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Seminar One Introduction to Safety Case


Seminar One Introduction to Safety Case Date 11 April 2006 * Note: Incident Notification Regs now replaced by Part 5 of the new OHS Act. DG and Hazardous Substances ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Seminar One Introduction to Safety Case

Seminar One Introduction to Safety Case
Date 11 April 2006
  • Seminar One is a basic introduction to Safety
    Case and the MHF Regulations 2000. Its timing has
    been triggered by the commencement of Round 2
    Licencing activity
  • It has been developed for the following purposes
  • To provide a brief and simple overview of the
    main parts of a safety case
  • To be suitable for new MHF Operators
  • Examples of incidents
  • Context of MHF Regulations
  • Outlines the reason for a safety case

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Port Kembla Ethanol Tank Fire, NSW, Australia,
    28th January 2004

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Coode Island, Australia storage terminal fire,
    August 1991, no injury.

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Longford, Australia explosion and fire,
    September 1998, 2 dead, led to the development of
    Victorian MHF legislation

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Texas City, USA fire and explosion, March 2005,
    15 dead, over 170 injured

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Entschede, Holland fireworks factory explosion,
    May 2000, 22 dead, 947 injured

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Tosco Avon Refinery
  • 23rd February,1999.
  • Crude Unit, Tosco Corporations Avon oil
    refinery, Martinez, California.
  • Workers were attempting to replace piping
    attached to an online 150-foot-tall
    distillation column
  • Piping released naphtha which ignited. The flames
    engulfed fire workers who were located at
    different heights on the column
  • Four men were killed and one seriously

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • Tosco Avon Ref. Contributing Causes
  • 1. Tosco Avon refinery management did not conduct
    an MOC review of operational changes that led to
    excessive corrosion rates in the naphtha piping.
  • Above design rates
  • Feed contained high water levels
  • Prolonged operation on LV bypass valve caused
    ineffective line isolation
  • 2. The crude unit corrosion control program was

Why is a Safety Case Needed?
Bhopal, India Dec 1984
Toxic release methyl isocyanate 3000 to 8000
deaths, 0.3b to 3b
Why is a Safety Case Needed?
Buncefield Incident 11th December
2005 (Currently under investigation by UK
HSE) 40 injured, no fatalities
Why is a Safety Case Needed?
  • There is a need for specific control of major
    hazards due to
  • Changing scale and complexity of specific
  • Housing encroachment into MHF buffer zones
  • Changing community perceptions
  • Loss of Corporate Knowledge associated with
    ageing plant and mobile workforce
  • Range of major accidents that have occurred
  • Prescriptive approach has proven inappropriate

Why do we need a Safety Case?
  • This has led to Regulations where
  • the Operator is expected to know what technical
    and human activities occur
  • The Operator decides on the appropriate means of
    major hazard control for the facility, and
    prepares a SC explaining this
  • The Regulator assesses and audits performance
    adequacy against the SC

Background - The MHF Regulations
Flixborough 74, Seveso 76, Bhopal 84, Piper Alpha
Overview - Key Principles of MHF Regs
  • Focus on major hazards (catastrophic events
    involving Sched 1 materials i.e. high consequence
    and low frequency)
  • Proactive risk based approach
  • Places the responsibility on the facility
  • Facility Operator actively has to demonstrate
    safe operation

Overview - Key Principles of MHF Regs
  • Consultation with different parties required at
    all critical stages
  • Addresses both on-site and off-site safety
  • Regulator review of this, tied to a licence

Overview - Focus of MHF Regulations
Increasing risk
Minor Risks
Very high risks should already be eliminated
after risk assessment within SC process
Relative Frequency of Occurrence
OHS risks already regulated
Focus of MHF Regulations is high consequence
(catastrophic) but low frequency incidents

Consequence - Severity
Victorian Acts/Regulations
Main Parts
Certification Regulations
Confined Spaces Regulations
Issue Resolution
Manual Handling
Asbestos Regulations
Noise Regulations
Incident Notification
Haz Substances Regulations
Plant Regulations
Major Hazard Facility Regulations
DG Act
Explosive Regulations
Dangerous Goods (SH) Regulations
HCDG Regulations
Overview MHF Regulations
  • Objective of the Regulations
  • To provide for safe operation of major hazard
    facilities in order to reduce the likelihood of a
    major incident (MI) occurring and to reduce the
    consequences to health and safety and damage to

Overview MHF Regulations
  • Specific parts of the MHF Regulations for this
    seminar series are
  • Safety management system (R301)
  • Hazard identification (R302)
  • Safety assessment (R303)
  • Control measures (R304)
  • Emergency planning (R305)
  • Review of risk controls (R306, R404)
  • Consultation - HSRs, employees, community (R501,
    R505, OHS Act)

What is the Safety Case?
  • The SC must address all hazardous events that
    could result in
  • An uncontrolled incident that involves schedule 1
    materials and
  • Poses a serious and immediate risk to health and

What is the Safety Case?
  • A Safety Case is a detailed document that
  • hazard identification and control mechanisms in
    place to prevent and mitigate all MIs for the
  • the types of safety studies undertaken
  • the results obtained from such studies
  • the management arrangements in place
  • to ensure the continued safety of the facility,
  • people and the surrounding community

What must the Safety Case do?
  • Document the state of safety arrangements for the
  • Demonstrate to the satisfaction of WorkSafe,
    through content and supporting material, that
  • the operator knows what technical and human
    activities occur
  • how hazards are managed
  • how safety will be managed in the event of an

What must the Safety Case do? (contd)
  • Identify methods to be used for monitoring and
    reviewing all activities for continuous
    improvement of the safety arrangements of the
    facility over its lifetime.

  • Safety Case Content?

Main Components of a Safety Case
  • Summary of the SMS prepared under R301
  • Documentation of the Safety Assessment -outcome
    R302, R303
  • Schedule 4 Information
  • - Facility Description
  • - Safety Information

Main Components of a Safety Case
  • Summary of SMS prepared under R301
  • The Safety Case must contain a summary of the SMS
    elements including
  • Safety policy and objectives
  • Organisation and structure
  • Operational controls
  • Means to achieve Part 3 (Safety Duties) and 5
    (Consulting, Informing) compliance
  • Management of change
  • Principles and standards
  • Performance monitoring
  • Audit

  • Ref Sched 2

Main Components of a Safety Case
  • Documentation of the Safety Assessment R302,
  • Identification of all the major incidents which
    could occur.
  • Identification of all the hazards that could
    cause or contribute to causing a major incident.
  • Risk Assessments.
  • Methods and criteria for identifying and
    assessing the above.

Main Components of a Safety Case
Schedule 4 Information - Facility Description
  • Process or activity description
  • Schedule 1 and Dangerous Goods materials and
    their characteristics
  • Facility layout drawings
  • Future facility changes
  • Plan of facility and surrounding area.

Main Components of a Safety Case
  • Schedule 4 Information - Safety Information
  • Control measures that prevent or limit
    consequences of MIs
  • Performance monitoring
  • Safety Management System cross reference
  • Incorporation of safety and reliability into
    design and construction
  • Incident history last 5 years

  • Break
  • More on Safety Assessment follows..

Safety Assessment
Main Components of Safety Assessment
  • Hazard identification for determining MIs
  • Risk reduction studies for determining controls
  • Emergency scenarios for training and controls
  • Risk evaluation - for determining risk
  • Recommendations and review for continuous

Safety Assessment
Hazard Identification
  • Using Hazop/What If, RA and specialist reviews,
    the MIs and their causes (of MIs) are determined

Process Hazard Identification (HAZOP/What If)
Risk Assessment (RA) Process
Unit Technical Review Input (Specialist Review)
Major Incident Event Grouping
Safety Assessment
  • Risk Assessment
  • Analysis and Assessment of the hazards and
    potential MIs on site using
  • LOPA Risk matrix
  • Provides a more detailed analysis of
    causes/frequency/outcomes/controls for each
    identified MI
  • Can enable risk offsite to be assessed
  • Enables comparison of risk reduction options

Layer of Protection Analysis
Safety Assessment
  • Analysing the safety measures and controls that
    are between an uncontrolled release and the worst
    potential consequence - risk reduction study

Safety Assessment
  • The information for assessment can be presented
    as a bow-tie diagram.

Safety Assessment
Preventative Controls
Mitigative Controls
Corrosion - vessel wall thinning Vessel design/ const Inspection Process control (eg pH) Vessel rupture -LoC Bunding Ignition controls Deluge Emerg Plan Fire Injury Plant damage Loss of business
Emergency Plans
  • Promote preparation for response to emergencies
  • Ensure necessary equipment available and
  • Ensure personnel are trained and prepared to
  • Identify communication methods required
  • Identify community resources required
  • Consultation with emergency services and local

Emergency Incident Scenario Plans
  • Analysis of the explosion, heat flux for the pool
    fires or jet fires or toxic consequence levels to
    determine fire fighting access and to identify
    affected impact areas
  • Determination of the fire water and foam
    requirements for extinguishing the fire and/or
    protecting affected equipment
  • Available as a resource for training in specific

What Else is in a Safety Case Report?
  • Occupied Buildings Risk Assessment
  • Analysis of the impact of MIs on occupied
  • Mainly risks (due to flame impingement,
    explosions, toxic gas) from other

Plastics Factory 2004
What Else is in a Safety Case Report?
  • Continuous Improvement
  • Opportunities to reduce risk are identified
  • Recommendations are assessed and prioritised
  • An action plan is developed and implemented SFARP

SC Review Revise
  • Operators must review (and revise) hazard
    identifications, risk assessments and control
    measures to ensure risks remain reduced to SFARP
  • at the direction of the Authority
  • prior to modification
  • after a major incident
  • when a control measure is found to be deficient
  • Upon licence renewal or at least every 5 years
  • New information becomes available regarding
    possible MI hazards previously unknown

  • The SC must demonstrate adequacy of all Safety
    Duties required by the MHF regulations
  • Safety Duties are ongoing requirements
  • An Operator of a major hazard facility who fails
    to comply with the MHF regulations could
    jeopardise the continuation of their licence.

Safety Case Seminar Series 2006
Seminar 2 HAZID, MI and Safety Assessment 26 April 2006S
Seminar 3 Control Measures and Adequacy 9 May 2006
Seminar 4 Emergency Response and Consultation 23 May 2006
Seminar 5 Safety Management Systems 6 June 2006
Seminar 6 Preparing and Managing a Safety Case 20 June 2006
Sources of Additional Information
  • Occupational Health and Safety (Major Hazard
    Facilities) Regulations 2000, Victoria
  • Major Hazard Facilities Regulations Guidance
    Notes, WorkSafe
  • WorkSafe Victoria
  • NSW Major Industry Hazard Advisory Papers 1 to 9
  • Centre for Chemical Process Safety
  • UK Health and Safety Executive,

Seminar 1
  • Questions ???????