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Mineral Nutrition

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Unit 1 Chapter 5 Mineral Nutrition Mineral nutrition Mineral nutrients are elements such as N, P, K that plants acquire primarily in the form of inorganic ions from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mineral Nutrition


1
Unit 1
  • Chapter 5
  • Mineral Nutrition

2
Mineral nutrition
  • Mineral nutrients are elements such as N, P, K
    that plants acquire primarily in the form of
    inorganic ions from the soil.
  • Plants are miners of mineral nutrients through
    roots.
  • Mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria
    often participate with roots in the acquisition
    of mineral nutrients.

3
Figure 5.1 Worldwide fertilizer consumption over
the past five decades
4
  • Typically, lt 50 fertilizer applied to the soils
    are used.
  • Leaching or evaporation to the air cause
    pollution. Nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4).
  • Because of the complex nature of
    plant-soil-atmosphere relationships, studies of
    mineral nutrition involve scientists in many
    fields.

5
Essential nutrients
  • Essential elements
  • an intrinsic component in the structure or
    metabolism of a plant,
  • its absence causes severe abnormalities in plant
    growth, development, or reproduction.
  • There are a total of 16 essential mineral
    elements
  • Macronutrients
  • N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Si
  • Micronutrient
  • Cl, Fe, B, Mn, Na, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mo

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Figure 5.2 Various types of solution culture
systems
Solution culture Hydroponics
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Figure 5.3 Chelator and chelated cation
DPTA
EDTA
  • To prevent Fe precipitation, often chelators as
    EDTA or DTPA are used to make chelated Fe

16
Mineral deficiencies
  • Deficiencies of several elements may occur
    simutaneously in different tissues
  • Deficiencies or excessive amounts of one element
    may induce deficiencies or excessive
    accumulations of another
  • Some virus-induced plant disease may produce
    symptoms similar to those of nutrient deficiencies

17
Mineral deficiencies
  • Nutrient deficiency symptoms in a plant are
    expression of metabolic disorders resulting from
    insufficient supply of an essential elements
  • These disorders are related to the roles played
    by essential elements in normal plant metabolism
    and function (Table 5.2)

18
Si, Ni, Mn ??
19
Mineral deficiencies
  • If an essential element is mobile, deficiency
    symptoms tend to appear first in older leaves.
  • Deficiency of an immobile essential element
    becomes evident first in younger leaves.

20
Nutrient deficiencies
  • Essential elements have multiple roles in plant
    metabolism.
  • Soil and plant tissue analysis can provide
    information on the nutritional status of the
    plant soil system and can suggest corrective
    actions to avoid deficiencies or toxicities.

21
Extra reading
  • Topic 5.1 Symptoms of Deficiency In Essential
    Minerals
  • http//5e.plantphys.net/article.php?chtid289

22
Nutrients
  • Group 1. part of carbon compounds
  • N component in amino acids, DNA Deficiency
    chlorosis in old leaves.
  • S component in amino acids, vitamins. Deficiency
    chlorosis in mature and young leaves. Veins and
    petioles show a very distinct reddish color.

23
Nutrition
  • Group 2 energy storage or structural integrity
  • P components in DNA, RNA, phospholipids, ATP,
    etc
  • Deficiency stunted growth, dark green
    coloration containing necrotic spots slight
    purple coloration

24
Silicon components of cell wall Deficiency
lodging and fungal infection Boron function
unclear (cell wall component) Deficiency
necrosis of young leaves and terminal buds
25
Nutrition
  • Group 3 nutrients in ionic form
  • Potassium marginal chlorosis necrosis, shown
    first in old or mature leave. A more advanced
    deficiency status show necrosis in the
    interveinal spaces between the main veins along
    with interveinal chlorosis. This group of
    symptoms is very characteristic of K deficiency
    symptoms.

26
Nutrition deficiencies
  • Calcium necrosis around the base of the leaves.
    The very low mobility of calcium is a major
    factor determining the expression of calcium
    deficiency symptoms in plants.
  • Classic symptoms blossom-end rot of tomato
    (burning of the end part of tomato fruits), tip
    burn of lettuce, blackheart of celery and death
    of the growing regions in many plants. All these
    symptoms show soft dead necrotic tissue at
    rapidly growing areas, which is generally related
    to poor translocation of calcium to the tissue
    rather than a low external supply of calcium.

27
Group 3
Leaf chlorosis and necrosis
Small necrotic spots, chlorosis in young or old
leaves
Chlorosis in old leaves
28
Nutrition
Dark green leaves, twisted or malformed
Intervenous chlorosis in young leaves
  • Group 4 mineral nutrients involved in redox
    reactions
  • Iron Zinc Copper Nickle
  • Molybdenum associated with nitrate metabolism,
    chlorosis in leaves

29
Nutrient deficiency
  • Diagnosis of mineral nutrient deficiency
  • Soil analysis
  • Plant tissue analysis
  • Crop harvesting removes nutrients from the soil
  • Nutrients can be added back to the soil in the
    form of fertilizers
  • Chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers (plant
    and animal residues)
  • Fertilizers can be applied to the soil or sprayed
    on leaves

30
Figure 5.4 Relationship between yield and the
nutrient content of the plant tissue
31
Figure 5.5 Influence of soil pH on the
availability of nutrient elements in organic soils
  • Soil pH has a large influence on the availability
    of mineral nutrients to plants

32
Figure 5.6 The principle of cation exchange on
the surface of a soil particle
Cation exchange capacity the degree to which a
soil can adsorb and exchange ions
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  • The soil is a complex substrate physically,
    chemically, and biologically. The size of soil
    particles and the cation exchange capacity of the
    soil determines the extent to which a soil
    provides a reservoir for water and nutrients
  • A soil with higher cation exchange capacity
    generally has a larger reserve of mineral
    nutrients

35
Figure 5.7 Fibrous root systems of wheat (a
monocot)
36
Figure 5.8 Taproot system of two adequately
watered dicots
37
Figure 5.9 Diagrammatic longitudinal section of
the apical region of the root
38
Figure 5.10 Formation of a nutrient depletion
zone in region of soil adjacent to plant root
39
Roots
  • Plants develop extensive root systems to obtain
    nutrients
  • Roots have a relatively simple structure
  • Roots continually deplete the nutrients from the
    immediate soil around them, and roots grow
    continuously.
  • Different areas of the root absorb different
    ions
  • in barley, Ca absorption is restricted to the
    apical region K, nitrate, and ammonium can be
    absorbed at all locations of the root surface.
  • In corn, elongation zone has the maximum rate of
    K and nitrate absorption.

40
Figure 5.11 Root biomass as a function of
extractable soil NH4 and NO3
  • Excessive nutrients decrease root biomass, as
    carbohydrates become limited.

41
Figure 5.12 Root infected with ectotrophic
mycorrhizal fungi
  • Root infected with ectotrophic mycorrhizal fungi
    forming a dense sheath or mantle the hyphae
    also penetrate the intercellular space of the
    cortex to form the Hartig net.

42
Figure 5.13 Association of arbuscular
mycorrhizal fungi with a section of a plant root
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi grow into the
    intercellular space of the cortex and penetrate
    individual cortical cells

43
Mycorrhizal fungi
  • Plant roots often form associations with
    mycorrhizal fungi
  • The fine hyphae of mycorrhizae extend the reach
    of roots into the surrounding soil and facilitate
    the acquisition of mineral nutrients,
    particularly those like phosphorus that are
    relatively immobile in the soil.
  • Plant provides carbohydrates to the mycorrhizae.
    Plants tend to suppress mycorrhizal association
    under conditions of high nutrient availability.
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