspection except insofar as the
    Superintendent shall permit

  • C. For purposes of this section, "hate crime"
    means (i) a criminal act committed against a
    person or his property with the specific intent
    of instilling fear or intimidation in the
    individual against whom the act is perpetrated
    because of race, religion or ethnic origin or
    that is committed for the purpose of restraining
    that person from exercising his rights under the
    Constitution or laws of this Commonwealth or of
    the United States, (ii) any illegal act directed
    against any persons or their property because of
    those persons' race, religion or national origin,
    and (iii) all other incidents, as determined by
    law-enforcement authorities, intended to
    intimidate or harass any individual or group
    because of race, religion or national origin.
  • Note-Va. Hate Crime law does not include sexual

Specialist Training
  • Officers assigned to specialized units such as
    investigations, vice, accident investigations and
    sex crimes, should have specialized training in
    their areas of responsibility.

Supervisory Training
  • Officers promoted to sergeant enter into the
    supervisory training phase. As soon as practical
    they should be enrolled in a supervisory
    development course.
  • If it is known that an officer will be promoted
    in the coming months, he/she should receive
    supervisory training prior to being promoted.

First Line Supervisor Training Topics
  • Role of supervisor and leadership skills
  • Wellness program
  • Supervisor communications
  • Civil Liability
  • Evaluation, counseling and discipline
  • Intermediate law
  • Crime Prevention and community relations
  • Stress Management
  • Critical Incident Management
  • Personnel Issues
  • Use of deadly force
  • Report review
  • Supervisor as a trainer

Management Training
  • Once promoted to the management ranks, the
    individual should attend senior management
    training. There are a variety of programs around
    the United States. These programs are college
    level studies, some which offer Master Degree
    credits. They range from three months in length
    to a few weeks.

Senior Management Training
  • FBI National Academy
  • Southern Police Institute
  • Southwestern Law Enforcement Institute
  • Senior Management Institute for Police
  • Senior Executive Leadership Forum

Civil Liability
  • Civil Liability exist in the failure to train
    police officers or training in a negligent